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Questions and Problems

1. Relevant Cash Flows Precious Metals Ltd. is looking at setting up a new manufacturing plant in South Africa to produce gold bracelets. The company bought some land six years ago for 5 million rand in anticipation of using it as a warehouse and distribution site, but the company has since decided to rent these facilities from a competitor instead. If the land were sold today, the company would net 5.4 million rand. The company wants to build its new manufacturing plant on this land; the plant will cost 10.4 million rand to build, and the site requires 850,000 rand worth of grading before it is suitable for construction. What is the proper cash flow amount to use as the initial investment in fixed assets when evaluating this project? Why?

• ZAR 5,400,000 + 10,400,000 + 850,000 = ZAR 16,650,000

it hopes to sell 20. and 12. Relevant Cash Flows • Winnebagel Corp. An independent consultant has determined that if Winnebagel introduces the new campers. What is the amount to use as the annual sales figure when evaluating this project? Why? .000 of these campers per year at $12.000 each.000 motor homes per year at $45.000 each.000 units per year. and reduce the sales of its motor coaches by 1.000 each.300 units per year.000 luxury motor coaches per year at $95. it should boost the sales of its existing motor homes by 5.• 2. currently sells 30. The company wants to introduce a new portable camper to fill out its product line.

• • • • 2.300($95.500. • The net sales figure to use in evaluating the new line is thus: $240.000 – 123.000) = $225.000.000) = $123.000 .500. • Erosion of luxury motor coach sales is also due to the new mid-size campers.000.000($45.000) = $240. Sales due solely to the new product line are: 20.000 + 225.000 Increased sales of the motor home line occur because of the new product line introduction.000.000 = $341.000. thus: • 5.000 in new sales is relevant. thus: 1.000 loss in sales is relevant.500.000($12.

• 4. Calculating OCF • Consider the following income statement: • Fill in the missing numbers and then calculate the OCR What is the depreciation tax shield? .

000 ? ? ? .400 593.600 135.Sales Costs Depreciation EBIT Taxes (34) Net income $912.

000 $ 183.600 135.308 .800 62.Sales Costs Depreciation EBT Taxes@34% Net income $ 912.400 593.492 $ 121.

308 .• • • • The OCF for the company is: OCF = EBIT + Depreciation – Taxes OCF = $183.492 OCF = $256.000 – 62.800 + 135.

34($135. so: • Depreciation tax shield = tc X Depreciation • Depreciation tax shield = .• The depreciation tax shield is the depreciation times the tax rate.000) • Depreciation tax shield = $45. .900 • The depreciation tax shield shows us the increase in OCF by being able to expense depreciation.

The tax rate is 35 percent. costs of ¥5.400. and depreciation of ¥287.200.000.• 5. Calculate operating cash flow using the four different approaches described in the chapter and verify that the answer is the same in each case.000.120. OCF from Several Approaches • A proposed new project has projected sales of ¥9. .

Sales Variable costs Depreciation EBT Taxes@35% Net income ¥ 9.327.400 ¥ 3.410 ¥ 2.000 5.120.200.190 .465.000 287.792.600 1.

752.410 • OCF = ¥ 2.000 – 1.000 – 5.200.400 – 1.590 • The top-down approach to calculating OCF yields: • OCF = Sales – Costs – Taxes = ¥9.752.327.410 • OCF = ¥ 2. we get: • OCF = EBIT + Depreciation – Taxes = ¥3.327.120.590 .792.600 + 287.Using the most common financial calculation for OCF.

752.590 • All four methods of calculating OCF should always give the same answer.752. .000 – 5.400) OCF = ¥ 2.000)(1 – .120.35) + .465.190 + 287.• • • • The tax-shield approach is: OCF = (Sales – Costs)(1 – tC) + tC X Depreciation OCF = (¥9.200.400 • OCF = ¥ 2.35(287.590 • And the bottom-up approach is: • OCF = Net income + Depreciation = ¥2.

• 13.000 per year in pretax operating costs.000. This cost will be depreciated straight-line to zero over the project's five-year life. at the end of which the sausage system can be scrapped for $60. If the tax rate is 34 percent and the discount rate is 10 percent.000. and the system requires an initial investment in net working capital of $28. what is the NPV of this project? . The sausage system will save the firm $130. Project Evaluation • Dog Up! Franks is looking at a new sausage system with an installed cost of $420.000.

so: • Aftertax salvage value = MV + (BV – MV)tc .000/5 • Annual depreciation = $84. we calculate the aftertax salvage value. The aftertax salvage value is the market price minus (or plus) the taxes on the sale of the equipment. First we will calculate the annual depreciation of the new equipment.000 • Now.• 13. It will be: • Annual depreciation = $420.

600 . the equation for the aftertax salvage value becomes: • Aftertax salvage value = MV + (0 – MV)tc • Aftertax salvage value = MV(1 – tc) • We will use this equation to find the aftertax salvage value since we know the book value is zero.34) • Aftertax salvage value = $39.000(1 – 0. If the book value is zero.• Very often the book value of the equipment is zero as it is in this case. So. the aftertax salvage value is: • • Aftertax salvage value = $60.

360(PVIFA 10%.15] • NPV = $27.600 + 28.66 .34($84.488.000 – 28. we find the OCF for the project is: • OCF = $130. along with the aftertax salvage value.000) / 1.360 • Now we can find the project NPV.000(1 – 0.5) + [($39.• Using the tax shield approach. The recovery of the NWC occurs in Year 5.000 + $114.34) + 0. Notice we include the NWC in the initial cash outlay.000) • OCF = $114. • NPV = –$420.

and has pretax operating costs of $23. Calculating EAC • You are evaluating two different silicon wafer milling machines.000.000. compute the EAC for both machines.000. The Techron II costs $320.000 per year. and has pretax operating costs of $34. has a threeyear life. The Techron I costs $210.000 per year. use straight-line depreciation to zero over the project's life and assume a salvage value of $20. If your tax rate is 35 percent and your discount rate is 12 percent. For both milling machines. Which do you prefer? Why? .• 17. has a five-year life.

both have the same salvage value. The aftertax salvage value for both is: • Both cases: aftertax salvage value = $20.We will need the aftertax salvage value of the equipment to compute the EAC.000 .• 17.000(1 – 0. Even though the equipment for each product has a different initial cost.35) = $13.

3)= – $81.123) = –$194.180.46 • EAC = –$194.400 • • NPV = –$210. The OCF and NPV for Techron I is: • • OCF = – $34.000/3) = $2.35) + 0.3) + ($13.46 / (PVIFA 12%.000/1.400(PVIFA 12%. we first need the OCF and NPV of each option.000 + $2.35($210.75 .• To calculate the EAC.982.982.000(1 – 0.

so they can only be compared by expressing both on an equivalent annual basis.87 / (PVIFA 12%.35($320.35) + 0.5) + ($13.274.000/1. which is what the EAC method does.• And the OCF and NPV for Techron II is: • OCF = – $23.000(1 – 0.87 • • EAC = –$285.767.000 + $7.5) = –$79. .767.79 • The two milling machines have unequal lives. Thus.450 • • NPV = –$320.000/5) = $7. you prefer the Techron II because it has the lower (less negative) annual cost.450(PVIFA 12%.145) = –$285.

800. Calculating a Bid Price • Osaka Enterprises needs someone to supply it with 150.000 cartons of machine screws per year to support its manufacturing needs over the next five years. this equipment can be salvaged for ¥480. You estimate that in five years.20 per carton. what bid price should you submit? . If your tax rate is 35 percent and you require a 16 percent return on your investment.• 18. and you've decided to bid on the contract.000 to install the equipment necessary to start production.580. You also need an initial investment in net working capital of ¥652.000 per year.000. Your fixed production costs will be ¥4.245. It will cost you ¥17. you'll depreciate this cost straight-line to zero over the project's life. and your variable production costs should be ¥106.

The aftertax salvage value of the equipment is: • Aftertax salvage value = ¥480.165] .000 • Now we can solve for the necessary OCF that will give the project a zero NPV.000 – 652. The equation for the NPV of the project is: • NPV = 0 = – ¥17. and then solve for the bid price.000(1 – 0.000) / 1.800 + OCF(PVIFA 16%.5) + [(¥652. we need to calculate all other cash flows for the project.800 + 312.• 18.580.35) = ¥312. To find the bid price.

20 • The easiest way to calculate the bid price is the tax shield approach.245.177.446.20 = [(P – ¥106.000/5) • P = ¥177.20)(150.000) – ¥4. we find the OCF that makes the project NPV equal to zero is: • OCF = ¥17.35(¥17.428.177.428.20 = [(P – v)Q – FC ](1 – tc) + tcXD • ¥5.773.580. so: • OCF = ¥5.• Solving for the OCF.17 / PVIFA 16%.177.428.5 = ¥5.55 .35) + 0.000 ](1 – 0.

If the shop's tax rate is 35 percent and its discount rate is 15 percent. The press falls in the MACRS five-year class.000. The press also requires an initial investment in spare parts inventory of $20. Cost-Cutting • Proposals Massey Machine Shop is considering a fouryear project to improve its production efficiency.000 in annual pretax cost savings.• 19. and it will have a salvage value at the end of the project of $70. Buying a new machine press for $480.000. should Massey buy and install the machine press? .000 is estimated to result in $180.000 in inventory for each succeeding year of the project. along with an additional $3.

160 + 55.296) = $82.1920) = $92.000(0.160 • D4 = $480.944 .000 • D2 = $480.000 + 153.000(0.1152) = $55. First.2000) = $96. which will be: • D1 = $480.000(0.000 – ($96.3200) = $153.600 • D3 = $480.000(0.• 19. we will calculate the depreciation each year.600 + 92.296 • The book value of the equipment at the end of the project is: • BV4 = $480.

so this creates a tax refund.00 • OCF4 = $180.000(1 – 0.35) + 0.530.35($96. the OCF for each year will be: • OCF1 = $180.35) = $74.000 + ($82.• The asset is sold at a loss to book value.00 • OCF2 = $180.296) = $136.600) = $170.35) + 0.000(1 – 0.000(1 – 0.600.35($153.60 .944 – 70.35) + 0.35) + 0.000(1 – 0.000)(0.353.160) = $149.000) = $150.256. • After-tax salvage value = $70.00 • OCF3 = $180.35($92.40 • So.760.35($55.

Notice the project requires $20.000 of NWC at the beginning.000 more in NWC each successive year. • We need to be careful with the NWC in this project.• Now we have all the necessary information to calculate the project NPV. and $3. .

the equation for the NPV of the project is: .000 each year from the OCF to account for this spending.000. but we would get the money back immediately. • The $3. and subtract $3. With all this.000 spent on NWC capital during Year 4 is irrelevant. • In Year 4. we will add back the total spent on NWC. the net cash flow for additional NWC would be zero. Why? • Well.000 from the initial cash flow. during this year the project required an additional $3. • So. which is $29.000.• We will subtract the $20.

000 – 20.36 .• NPV = – $480.153 + ($136.000)/1.481.000 + 74.154 • NPV = –$11.152 + ($149.256 – 3.760 – 3.530.60 + 29.000 + ($150.000)/1.353.600 – 3.40)/1.000)/1.15 + ($170.

000 in fixed assets with expected salvage of $10.Example: Setting the Bid Price設定 投標價格 • Consider the following information: – Army has requested bid for multiple use digitizing devices (MUDDs) – Deliver 4 units each year for the next 3 years – Labor and materials estimated to be $10.000 per year – Require $50.000 per unit – Production space leased for $12.000 at the end of the project (depreciate straight-line) – Require initial $10.000 increase in NWC – Tax rate = 34% – Required return = 15% .

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