SEAPOWER AND MARITIME AFFAIRS

“Do not suffer your ship own ship to be entered by, or your men taken out by any person or power whatsoever.” SPRING 2005 LTCOL M.G. BROIHIER

Beginnings of the U.S. Navy

Navy Act of 1794

Six frigates authorized for defense of shipping in Mediterranean. Secretary of War Henry Knox. Large 44-gun frigates planned.
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Navy is part of the Department of War.
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More heavily armed than normal frigates. Faster than Ships of the Line. 1797: United States, 44 and Constitution, 44 completed -- called Humphrey’s frigates.

Marines deployed on Navy ships.

Continue tradition of British Royal Marines.
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Protect Captain and officers from the crew. Provide musket fire from quarterdeck and ―fighting tops‖.

Jay’s Treaty -- 1794

January 1794 Chief Justice John Jay - special envoy to London. Issues: British-American relations.

Maritime disputes, western forts, northern boundary, Mississippi navigation, and reparations for slaves seized during Revolution.

British Concessions

Open West Indies ports, leave western outposts, Canada boundary.
Abandon French Alliance of 1778, U.S. ports not to be used by foreign privateers, British trading rights increased. American trade with Britain increases. U.S. government able to collect large duties on trade.

American Concessions

Results
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President Thomas Jefferson 1801-1809 .

The Quasi-War 1798-1800 MIDN 4/C Perry MIDN 4/C Timmerman MIDN 4/C Kim .

U.S. U.S. U. U. and France sign an alliance treaty.S. receives loans from France. America refuses to repay after French Revolution Jay’s Treaty signed with Great Britain French react by seizing American merchant ships XYZ Affair July 7th 1778. squadrons seek out French corsairs .S rescinds treaties with France.Events Leading to War In 1778.

Objectives of the U.’ rights to the ocean and right to free trade and neutrality . Rid American coastline of French Pirates Seize or attack French warships throughout the globe Convoy and Protect American shipping Persuade other powers to respect U.S.S.

La Vengeance Boston vs. L’Insurgente Constellation vs. Le Berceau . Croyable Constellation vs.Battles During the War Delaware vs.

Constellation vs. L’Insurgente .

Peace/Aftermath Treaty of Mortefontaine signed in 1800 France respects American neutrality Navy gains respect and survival as an institution Peace Establishment Act – Navy is reduced in size .

Questions? Thomas Truxton .

The Barbary Wars Presented By: MIDN 4/C Eberhart and MIDN 4/C Scruggs .

BARBARY PIRATES Barbary Pirates operated out of Barbary States •Tunis •Tripoli •Algiers •Morocco Pirates preyed on ships in western Mediterranean from Crusades to early 19th century Ship of war was galley which was operated by slaves and prisoners Raids by Barbary Pirates ended in 1816 when Royal Navy destroyed port of Algiers and its fleet of Barbary ships .

figuring it was cheaper to maintain naval presence than pay tribute . problems began following independence since they no longer had protection from the Royal Navy Treaties of 1796 protected US from Barbary pirates In 1800 Karamanli demanded annual payments of tribute This coincided with inauguration of Jefferson who was opposed to tribute payments Jefferson decided to rotate new squadrons into Mediterranean once a year. ruled by Moulay Suleiman City states bound to Selim III and the Ottoman Empire •Algiers ruled by dey •Tunis ruled by bey •Tripoli ruled by a Pasha (Yusuf Karamanli) For US.BARBARY WARS PART 1: JULY 1801SEPTEMBER 1803 Morocco was independent.

1801 First American squadron: three frigates and a sloop-of-war under command of COMMO Richard Dale He left a frigate in Gibraltar to monitor a Tripolitan ship Dale took the rest of the squadron to Tripoli He was hesitant to take offensive and instituted a blockade of sort When his tour ended. he returned to US in 1802 and was replaced by COMMO Richard Morris 1802 Squadron increased to seven frigates and one sloop Morris brought his wife and children indicating he didn’t predict any violence or struggle Instead of lying off Tripoli as ordered. he convoyed American merchant ships around Mediterranean In 1803 Morris was replaced by COMMO Edward Preble as next US commander in Mediterranean .

BARBARY WARS PART TWO (SEPTEMBER 1803-JULY 1805) After arriving in September 1803. the Intrepid boarded the Philadelphia. Preble sent the Philadelphia and the Vixen to resume blockade of Tripoli while he went to Morocco On his return to Tripoli he received word that the Philadelphia had run aground on Kaliusa Reef The Tripolitans took possession of the ship Decatur set out on the Enterprise accompanied by the Intrepid Posing as a vessel in distress. which was subsequently set on fire Karamanli did not accept any sort of treaty causing Preble to continue the attacks .

borrowing six gunboats and two bombketches from Ferdinand IV. also at war with Tripoli On August 3.PREBLE’S OFFENSIVE Preble attacked the city. king of Spain. Karamanli took $60. 1804 Decatur attacked Tripoli.000 for release of prisoners. 1804 Preble watched as the Intrepid headed by LT Richard Somers exploded in the harbor A week later COMMO Samuel Barron arrived with reinforcements to relieve Preble Barron sanctioned plan to replace Karamali with his older brother Hamet When confronted with plan. Karamanli was offered payments in exchange for prisoners of Philadelphia On September 3. and also approved treaty not requiring payments . capturing three gunboats and sinking three more Over next four weeks Preble ordered four more attacks After each attack.

Neutral Rights of U.S. Shipping
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1805 Great Britain at war with the French Empire 1806 Brits issued ―Orders in Council‖ Seizure of merchant ships raises dispute over neutral rights:

Blockade
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United States: Must be effective to be legal. Great Britain: ―Paper blockades‖ are binding. United States: Only in restricted areas. Great Britain: Virtually anywhere on high seas.

Visit and search of merchants by naval vessels.
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Ports

United States: Can be open to neutral trade during war. Great Britain: Must remain closed.
United States: Search of neutral vessels for British subjects is illegal. Great Britain: Search of neutral vessels for British subjects is okay.

Impressment

Chesapeake-Leopard Affair - 1807

Chesapeake-Leopard Affair - 1807

     Jefferson’s Gunboat Navy 1807-1809 60-85 feet long Propelled by oars Mounting 1-2 cannons 172 staged from Portland to NOLA Advantages – – – Inoffensive Cheap ~$10K Could be manned by militia   Heavy defense would be done by forts Not up to the task when war came in 1812 .

Limited resources available. Raids on British whaling fleet. – Decatur: Proponent of single-ship operations.S.  Letters  Naval Administration – – – Small organization. – Commerce Raiders  Atlantic – Ocean English Channel  USS – Essex in the Pacific Ocean -. Inadequate coastal defenses. – Funding increases significantly during the course of the war. . Naval Policies Rodgers: Proponent of squadron operations.Captain David Porter of marque issued to privateers. Strategy – U.

1815 .Peace and Aftermath  Great Britain agrees to peace. – – American victories at Lakes Erie and Champlain. American privateers capture British merchants. British end impressment of American seamen.24 December 1814 – –  Battle of New Orleans -. ―Status Quo Ante Bellum‖  Treaty of Ghent -.

– BUT . – Created stalemate. Victory on the lakes: – Naval Contributions Lake Erie: Restores American control of Northwest Territory. .Ineffective against British blockade.  Single ship engagements: – Superiority of American shipbuilding and command. – Lake Champlain: Prevented invasion of New York. – Boost to national morale. BUT .  Commerce Raiding – – Ultimately ineffective.Plays a factor in British agreement to peace.

Period of Expansion .

–  Naval Warfighting Doctrine – – – Focus on Commerce Raiding . Protect U.Army forts constructed at entrances to ports.Reorganization of the Navy  Postwar Navy increases in size. Civilian secretary needs help managing larger Navy. S. commercial interests overseas . – Funding continues to increase.―Showing the flag. . Three man board of Navy captains. Coastal defense . Command of the sea -.“Guerre de Course‖.‖  Secretary of the Navy calls for ―Board of Commissioners‖ – –  Primary mission of the Navy = ―Gunboat Diplomacy‖.de-emphasized.

Gulf Coast Piracy .

Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States (Rio Grande). after reiterated menaces. The two nations are at war.―We have tried every effort at reconciliation… But now.” . has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil….

John Dahlgren Father of Modern Naval Ordnance .

1861-1865 The Dawn of the Age of Mahan .The Civil War.

Balance of Naval Power North – – – – – South Naval Yards Ship Builders Industrial Base Number of Ships Leadership      .

DuPont    Franklin Buchanan Matthew Fontaine Maury Raphael Semmes .A Navy Divided       David Glasgow Farragut David Dixon Porter John Ericcson John Dahlgren Charles Wilkes Samuel F.

Common Operational Heritage Union and Confederate Navies  War of 1812 — Coastal defense and commerce raiding: – Fighting from an inferior position against an enemy that has ―command of the sea‖. steam vessels .  1815-1846 — Global deployments: – Blockade and Amphibious operations  1846-1848 — Mexican-American War – – Blockade operations Appreciation for shallow draft.

Blockade Runners . .Laird rams (clearly warships.Commerce raiders (Alabama. Adams’ protests end aid.Outcome of Diplomacy    Ultimately a Failure for the south Naval Agent James Bulloch gets aid . Shenandoah) . blockade breakers Battle of Antietam (September 1862) and Charles F. Florida.

Gets rid of entrenched officer structure Begins rapid and massive ship-building program – – – Union Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles Only 42 ships at the beginning of the war.   Reorganization of the Bureaus. Adds 160-ships in one year Over 600-ships at wars end .

 Control of Mississippi River. – –  Riverine operations in western areas. –  Union Army -. Cut off Texas. – Capture Southern ports for coal. food: bombardment and amphibious assaults.Capture Confederate capital at Richmond.  Blockade the entire Confederate coast. Combined Army-Navy operations against Confederate forces. Vital line of communication for Confederacy. water. Arkansas and Louisiana.Union Naval Strategy  Part of General Winfield Scott’s master ―Anaconda Plan‖ for victory. .

     Confederacy issues letters of marquee to privateers. Attempts to use new technology to gain advantage. Re-emergence of the ram as a naval weapon. Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory . Conversion of older ships to armored ―ironclads‖. Coordinates construction of warships in Great Britain.

  Union blockade’s increasing effectiveness increases profits. – Army will defend territory and threaten Washington. – Operations hurt by Southerners’ desires for luxury goods.  Unable to secure prize courts (sovereignty problems).1856.Confederate Naval Strategy  Part of overall strategy of ―Attrition Warfare‖. Commerce raiding: – – Successful cruises divert Union ships from blockade duty. . Army forts and new naval weapons systems.  Coastal defense: –  Blockade-running: – Attempt to continue commercial trade with Europe. Privateers (1861):  Declaration of Paris .

 Battalion of Marines fights at Bull Run under Army command. . Union blockade of the Confederacy: – – –  ―Paper Blockade‖ needs to become real as soon as possible. USS Merrimack scuttled by retreating Union forces.Early Naval Operations  Norfolk Navy Yard – – – – Largest naval base and arsenal in the United States. Forward bases required for an effective blockade. Captured by Confederate forces on 21 April. Large number of guns captured by Confederates. Amphibious operations launched to seize bases in the South.

Battle of Port Royal. Other Union amphibious operations will resemble Port Royal operation.   Union soldiers and Marines land unopposed.7 November 1861  Attempt to establish first Union base on CSA territory: – Hilton Head Island. – Unsuccessful assault on Charleston in 1863 under Dahlgren. DuPont –  Superior naval gunfire: – – Directed against Confederate forts defending the Sound.  Commodore Stephen F. Confederates abandon forts. South Carolina Commands Union fleet. .

USS Monitor moved to Norfolk area to engage Virginia. – Designed by John Ericcson.Battle of Hampton Roads   First engagement between ―ironclad‖ ships.  Highly armored with low freeboard. .  Single turret mounting two Dahlgren guns. Defeats conventional Union ships on 8 March 1862. Renamed Virginia and commanded by Franklin Buchanan. CSS Virginia – – – –  USS Merrimack raised at Norfolk. Iron armor and ram added by Confederate Navy.

Virginia (Merrimack) .Monitor v.

– Goal: Control of the Mississippi River.Western River Campaigns  Combined Union Army . –  Battle of New Orleans – – David Dixon Porter -.Navy offensives.  Navy gunboats and transports used to support Army. David Glasgow Farragut commands Union assault.  Seige of Vicksburg – – .Uses ―mortar boats‖ to neutralize forts. Union forces advance down Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to the Mississippi. David Dixon Porter runs the Vicksburg batteries. General Ulysses S. Grant in command.

Siege of Vicksburg .

Guns of Fort Morgan defend only open channel. Confederate fleet commanded by Franklin Buchanan.  Torpedoes .Battle of Mobile Bay  M.    Union fleet commanded by David Glasgow Farragut.floating containers of explosives anchored to the bottom. – – Torpedo buoys placed in entrance to the Bay.   Union fleet outnumbers and outguns the Confederate fleet waiting in Mobile Bay. F. Entrance to Mobile Bay heavily defended. . Farragut positions ―monitors‖ between the rest of his fleet and Fort Morgan. Maury – Proponent of the use of ―torpedoes‖ to defend Confederate ports.

CSS Alabama .Commerce Raiding Route .

Christmas 1864.  Only successful amphibious assault against a heavily defended fort. targeted naval gunfire necessary for success. Second Assault – Sailors and Marines attack the fort with Army forces. . Highly-defended by Confederate guns. constant.Fort Fisher Expeditions    Defends the only remaining supply line to General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia through Wilmington. North Carolina.   First assault fails . Combined Union Army-Navy operation. – Heavy. – Union fleet commanded by David Dixon Porter.

– Proper planning and coordination essential for success.  Appreciation for combined (Army-Navy) operations.  Question of a fleet's ability to suppress coastal fortifications unanswered.Tactical Trends in the Civil War  Introduction of ―ironclads‖: – – Strengths: Weaknesses: Heavily armored for coastal assault. Low mobility on the open ocean. .

CSS Virginia -.Technological Innovation  North — Monitor Class – – – – Combination of steam. Large numbers built. The ―Davids‖ CSS Hunley . ―Torpedoes‖ ―Laird‖ rams. ―Dahlgren Guns‖ effective at close range. Gives Union Navy the advantage on coastal and inland waterways.submarine. and a gun turret. armor.  South – – – – – .Steam power and iron armor. screw.

   Compartmentation.  Rams .Evolution of Warship Construction  Construction materials: – – Steel hulls replace iron hulls.  Unable to armor the entire ship due to weight of armor. Steel has higher strength and less weight than iron. – – Iron to steel-plated iron to steel. Protective decks. Armor protection. Location of armor:  Vulnerable areas get more armor.

–  Rifled guns. Rate of fire increases. –  Cartridge shells. –  Mounting of guns. Safety and rate of fire increases.  Muzzle loaders to breech loaders. Round and charge are combined.Evolution of Armaments  Self-propelled torpedo: – Invented by Englishman Robert Whitehead in 1866. – – – . Hydraulic recoil mechanisms. Increased accuracy and ranges. Greater penetrating power and range.

S.  Northern success in application of British-like offensive naval warfare PLUS Failure of Southern commerce raiding to win the war at sea = QUESTION: – Will American naval officers still regard commerce raiding as the proper strategy in time of war ???????  The ―Alabama Claims‖ cause a lasting diplomatic debate with Great Britain. Merchant Marines due in large to the obsolescent sailing vessels used. .Conclusions  Decline of U.

 Joint Navy-Army Operations reach an unprecedented level of high efficiency on the Mississippi River. closing down the confederacy’s last open port supporting R.  .Conclusions  Union blockade sets a precedent that that Woodrow Wilson finds inconvenient in 1914-1917. E. Joint Ops reach high point in the second amphib landing at Fort Fisher. North Carolina. Lee’s Army.

): Octavius wins civil war against Marc Antony –Secures empire for himself –Spanish Armada (1588): Battle establishes Britain as a European power –With a powerful Navy.The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy  Commercial Defense – – – Water transportation was cheap Navy became an economic tool. Britain becomes a major player in European affairs . used to protect trade ships and routes.C. and to raid enemy ships and routes The nation with a better Navy has a broader foreign influence with a means to defend it • Power Projection –Battle of Actium (31 B.

reaching North America and West Indies Spread English culture and trade – Navy supported overseas conflicts. defending foreign assets – Provided arms and supplies for the suppression of American rebellion .The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy Expansion/Enforcement – Navy expanded Britain into a global empire.

he never held another American Sea command .The Navy and Congress John Paul Jones Excellent officer After the end of the Revolutionary war.

Interservice Relations Oliver Hazard Perry William Henry Harrison Lake Erie Battle of the Thames River Defeat of the combined forces and the death of Tecumseh .

the oarsmen became commodities.4 hyperesia(auxiliaries) ~20 kubernetes(helmsman) prorates(bow officer) keleustes(boatswain) penteknotarchos(purser) naupegos(shipwright) auletes(pipeman) nautai. were trained to be oarsmen. praefect(2) navarchi(squadron commander) highest possible promotion from a non equestrian soldier The highest ranking navarchi advised the praefect trierarch command of individual ships gubernator(steersmen) directed the steering oars proreta Assistant to the gubernator celeusta= Maintained a beat nauphlax-shipwright The organization aboard a ship mirrored the army's organization The Royal Navy Commissioned Officers Admiral (Administration of Ships) Commodore(Squadrons) Captain ( Warships 1-6) Commander( Small Ship) Lieutenant Sub-lieutenant Officer Apprentice Midshipmen Master’s Mate Warrant Officers Master Boatswain Surgeon Purser Carpenter Gunner The crew formed one centuria. by the 5th century. The auxilliaries were in essence ―mercenaries‖ attracted to the boat that paid them the best. Romans(by around 39 bc) The army was the primary military force. . pleroma trierarchema (oarsmen)~170 By the time Athens was the center of an empire. Roman adapted their military unit of the centuria to the navy. Athenian citizens. They were either Athenians or foreigners.Rank Structure Greek Trierarchs(sea-captains) 1 epibatai and toxotai(hoplites and archers) 10 . The distinction between rower and soldier was blurred.

France The leaders of both realized the importance of sea power Themistocles Henry VIII .The Elephant and the Whale The idea of the elephant and the whale is useful to compare the overall leadership of the ancient Greek navy and the Royal Navy Both empires had opponents with superior land forces Athens-Sparta England.Spain.

and sometimes a sail.Technology Earliest naval vessels were galleys Galleys were propelled by seamen ). the 3 banked galley. Galleys acted as a defense for merchant shipping . or Trireme represented the 3 different levels of rowers.

Romans used curvis as a hinged platform on their galleys that enabled staging of infantry onto enemy galleys  During the rise of the Vikings and Venice three-masted galleys become predominant. Cont. Ottoman Empire and 1500s saw the use of cannons mounted on the front of galleys .Tech.

chronometers. and sextants .Tech. use of catapults to launch stones. around the same time. Spain and Portugal. introduced the galleon. Cont. including compasses. and combustible projectiles) from the Roman army The 16th through 19th centuries saw the rise of sails and galleons 18th century brought advancements in navigation. javelins. Roman navy adapted missile tactics (e.g.

Even more Tech. reconnaissance. 18th century also marked technological enhancement of ships through the removal of forcastles and aftercastles ). and more man-power  Larger ships were used during battle. and commerce raiding. . while smaller ships (cruisers) were the choice for patrol. multiple decks full-rigging.

Evolution of Naval Doctrine Ages of galleys had an understood method of attack Well thought out plans Rams. line abreast Boarding MARINES! .

Evolution of Naval Doctrine Doctrine has not changed much Different tactics Different weapons Same principals .

British Sea Power Royal Navy brings formal battle procedures Great Brittan provides the world with the first concise and solid naval warfare doctrine. The formidable navy power Unchallenged for many years .

British Sea Power Formalized cannon tactics Wrote down and developed naval fighting None of the predecessors formalized doctrine .

Conclusion Tactics stayed the same Technology changes The need to protect trade is a constant theme British First to employ formal doctrine Major super power .

– Third war the Persians were able to use their fleet to cover their army’s advance over land. Due to the direction of the wind Cleopatra wasn’t able to get back into the fight. – At the Battle of Salamis the Greeks used the terrain to take the Persian’s advantage of numbers. and allow her fleet to sail right past his. Punic Wars – The Romans had a strong army and developed the corvus to attack their opponents. Battle of Actium – Octavius drew out Cleopatra's fleet during the battle.Tactics (3000 BC to 16th Century) Persian Wars – Second Persian War the Persians used their fleet in the first war to land troops at Marathon. .

Tactics (1500 AD to 19th Century) Battle of Lepanto – Guns were primary weapon deployed by the Christians to attack the Turks. Attempted to hold French Colonies – Attempted to invade England. Seven Years war – British blockaded the French Used Formal Tactics Age of Sail – – – – Line ahead Melee Tactics Weather Gage Lee Gage – French raided British commerce. Battle of Trafalgar .