Sexual reproduction is the process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and the production of genetically dissimilar offspring


Penis and testes grow: produce sperm and testosterone .Hair grows on chest and in armpits .Pubic hair develops .HORMONES: male • Testosterone (testes) • Development of male sexual secondary characteristics: .Facial hair develops .Changes to larynx: deeper voice .


HORMONES: female • Oestrogen and progesterone • Development of male sexual secondary characteristics: .Brests develop/increase in size .Ovaries grow.Hips broaden .Vagina enlargens .eggs develop and female hormones are released .Hair grows in armpits .Pubic hair grows .

Female hormones .



Fertilisation: the joining of the nuclei of the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (egg) .

Ovulation and implantation .


This is called labour. gradually becomes wide enough for the baby to be pushed through. • The wall of the vagina can stretch to allow the baby to be pushed through. .BIRTH • It begins when the strong muscles in the wall of the uterus start to contract. • The wall of the cervix.

Birth .

and passes out through the vagina. .Afterbirth The placenta falls away from the wall of the uterus.

ANTE-NATAL CARE • • • • • • • • • Diet plenty of calcium: why? Diet plenty of extra iron: why? Diet with extra carbohydrates: why? Diet with extra protein: why? Continue to take exercise No smoking: why? Not too much alcohol or drugs. Avoid illnesses: rubella (deaf or other disabilities) AIDS: the virus HIV can cross the placenta .

Milk formula .Breast feeding vs.

. which. unless clean it´s easier for bacteria to get into the milk and make the baby ill.Advantage of breast milk vs. Formula milk • Free! • No need to use an equipment. • Contains antibodies from the mother. The composition changes as it grows so that´s exactly right for the different stages of development. which helps the baby ti fight off infectious diseases. • Close relationship to develop between mother and baby.

BIRTH CONTROL:methods • NATURAL →abstinence • CHEMICAL →contraceptive pill →spermicide • MECHANICAL →condom →diaphragm →IUD • SURGICAL → vasectomy → female sterilisation .

DIAPHRAGM (mechanical) STERILISATION (surgical) Circular sheet of rubber placed over the cervix. at the top of the vagina. Helps to prevent the transfer of infection. One pill is taken every day ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES It is never possible to be 100% certain when ovulation is going to happen. unpleasant side-effects may be experienced. ABSTINENCE (Natural) CONTRACEPTIVE PILL (chemical) Very effective method. Fitting must be done by a doctor.SOME METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL METHOD HOW IT WORKS Careful record of menstrual cycle over several months. but after that a woman can put her own diaphragm in and take it out as needed. such as gonorrhoea and HIV. CONDOM ( mechanical) It traps semen.effects. the tubes cannot be re-opened It is not a method for young people. However. Women must have regular check-ups with the doctor. However. Extremely sure with no side. Woman: the oviducts are cut or tied. Effective method if used and fitted correctly. Sperm deposited in the vagina cannot get past the diaphragm into the uterus. Sexual intercourse must be avoided around this time. as long as the pills are taken at the right time. Safe method if used correctly. Man: sperm ducts are cut or tied. so that the woman can predict roughly when an egg is likely to be present in her oviducts. which are made when the woman is pregnant and stop egg production. Used by many people who do not want to use another contraceptive method. . as it is released stopping it from entering the vagina. Contains oestrogen and progesterone.


GONORRHOEA Microorganism Bacteria (Neisseria) . They are anaware that they have the infection How to prenvent infection -Having only one sexual partner. Symptoms/signs -MAN: It reproduces inside the urethra.Only survives in moist places. Discharge and no pain. . Unpleasant discharge and pain when urinating.WOMEN: it reproduces mostly in the cervix.Condom -. treatment Antibiotics (penicillin) Always succesful.tracing. . such as the tissues lining the tubes in the reproductive systems. -. warning and treating all possible sexual contacts of a person who is diagnosed with gonorrhoea to make sure that it does not spread any furthur.

Through blood contact: a) blood transfusions b) Sharing hypodermic needles c) People who have to deal with accidents: paramedics.Paramedics and policemen: use of protective clothes. in particular T cells. . police .Using condoms lowers the chances of the virus passing from one person to another. . HIV: human -Direct contact of immunodeficiency your body fluids with virus those of someone with the viru:.AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome Microorganism Methods of transmission How it affects the immune system -HIV infects lymphocytes. they may develop cancer and brain cells are also damaged. rectum and urethra. Ways in which can be prevented -Having one sexual partner.Blood used in transfusions must be screened for HIV before it is used. -. . . -Through sexual intercourse: can live in the fluid inside the vagina.Use of sterile needles. They are unable to fight against other pathogens effectively. -They become vulnerable to other infections such as pneumonia. .They die of a collection of several illnesses.