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1 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.

ppt
BSSPAR2: GSM-WCDMA Inter System
Handover
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Module Objectives
Feature activation, defining WCDMA adjacent cells and managed object class ADJW
WCDMA adjacent cell measurements in Idle mode and Dedicated mode
Bookeeping and averaging of measurements
GSM -WCDMA cell reselection procedure
Standard procedure (for Idle, Packet Idle and Packet Transfer modes)
GSM to WCDMA advanced cell reselection (S13)
Mobile specific channel release message (S13)
IS-NCCR
GSM-WCDMA handover procedure
Load based ISHO for voice
Coverage based ISHO for voice (S13)
ISHO penalities and timers
Inter-system direct access
WCDMA neighbour cell reporting enchancement (S13)
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GSM-WCDMA RAN Network Architecture
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GSM WCDMA Interworking
Benefits
Continuity of speech connections:
Dual mode UEs can have seamless continuity of speech connections and certain data
services between WCDMA RAN and GSM networks

Handovers to reduce traffic load:
GSM BSS WCDMA handovers: To reduce traffic load in the GSM network (where
networks overlap)

Handovers to extend network coverage:
WCDMA GSM BSS handovers: Provide a seamless coverage in areas where
WCDMA RAN is not available
GSM BSS WCDMA handovers: To provide a seamless coverage in areas where
GSM is not available
GSM GSM GSM GSM
WCDMA WCDMA
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MS has to camp on a cell to get service from radio network
A cell re-selection procedure ensures that the MS is camped on a cell
from which it can reliably decode downlink data and with which it has a
high probability of communications on uplink
Cell re-selection procedure is used in
Idle mode
Packet idle mode
Packet transfer mode
Dual-mode mobile can perform cell re-selection from GERAN to
UTRAN FDD cell
GSM coverage area ends (default 2G camping)
UMTS coverage area starts (default 3G camping)
Better UTRAN FDD cell available according the cell re-selection
parameters
GSM WCDMA Interworking
Cell Re-selection
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Inter System Handover (ISHO) procedure is used for dual-mode mobiles in
dedicated mode to offer seamless service between the radio access
technologies
Inter System Network Controlled Cell Reselection (IS-NCCR) procedure is
used for dual-mode mobiles in packet transfer mode to offer seamless service
between the radio access technologies
BSC can start ISHO (or IS-NCCR) procedure from GERAN to UTRAN FDD
cell when
GSM coverage area ends
UMTS coverage area starts
Better or less loaded UTRAN FDD cell is available according the
handover control parameters
BSC needs measurement results concerning the neighbor UTRAN FDD cells
to able to make decision to start ISHO or IS-NCCR
GSM WCDMA Interworking
ISHO and IS-NCCR
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GSM WCDMA Interworking
Feature Control
Support for CS and PS
ISHO feature is required to accept incoming inter system handovers as well (WCDMA to
GSM)
The inter-system handover from GSM to WCDMA is initiated by the GSM radio network,
and the inter-system handover from WCDMA to GSM is initiated by the WCDMA radio
network
Inter-system handovers are hard handovers, which means that an inter-system
handover causes a temporary disconnection of the real time (RT) radio access bearer
Standard Feature (activate by FIFILE parameter)
GSM-WCDMA Inter-System Handover (ISHO)
Licence Based
GSM-WCDMA Inter-System Direct Access
CPICH RSCP Based Criterion for 2G to 3G Cell Reselection
WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
Mobile Specific Channel Release Message
Coverage Based ISHO in Dedicated Mode
Inter-System Network Controlled Cell Reselection (IS-NCCR)
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GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Received signal code power (RSCP) can be used as an additional 2G to 3G cell re-
selection criterion in idle mode to prevent ping-pong effect in 2G-3G cell reselection
WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
Received signal code power (RSCP) can be used as an additional 2G to 3G cell
handover criterion in dedicated mode to prevent ISHOs and IS-NCCRs from 2G to 3G
cell when the new cells uplink performance would be poor

Mobile Specific Channel Release Message
To remove unnecessary signaling and to reduce the delay in service access, 3GPP
Rel.6 terminals can be commanded to directly camp to a 3G cell after call release in 2G
Service Quality Based WCDMA Access is a set of functionalities to further
enhance the best in class BSS/RAN interworking performance
Service Quality Based WCDMA Access
Enhancements in S13
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Defining adjacent WCDMA cells
WCDMA adjacencies are defined in MO class ADJW (GSM adjacencies are in ADCE)
The maximum number of neighbour WCDMA RAN cells per a serving cell is limited to
32

If GSM-WCDMA ISHO is in use, the maximum number of neighbour GSM cells (ADJC)
and maximum number of frequencies in BCCH Allocation (BA) list per a serving cell (or
segment) are:

31 without Common BCCH Control
30 if Common BCCH Control is activated

GSM GSM
WCDMA
ADCE
ADJW
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Defining adjacent WCDMA cells
Parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And Step Description Default
value
BSC - MML
Name
ADJW scramblingCode 0...511, step 1 The downlink scrambling code of the
primary common pilot channel of the
adjacent WCDMA RAN cell
SCC
ADJW txDiversityInd Y, N Defines the downlink transmission diversity
capability of the logical node that is
controlling the adjacent UTRAN cell is used
or not.
N DIV
ADJW uarfcn 0...16383, step 1 Defines the downlink carrier frequency of
the adjacent UTRAN cell specified as its
UARFCN
FREQ
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WCDMA Adjacent Cell Measurements

List of WCDMA neighbour cells is send on SI2 quarter on the downlink
The adjacent cell information is repeated for every neighbour WCDMA RAN
cell:
WCDMA downlink carrier frequency
downlink transmission diversity
scrambling code
Dual mode GSM/WCDMA mobile must measure and report the neighboring
WCDMA cells. The MS needs to be triggerred to start measurements (will not
measure all the time on its own)
The cell re-selection parameters that are sent on SI 2quater messages are:
threshold to search WCDMA RAN cells (qSearchI, qSearchP for GPRS
attached mobiles)
minimum fdd threshold (FddQmin)
fdd cell reselect offset (FddQoffset)

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Re-selection measurements are controlled by parameter threshold to search WCDMA RAN cells
(QSRI)
This parameter defines a threshold and also indicates whether these measurements
are performed when RLA_C (a running average of received signal level) of the
serving GSM cell is below or above the threshold
UE starts WCDMA measurements if Rxlev
running average (RLA_C) is below or above
certain threshold:
RLA_C # Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P (GPRS)
WCDMA Measurement Triggering
In GSM the UE is usually set to measure the
3G neighbours all the time i.e. Qsearch_I
and Qsearch_P are both set to 7

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WCDMA Measurement Triggering
Parameters
Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P define the threshold for non-GPRS/GPRS (respectively) capable UEs
to measure 3G neighbour cells when a running average of the received downlink signal level
(RLA_C) of the serving cell is below (0-7) or above (8-15) the threshold
Value 0 1 6 7 8 9 10 14 15
dBm -98 -94 -74
Always
-78 -74 -70 -54
Never
If RLA_C < -94 UE starts 3G
measurements
UE always measures 3G cells
If RLA_C > -70 UE starts 3G
measurements
Qsearch_C is used in case of dedicated mode and works the same way as above
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WCDMA Measurement Triggering
Idle mode parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviate
d Name
Description BSC - MML
Name
BTS qSearchI Defines the threshold for dual mode mobiles in
idle state to search for and to measure UTRAN
neighbour cells introduced in 3G Cell
Reselection list when a running average of the
received downlink signal level (RLA_C) of the
serving cell is below (0-7) or above (8-15) the
threshold. This parameter is broadcast only on
BCCH.
GPRS MS use this if IS-NCCR is not active
QSRI
BTS qSearchP With this parameter you define the threshold for
GPRS capable dual mode mobiles to search for
and to measure UTRAN neighbour cells
introduced in 3G Cell Reselection list when a
running average of the received downlink signal
level (RLA_C) of the serving cell is below (0-7)
or above (8-15) the threshold. This parameter is
broadcast on BCCH and used if GPRS cell re-
selection parameters for one or more cells are
sent to the MS in a Packet Cell Change Order
or Packet Measurement Order message

GPRS MS use this if IS-NCCR is active
QSRP
Range:

-98 dBm (0),
-94 dBm (1),
-90 dBm (2),
-86 dBm (3),
-82 dBm (4),
-78 dBm (RLA_C below) (5),
-74 dBm (RLA_C below) (6),
Infinity (measure always) (7),
-78 (RLA_C above) (8),
-74 (RLA_C above) (9),
-70 (10),
-66 (11),
-62 (12),
-58 (13),
-54 (14),
Infinity (do not measure) (15)

Default = 15

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WCDMA Measurement Triggering
Dedicated mode parameter
Range:

-98 dBm (0),
-94 dBm (1),
-90 dBm (2),
-86 dBm (3),
-82 dBm (4),
-78 dBm (RLA_C below) (5),
-74 dBm (RLA_C below) (6),
Infinity (measure always) (7),
-78 (RLA_C above) (8),
-74 (RLA_C above) (9),
-70 (10),
-66 (11),
-62 (12),
-58 (13),
-54 (14),
Infinity (do not measure) (15)

Default = 15

MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Description BSC -
MML
Name
HOC qSearchC Threshold for multi-RAT MSs in dedicated state to
measure WCDMA RAN neighbour cells introduced
in 3G Cell Reselection list when the measured
downlink signal level (RLA_C) of the serving cell is
below (0-7) or above (8-15) the threshold.

Value 7 = measure always neighbour
WCDMARAN cell(s).
Value 15 = do not measure any of the neighbour
WCDMA RAN cells.
QSRC
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Bookkeeping & Averaging
Overview
measurement result averaging parameters averaged result
ECNO_NCELL(n) adjacent WCDMA RAN cell
averaging window size
AV_ECNO_NCELL(n)
number of WCDMA RAN zero
results
all adjacent WCDMA RAN cells
averaged
MS reports Ec/No of WCDMA cells as part of its measurement report every
SACCH frame


Bookkeeping of measurements
Up to 32 WCDMA cells per GSM cell
Up to 32 measurement samples for each of the WCDMA neighbour cell
Averaging of measurements:
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Bookkeeping & Averaging
Parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And Step Description Default
value
BSC - MML
Name
HOC allUtranAdjAver N = the three best
RAN cells
Y = all adjacent
WCDMA RAN cells
Defines whether the signal measurement
results will be averaged for all adjacent
WCDMA RAN cells, or only for the three
best adjacent WCDMA RAN cells.
N (three
best)
UAAC
HOC noOfZeroResUt
ran
0...32, step 1 Defines the number of zero results that can
be omitted when the measurement results
of the adjacent WCDMA RAN cells are
averaged
5 UNOZ
HOC utranAveraging
Number
1...32, step 1
(SACCH periods)
Defines the window size for averaging the
signal quality, signal level and distance
measurement results that are adjacent
WCDMA RAN cell related
6 UAWS
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And Step Description Default
value
BSC - MML
Name
HOC fddMultiratRep 0...3, step 1 Defines the number of the best valid
WCDMA RAN cells to be reported by a
dual mode mobile in the list of the
strongest cells or in the measurement
report.
2 FDMR
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Cell Reselection GSM WCDMA
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MS has to camp on a cell to get service from radio network
A cell re-selection procedure ensures that the MS is camped on a cell
from which it can reliably decode downlink data and with which it has a
high probability of communications on uplink
Cell reselection procedure is used in
Idle mode
Packet idle mode
Packet transfer mode
Dual-mode mobile can perform cell re-selection from GERAN to
UTRAN FDD cell
GSM coverage area ends (default 2G camping)
UMTS coverage area starts (default 3G camping)
Better UTRAN FDD cell available according the cell re-selection
parameters
Cell Re-Selection to WCDMA
Overview
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RLA_C means running average
signal level which could be
compared to received signal
code power RSCP
Cell Re-Selection to WCDMA
Procedure
Qsearch_I F(Qsearch_I )
0 -98
1 -94
2 -90
3 -86
4 -82
5 -78
6 -74
7 (always)
8 -78
9 -74
10 -70
11 -66
12 -62
13 -58
14 -54
15 (never).
UE starts WCDMA measurements
when the running average signal level
(RLA_C) is below or above the
threshold Qsearch_I
UE check if the RSCP of some
neighbour WCDMA cell has exceeded
the RLA_C of the serving GSM cell
and the neighbour GSM cells with the
parameter fdd and fdd cell reselct
offset for a period of 5 sec
CPICH RSCP > RLA_C +
FDD_Qoffset
UE checks that the WCDMA cells Ec/No has
exceeded the minimum fdd threshold for a
period of 5 sec
CPICH Ec/No >= FDD_Qmin
FDD_Qmin_Offset
UE checks that the WCDMA cells
RSCP has exceeded the FDD RSCP
threshold for a period of 5 sec
CPICH RSCP >=
FDD_RSCP_threshold
UE makes a cell reselection from the
GSM to WCDMA cell
Start WCDMA measurements when a
certain RxLevel is achieved in the
serving GSM cell
Compare RSCP of the WCDMA
neighbour to the RxLevel of the
serving and neighbour GSM cells
WCDMA neighbour cells Ec/No must
fullfil min requirement. Ec/No is a
good estimate of DL quality
WCDMA neighbour cells RSCP must
fullfil min requirement. RSCP is a
good estimate of UL quality
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Cell Re-Selection to WCDMA
Parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
BTS fddQMin -20 dB to -6 dB
in 2 dB steps
Defines a minimum Ec/Io threshold which must be
exceeded before a non-GPRS capable dual mode
mobile is allowed to make a reselection from the
serving GSM cell to an adjacent WCDMA RAN cell
-12 dB
(7)
FDM
BTS fddQMinOffset 0...14 dB, step
2 dB
This parameter applies a negative offset to the
minimum Ec/No threshold for cell reselection from
the serving GSM cell to an adjacent UTRAN FDD
cell for dual-mode mobiles (R5 onwards)
0 dB FDMO
BTS fddQOffset -32...28 dB,
step 4 dB
Defines a UTRAN cell reselection offset for non-
GPRS capable dual mode mobiles which are in the
idle state
The mobiles add the offset to the running average
(RLA_C) of the received signal level of the serving
GSM cell and non-serving GSM cells. After that the
mobiles compare the measured RSCP values of
UTRAN cells with signal levels of the GSM cells
-32 dB
(infinity)
FDD
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t
Serving GSM Cell
Neighbour WCDMA Cell
Ec/No
RSCP/
RLA_C
5 sec.

Cell re-selection to WCDMA
FDD_Qmin=0
(-20 dB)
FDD_Qoffset =6 (-8 dB)
Qsearch_I=0
(-98 dBm)
RLA_C
Measurements starts (serving cell)
Minimum Quality Requirement for WCDMA
Ec/N0
RSCP
Cell Re-selection
Example - weaker WCDMA cell

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2G
3G good Ec/No, low RSCP
CPICH RSCP
criterion in cell
reselection will
decrease the
possibility for ping-
pong between the
systems
Ec/No as only criterion
2G
3G good Ec/No, low RSCP
RSCP as additional criterion
Received signal code power (RSCP) can be used as an additional 2G to 3G cell re-selection criterion
in idle mode to prevent ping-pong effect in 2G-3G cell reselection
CPICH is a common downlink pilot channel in 3G
Can be used with all 3GPP Rel.5 and later terminals (RSCP criterion is an optional feature for
Rel.99 and Rel.4 terminals)
RSCP gives a better estimate of the 3G uplink performance than the earlier used reselection criterion
CPICH Ec/No alone
Without the use of RSCP criterion, the terminal could select a 3G cell with too weak signal and
fluctuating Ec/No which could cause a return back to 2G network (ping-pong effect)
Note: Ec/No gives a good estimate of 3G downlink quality
RSCP value measured by the terminal needs to exceed a certain threshold level managed by BSC,
before the measured 3G cell is taken as a target in the reselection process
GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Overview
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Dual-mode mobile has two measurement quantities for neighbor UTRAN FDD
cells

CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code Power)
Gives information about the coupling loss between BTS and MS
MS output power is mainly determined by the coupling loss => Uplink
coverage is limited by MS maximum output power
Uplink quality is strongly dependent on CPICH RSCP

CPICH Ec/No (Ratio of energy per modulating bit to the noise spectral density)
Gives composite measure of coupling loss (between BTS and MS) and
interference (neighbor cells, serving cell)
CPICH Ec/No provides a good estimate of downlink quality

GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Basics
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The older dual-mode mobiles (before Rel 5.) do not take account the
minimum CPICH RSCP level in their cell re-selection algorithm from
GERAN to UTRAN cell
=> Cell re-selection can fail to UTRAN FDD cell because:
CPICH RSCP is smaller than Qrxlevmin
Uplink connection does not success

Before Rel. 5
ping-pong possible
2G
3G
2G
3G
E.g. mobile selects
WCDMA based on
Good Ec/No
RSCP too low => sync
fails. Reselect GSM
CPICH RSCP based criterion for 2G to 3G cell reselection
Problem
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Newer dual-mode mobiles (optional Rel99/4, mandatory Rel5
onwards) take account the minimum CPICH RSCP level in their cell
re-selection algorithm from GERAN to UTRAN cell



2G
3G
Rel 5.
CPICH RSCP based criterion for 2G to 3G cell reselection
Solution
X
WCDMA selected only
with minimum RSCP
- no ping-pong
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Existing parameters:
FDD_Qoffset -> fddQOffset (FDD Cell Reselect Offset) (SEG)
FDD_Qmin -> fddQMin (Minimum FDD Threshold) (SEG)

New parameters in S13:
FDD_RSCPmin -> fddRscpMin (Minimum RSCP Threshold) (SEG)
FDD_Qmin_Offset -> fddQMinOffset (Minimum Fdd Threshold Offset) (SEG)



CPICH RSCP based criterion for 2G to 3G cell reselection
Parameters
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CPICH RSCP based criterion for 2G to 3G cell reselection
Parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range
And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC - MML
Name
BTS fddQMinOffse
t
0...14 dB,
step 2 dB
Applies a negative offset to the minimum Ec/No threshold
for cell reselection from the serving GSM cell to an
adjacent UTRAN FDD cell for dual-mode mobiles (R5
onwards).

Makes sufficient quality UMTS coverage look larger for
dual-mode mobiles that take account the minimum CPICH
RSCP level in the cell re-selection algorithm
0 dB FDMO
BTS fddRscpMin -114...-84
dBm,
step 2
dBm
Defines the minimum RSCP threshold for cell reselection
from the serving GSM cell to an adjacent UTRAN FDD cell
for dual-mode mobiles (R5 onwards).
-102
dBm
FDR
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GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Idle Mode
If the broadcast neighbour cell list from the BSC to the mobile contains information
on WCDMA RAN cells, the mobile updates the value RSSI for the serving cell and
each of the at least six strongest non-serving GSM cells at least every five seconds.
The mobile reselects a suitable WCDMA RAN cell according to the following three
criteria:
1. its measured RSCP value exceeds the value of RSSI for the serving cell and all
of the suitable (see 3GPP TS 03.22) non-serving GSM cells by the value
FDD_Qoffset,
If its measured RSCP value exceeds the value of RSSI for the serving cell and all of the
suitable non-serving GSM cells by the value QSRI (QSRP) for period of five seconds.
This means that with positive offset value the WCDMA cell should be better than GSM
cell and vica versa.
2. its measured Ec/No value is equal or greater than the value FDD_Qmin,
and
For FDD the mobile selects the WCDMA cells, whose measured Ec/No value is equal or
greater than the value FDDQmin.
3. its measured RSCP value is equal to or greater than FDD_RSCP_threshold (In
R99/R4 if supported by the MS).
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GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Idle Mode
Criteria 3 was introduced in R99/R4/R5 specifications on 2004-08 and the exact
definition varies between R99/R4 and R5 (see 3GPP TS 05.08 version 8.21.0
Release 1999, 3GPP TS 45.008 version 4.15.0 Release 4 and 3GPP TS 45.008
version 5.19.0 Release 5 or later specs). CPICH RSCP Based Criterion for 2G to
3G Cell Reselection is a BSS S13 feature.
FDD_RSCP_threshold is defined in R5 as:
FDD_RSCPmin min((P_MAX 21 dBm), 3 dB), if FDD_RSCPmin is broadcast on
the serving cell,
Qrxlevmin + Pcompensation + 10 dB, if these parameters are available
Pcompensation is max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH P_MAX, 0) (dB),
The default value of FDD_RSCPmin (-102 dBm).
Criteria 2 was changed in R5 specifications to be:
2. its measured Ec/No value is equal or greater than the value
FDD_Qmin - FDD_Qmin_Offset
The broadcasting of FDD_Qmin_Offset is a BSS13 feature, default is 0 dB.
Thus, the final GSM to WCDMA re-selection criteria R5 specification is


>
>
+ >

Threshold RSCP FDD RSCP
f f set FDD_Qmin_o FddQmin Io Ec
FddQof f set GSM RSSI RSCP
AND criteria n reselectio Cell WCDMA GSM
_ _
/
_
:
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GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Packet Mode
New parameters FDD_Qmin_Offset and FDD_RSCPmin are
introduced for re-selection algorithm.
The FDD cell re-selection parameters FDD_Qmin_Offset and
FDD_RSCPmin shall be broadcasted on BCCH within the SI2ter and
SI2quater messages. Dual-mode mobiles in idle mode read these
messages. If PBCCH does not exist on the serving cell then also dual-
mode mobiles in packet idle mode read these messages from BCCH.
Dual-mode mobile (R5 and R6) in packet idle mode or packet transfer
mode selects FDD cell as target cell during cell re-selection when all the
following criterias are met for a period of 5 seconds
1. FDD cells measured RSCP value exceeds the value of RLA_P for the serving cell
and the all of the suitable non-serving GSM cells by the value FDD_GPRS_Qoffset
2. FDD cells measured Ec/No value is equal or creater than the value FDD_Qmin
FDD_Qmin_Offset and
3. FDD cells measured RSCP value is equal or greater than the value
FDD_RSCP_threshold
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GSM to WCDMA Advanced Cell Reselection
Packet Mode
FDD_GPRS_Qoffset corresponds the SEG specific BTS radio network
object parameter FDD cell reselect offset (FDD) in Nokia BSC. If
PBCCH exists in the cell then the FDD_GPRS_Qoffset corrsponds the
SEG specific BTS radio network object parameter GPRS fdd cell
reselect offset (GFDD).
FDD_Qmin corresponds the SEG specific BTS radio network object
parameter minimum fdd threshold (FDM) in Nokia BSC. If PBCCH
exists in the cell then the FDD_Qmin corresponds the SEG specific BTS
radio network object parameter GPRS minimum fdd threshold (GFDM).
FDD_RSCP_threshold equals FDD_RSCPmin min((P_MAX 21
dBm), 3dB) if FDD_RSCPmin is broadcasted on the serving cell else
mobile calculates value for it or uses default value.
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Mobile Specific Channel Release Message
To remove unnecessary signalling and to reduce the delay in service access, mobile
stations can be commanded to directly camp to a 3G cell after call release in 2G
Supported by 3GPP Rel.6 and later terminals
Direct camping to 3G can avoid LAU/RAU signaling process which typically takes
25 seconds
Direct camping information is indicated by BSC to all dual-mode terminals when they
report at least one 3G neighbor cell
The reported 3G cell is used as a target cell in Channel Release message
(Information Element: Cell Selection Indication after release of TCH and
SDCCH)
If several 3G neighbor cells are reported by the terminal, then the best one is
used as a target for idle mode camping
without:
3G idle 3G 2G 2G LAU/RAU


2G-camping after call
terminates
3G LAU/RAU


Default 3G
camping
3G idle
3G idle 3G 2G 3G idle
with:


Handover
to 2G
Unnecessary RAU/LAUs can be avoided
RAU = routing area update
LAU = location area update

Voice call
setup in 3G


Channel release: directly
camp on 3G
35 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System NCCR (IS-NCCR)
Introduction
Inter-System Network-Controlled Cell Re-selection (IS-NCCR) allows the network the
possibility to order a cell re-selection from a GSM cell to a WCDMA RAN cell (instead of
the autonomous selection done by the MS itself).
With this feature, the network decides when the MS changes cell and what the target cell
is.
IS-NCCR introduces the possibility for the network to control timing and target cell
selection in cell re-selection. There are the following cell re-selection criteria:

Service-based IS-NCCR: allows the operator to direct MSs to a preferred radio system
according to the services they use. It selects 3G network according to SGSN Service UTRAN
CCO BSSGP (Cell Change Order BSSGP signaling) procedure even if the serving cell signal
level is good.

Coverage-based IS-NCCR: enables the operator to define whether 3G network is selected as
soon as WCDMA FDD cell coverage is available or only when GSM coverage ends

In target WCDMA FDD cell prioritization, the PCU ranks the target cell candidates based
on the reported Ec/No value.
36 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System NCCR (IS-NCCR)
Description
Inter-system cell re-selection also depends on the Service UTRAN CCO value received from the
SGSN
The cell re-selection can be carried out in the following cases:


WCDMA
FDD NCCR
enabled
WCDMA
FDD NCCR
preferred
Service UTRAN CCO
Information Element
(IE) indication for
NCCR to UTRAN
(received from
SGSN)
Additional condition
Service-based IS-NCCR On Off Should be performed
WCDMA-coverage-
based IS-NCCR
On On Should not be
performed

GSM-coverage-based
IS-NCCR
On Off Should not be
performed
The serving and
neighbour GSM cells do
not fulfil the minimum
Rxlev requirements
37 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System NCCR (IS-NCCR)
Coverage criteria overivew
WCDMA FDD NCCR Preferred
Select suitable WCDMA cell
Suitable
GSM cell
available?
Has SGSN
denied IS NCCR
by Service
UTRAN COO IE?
IS-NCRR to WCDMA
On
Off
No
Yes
No IS-NCCR
No
Yes
38 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System NCCR (IS-NCCR)
Service criteria overivew
WCDMA FDD NCCR Preferred
Select suitable WCDMA cell
Suitable
GSM cell
available?
Check Service
UTRAN COO IE
value
Off
Shall not
Shall not
No IS-NCCR
Should
be
done
On
Coverage
criteria
IS-NCRR to WCDMA
No
Yes
39 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System NCCR (IS-NCCR)
Priority order of cell reselection criteria (Coverage & Service)
AV_3G_MES_QUAN(n) is the average of 3G measurement quantity
CellReselQual3GRAThr is determined by adjacent WCDMA RAN cell parameter ISNCCR FDD quality threshold (FQT)
AV_RXLEV_SERV and AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) are measured DL Rx Level on the BCCH of serving and neighbour cell
Pa = GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH(n) P , where P = max GMSK output power capability of the MS
IS-NCCR to WCDMA FDD cell is triggered when
serving and neighbour GSM cells do not fulfill the
minimum RXLEV requirements
AV_RXLEV_SERV > gprsRxLevMinCell + MAX(0, Pa), or
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > gprsRxLevMinCell(n) + Max(0, Pa)
and
any of the WCDMA FDD neighbour cells fulfill the equation
AV_3g_MES_QUAN(n) > CellReselQual3GRATThr(n)
IS-NCCR to WCDMA FDD cell is triggered when any of
the WCDMA FDD neighbour cells fulfills the equation
AV_3G_MES_QUAN(n) > CellReselQual3GRATThr(n)
IS-NCCR not started
Service UTRAN CCO WCDMA FDD NCCR Preferred
value"...should
be done..."
value"...shall
not be done..."
value "...should
not be done..."
IE not provided
by SGSN
On
Off
40 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System NCCR (IS-NCCR)
Parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC - MML
Name
ADJW isnccrFddQualit
yThr
-24...0.5 dB,
step 0.5 dB
With this parameter you define the minimum
signal quality level of an adjacent WCDMA RAN
cell for an inter-system network-controlled cell re-
selection (ISNCCR).

Value 0.5 dB = the BSC is never allowed to initiate
an ISNCCR attempt from the serving cell towards
the WCDMA RAN cell
-15 dB FQT
BSC wcdmaFddNccr
Enabled
N, Y Switches on or off the ISNCCR to WCDMA FDD
cells
N WFNE
BSC wcdmaFddNccr
Preferred
N, Y Y = Coverage reason ISNCCR is triggered as
soon as an appropriate WCDMA cell is available
(Service UTRAN CCO IE value sent by SGSN is
ignored)

N = ISNCCR is triggered only in case there is not
an appropriate GSM/EDGE cell available and an
appropriate WCDMA cell is available. MML
default: Y
Y WFNP
41 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt
Handover GSM WCDMA
42 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

GSM
GSM
Inter System Handover
Overview
GSM
GSM high
loaded
WCDMA low
loaded
GSM GSM
WCDMA WCDMA
Load reason
Handover for speech

WCDMA GSM
Coverage, Load and service
reason Handover
Coverage
Load and service
reason Handover
WCDMA can be used
to relieve GSM overload

GSM can be used to extend
WCDMA coverage area
Mobile moving
43 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System Handover Procedure to WCDMA
Prerequisites
The target cell candidates (WBTSs) are defined as neighbour WCDMA RAN cells for the
serving GSM cell in the BSC.
The UEs (which are in the dedicated state) are allowed to measure the neighbour
WCDMA RAN cells of the serving GSM cell. The starting point for measurements is defined
with the parameter QSearchC (qSearcC parameter is similar to the previously mentioned
idle mode parameter QSRI)
The MS has sent the neighbour WCDMA RAN cell measurements to the BSC. This is
controlled by FDMR (number of measured FDD cells) parameter
Early classmark sending is allowed for mobiles in the serving GSM cell. This is set by
parameter early sending indication (ESI).
The mobile has sent the UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE message to the BSC.
A dual mode GSM/WCDMA mobile sends a UTRAN CLASSMARK CHANGE
message to the BSC if the early classmark sending is allowed in the serving
GSM cell. The content of the message is required by an RNC, which controls
the target WCDMA RAN cell of the inter-system handover attempt.
The connection-specific penalty timer for inter-system handover attempts has been
expired.

44 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

BSC checking the set handover
triggering thresholds
Inter-RAT measurements starts in case
the RXLEV of the serving cell is above or
below the given threshold Qsearch_C,
(threshold for Multi-RAT MS)
Handover decision is done in case of
load of the serving cell > load_Threshold
and CPICH Ec/No (WCDMA neighbour) > Min Ec/No
Threshold. Load of the serving GSM cell is ignored if
the handover is triggerred due to GSM coverage
reason or service priority
BSC selects the target UTRAN cell based
on measurement results
Handover request is send to MSC
Min traffic load threshold = 60%
Min CPICH Ec/Io level = 18 (-15dB)

Inter-System Handover Procedure to WCDMA
Load based procedure
Load checking is similar compared to the BSC
initiated Traffic Reason Handover . The BSC
initiates only as many inter-system handovers as
the number of ongoing calls in the serving GSM
cell is over the traffic load threshold. That is, the
serving GSM cell is not emptied into the WCDMA
RAN.

Traffic load
of serving
GSM cell
Avg
Ec/No of
WCDMA
cell
Traffic
load
Signal
Quality
ISHO
possible?
45% 18 Too low Too low No
45% 19 Too low Ok No
65% 19 Ok Ok Yes
Example
45 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System Handover Procedure to WCDMA
Load based parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
ADJW minEcnoThresh
old
-24...0.5 dB,
step 0.5 dB
Defines the minimum CPICH Ec/Io threshold level of
an adjacent WCDMA RAN cell which must be
exceeded for an inter-system handover attempt.

NOTE: The value 0.5 dB = BSC is never allowed to
initiate a handover attempt from the serving GSM
cell towards the WCDMA RAN cell
-15 dB MET
HOC qSearchC 0...15, step 1 Threshold for multi-RAT MSs in dedicated state to
measure WCDMA RAN neighbour cells introduced
in 3G Cell Reselection list when the measured
downlink signal level (RLA_C) of the serving cell is
below (0-7) or above (8-15) the threshold.

Value 7 = measure always neighbour WCDMARAN
cell(s).
Value 15 = do not measure any of the neighbour
WCDMA RAN cells.
15 QSRC
HOC utranHoThScTp
dc
0...100 %, step
1 %
Defines the minimum traffic load that must be
exceeded on the serving GSM cell before the
handover algorithm is allowed to initiate a handover
for a speech call from the serving GSM cell to a
WCDMA RAN cell.
80 % LTSC
46 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

ISHO Penalties and Timers
Connection specific penalty timers
Connection-specific penalty timers
Min int between HO requests
Min int between unsuccessful HO requests
After unsuccessful GSM WCDMA attempt: Min int between unsuccessful ISHO
att (UMIU)






After successful WCDMA GSM handover: BSC wont allow ISHO back to
WCDMA for the same connection for 30 sec

The same timers used in
GSM handover control
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
HOC minIntUnsuccIs
Ho
0...255 s,
step 1 s
The minimum time interval between inter-system
handover attempts related to the same connection
and the same non-GSM cell when a handover
attempt from the serving GSM cell to a non-GSM
cell has been unsuccessful.
3 s UMIU
47 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

ISHO Penalties and Timers
Cell based penalty timers
Cell-based penalty timers after unsuccessful HO from GSM WCDMA
Repeated unsuccessful ISHO att to WCDMA cell indicate that the WCDMA cell is
loaded
GSM GSM GSM
3G
3G
ISHO att from other
cells during time N
are allowed
If X % of ISHO fail during a time
period T (window) prevent
ISHO attempts for N amount of
time
Triggering ratio for WCDMA RAN
cell penalty (X)
Penalty trigger measurement
period (T)
WCDMA cell RAN penalty time (N)

48 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

ISHO Penalties and Timers
Cell based penalty timers (parameters)
MO
Class
Abbreviate
d Name
Range And Step Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
BSC triggerMeas
Period
N, 2...254 seconds,
step 2 seconds

Length of the period during which the latest ISHO
counters are used, if the WCDMA RAN Service
Area and neighbour WCDMA RAN cell penalty
triggering are used

N= WCDMA RAN service area and neighbour
WCDMA RAN cell penalty triggering is disabled
128
seconds
PTMP
HOC failMoveThr
eshold
0...100 %, step 1 % The percentage of unsuccessful outgoing ISHO
attempts towards a certain adjacent WCDMA cell
that must be exceeded during a certain time (set
by parameter PTMP) for the penalty timer (WCP)
to be applied
50% TRW
HOC wcdmaRan
CellPenalty
0...255, step 1 The duration of a handover penalty timer that has
been triggered on a serving GSM cell for an
adjacent WCDMA RAN cell
127 WCP
49 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

service
area 1









service
area 2









service
area 3
cell 1
cell 2
cell 3
cell 4
cell 5
cell 6
cell 7
cell 8
cell 1
cell 2
cell 3
cell 4
cell 5
cell 6
cell 7
cell 8
WCDMA RAN BSC
After a certain number HO attempts from
the WCDMA RAN service area 1 are
successful within a predefined time period,
the BSC has to put the source WCDMA
RAN service area 1 to the penalty bench.
That is, during the predefined penalty time,
the BSC is not allowed to initiate handover
attempts back to the source WCDMA RAN
service area 1.
ISHO Penalties and Timers
Service area based penalty timers
Applied after successful
HO WCDMA GSM
50 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

service
area 1









service
area 2









service
area 3
cell 1
cell 2
cell 3
cell 4
cell 5
cell 6
cell 7
cell 8
WCDMA RAN
During the penalty
time HOs from the
GSM to the WCDMA
RAN
service area 1 are not
allowed
BSC
cell 1
cell 2
cell 3
cell 4
cell 5
cell 6
cell 7
cell 8
ISHO Penalties and Timers
Service area based penalty timers
Applied after successful
HO WCDMA GSM
Service Area 1 is
considered loaded
prevent ISHO back to
that area
51 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

ISHO Penalties and Timers
Service area based penalty timers (parameters)
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And Step Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
ADJW sac 0...65535, step 1 With this parameter you define the service area
the adjacent UTRAN cell belongs to.
SAC
BSC incomeRateT
hreshold
0...255, step 1 Defines the triggering level for a Service Area
penalty. If the number of incoming Inter-System
Handovers which occur from a certain Service
Area exceed the penalty triggering level during a
measurement period, the Service Area-specific
penalty timer is triggered
127 TTSAP
BSC triggerMeasP
eriod
2...254 seconds,
step 2 seconds
Length of the period during which the latest ISHO
counters are used, if the WCDMA RAN Service
Area and neighbour WCDMA RAN cell penalty
triggering are used

N= WCDMA RAN service area and neighbour
WCDMA RAN cell penalty triggering is disabled
128
seconds
PTMP
BSC wcdmaRanS
aiPenalty
0...255 sec, step
1 sec
Duration of the handover penalty timer which has
been triggered for a Service Area. While the
Service Area penalty timer is on, the BSC is not
allowed to initiate an Inter-System Handover
attempt towards WCDMA RAN cells that belong to
the Service Area.
127 sec SAPT
52 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

SDCCH channel
1. Direct Access or inter-system direct access
to WCDMA RAN
2. Interference (uplink or downlink)
3. Intra-segment inter-band due to downlink
level (from higher to lower frequency band)
4. Uplink quality
5. Downlink quality
6. Uplink level
7. Downlink level
8. MS-BS distance (maximum or minimum)
9. Turn-around-corner MS
10. Rapid field drop
11. Fast/slow-moving MS
12. Power budget

TCH channel
1. Interference (uplink or downlink)
2. Intra-segment inter-band due to downlink
level (from higher to lower frequency band)
3. Uplink quality
4. Downlink quality
5. AMR unpacking (uplink level and also uplink
unpacking quality triggers)
6. Uplink level
7. AMR unpacking (downlink level and also
downlink unpacking quality triggers)
8. Downlink level
9. Inter-System Handover to WCDMA RAN

(Only the first 9 handovers are listed here)
Interaction between ISHO and Intra-GSM
Handovers
Handover Priority Order
53 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Interaction between ISHO and Intra-GSM
Handovers
The use of priorities means that the inter-system handover procedure will not be
triggered in certain scenarios when for example quality, DL RX Level or
interference levels have reached the thresholds.
As an example, when cell load exceeds the load threshold, if DL HO RX Level
threshold is set to 95 dBm, ISHO will not occur for MSs that are beyond the -
95dBm on DL Rx Level (BSC will try to do handover to another GSM cell instead
of to 3G)
RXLEV=-95 dBm
4
1
2
5
6
3
Terminals 1, 2 and 3 may be moved to 3G
Terminals 4,5 and 6 may only be moved to
another GSM cell (DL RXLEV handover)
54 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System Direct Access
Overview
Enable the BSC to hand a mobile directly from the SDCCH to the WCDMA
Triggering based on GSM load, similar feature as GSM internal direct access
(DADL/B)
2G/MSC
BSC
(1) Mobile camps to GSM,
and requests a service
RNC
(2) BSC receives service
priority from MSC with
value should
(3) BSC makes a
Direct Access to WCDMA RAN

3G/MSC
(4) Mobile starts the
service in WCDMA
55 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System Direct Access
Procedure
Mobile camps to GSM cell. Requirements has to be fulfilled: Inter-system
handover is enabled and Direct Access is allowed
The BSC must have received an indication from the UE about its WCDMA RAN
capability in the CLASSMARK CHANGE message. The UE has to be FDD
capable. The message must already have been received on the SDCCH.
The BSC has received the service priority with the value 'should' from the MSC.
Note that inter-system direct access begins only if the service priority is set to
should.
The UE must have already received information about the adjacent WCDMA RAN
cells from the BSC on the SDCCH.
The MSC must support the sending of the Service Handover information element
in the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message. The value of the service priority has to
be set to SHOULD. For more information on service priority, see Support of
service priorities in A-interface.
The BSC has to have received measurement reports of the WCDMA RAN
adjacent cell(s) already on the SDCCH.
The Ec/No of the target WCDMA RAN cell has to be over the Inter-System Direct
Access threshold direct access EC/IO threshold.
56 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter-System Direct Access
Parameters
MO
Class
Abbreviated
Name
Range And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
ADJW intSystemDaE
cioThr
-24...0.5 dB,
step 0.5 dB
Defines the minimum CPICH Ec/Io level of an
adjacent WCDMA RAN cell in decibels, when a
direct access to the adjacent WCDMA RAN cell is
allowed.
Value 0.5 = the BSC is not allowed to initiate a direct
access from the serving GSM cell to the WCDMA
RAN cell because a CPICH Ec/Io level measured by
mobiles can be maximum 0 dB.
-11.5 dB DET
HOC interSystemDa false (0),
true (1)
This enables or disables the Inter-System Direct
Access to the WCDMA RAN.

Yes = the Inter-System Direct Access to the WCDMA
RAN is tried first
false (0) IDE
57 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt




2G
3G good Ec/No, low RSCP
CPICH RSCP
criterion will
improve the ISHO
or IS-NCCR
success rate
Ec/No as only criterion
2G
3G good Ec/No, low RSCP
RSCP as additional criterion
Received signal code power (RSCP) can be used as an additional 2G to 3G cell inter-system handover
or IS-NCCR criterion in dedicated mode to improve 2G to 3G handover/cell reselection success rate
CPICH is a common downlink pilot channel in 3G
Can be used with 3GPP Rel.5 and later terminals (RSCP criterion is an optional feature for
Rel.99 and Rel.4 terminals)
RSCP gives a better estimate of the 3G uplink performance than the earlier used reselection criterion
CPICH Ec/No alone
Without the use of RSCP criterion, the terminal could directed to a 3G cell with too weak signal
and fluctuating Ec/No which could cause a return back to 2G network
Note: Ec/No gives a good estimate of 3G downlink quality
RSCP value measured by the terminal needs to exceed a certain threshold level managed by BSC,
before the measured 3G cell is added in the measurement report sent back to BSC
WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
Overview
58 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Inter System Handover (ISHO) procedure is used for dual-mode mobiles in
dedicated mode to offer seamless service between the radio access
technologies
Inter System Network Controlled Cell Reselection (IS-NCCR) procedure is
used for dual-mode mobiles in packet transfer mode to offer seamless service
between the radio access technologies
BSC can start ISHO (or IS-NCCR) procedure from GERAN to UTRAN FDD
cell when
GSM coverage area ends
UMTS coverage area starts
Better or less loaded UTRAN FDD cell is available according the
handover control parameters
BSC needs measurement results concerning the neighbor UTRAN FDD cells
to able to make decision to start ISHO or IS-NCCR
WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
59 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

BSC makes decisions for ISHO and IS-NCCR based on measurement
reports it receives from the mobile
Because CPICH Ec/No is the reported measurement quantity then
only downlink quality is taken account in the decision
BSC can trigger ISHO or IS-NCCR to UTRAN FDD cell that has good
downlink quality but poor uplink quality => ISHO or IS-NCCR fails

Before Rel. 5
ping-pong possible
2G
3G
2G
3G
E.g. mobile selects
WCDMA based on
Good Ec/No
RSCP too low => sync
fails. Reselect GSM
WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
Problem
60 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
Solution
Newer dual-mode mobiles (Rel 5. onwards) do not send measurement
reports of UTRAN FDD cells whose CPICH RSCP is below the threshold
defined by FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD_2 parameter
=> BSC does not trigger ISHOs or IS-NCCRs to these cells


2G
3G
Rel 5.
ISHO or IS-NCCR is not
triggered to cells with too
low CPICH RSCP
MO
Class
Abbreviate
d Name
Range And
Step
Description Default
value
BSC -
MML
Name
HOC fddRepThr2 -115...-53
dBm, step
1 dBm
Defines the reporting threshold for the adjacent UTRAN
FDD cell in the serving GSM cell. The non-reported
measugrement quantity CPICH RSCP has to be equal or
greater than the threshold value before the UTRAN FDD
cell is reported.
-105
dBm
FRT2
X
61 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Coverage Based ISHO for Voice
Ongoing voice call is typically kept in GSM network as long as there is good enough
network coverage. Handovers are primarily done between GSM cells.

In case of poor 2G network coverage, the call is handed over to 3G network
Inter-system handover will be performed even though intra-system handover
criteria were prioritised over inter-system criterion
GSM GSM GSM GSM
3G 3G 3G 3G
GSM 3G GSM 3G
Load reason
handover from
GSM to 3G
Coverage reason
handover from
3G to GSM
Coverage reason
handover from
GSM to 3G
Load threshold
Dual mode
mobile
When higher priority intra GERAN
handover criteria is exceed, but no target
GSM cell can be found, the BSC can
trigger inter-system handover even load
of the source cell is below the load
threshold
62 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Coverage Based ISHO for Voice
dedicated mode
When any intra GSM handover criteria before low signal strength criterion is
met but does not lead in handover initiation, RCSPRB shall continue to
evaluate the next, i.e. signal strength handover criterion.
When uplink or downlink signal strength meets the intra GSM handover
criterion for low signal strength, but it does not result in handover initiation,
RCSPRB shall evaluate a possibility to perform an inter-system handover
from GSM cell to UTRAN cell.
Although serving GSM cell load might be checked in normal inter-system
handover initiation, in this case it shall have no effect to an inter-system
handover initiation. However, an inter-system handover shall not be initiated
if the final service priority compiled of priorities received from the MSC and/or
from the SGSN completely denies an inter-system handover.
63 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Coverage Based ISHO for Voice
dedicated mode
Main Success Scenario:
RCSPRB receives radio link measurements from the BTS and from the UE.
One or several higher priority intra GSM handover criteria, including low
signal strength criterion, are exceeded. RCSPRB does not start an intra
GSM handover because of not good enough GSM adjacent cells
available for the handover.
The inter-system handover criterion is evaluated and exceeded. UTRAN
cell that the UE reported is good enough for starting the inter-system
handover from GSM cell to UTRAN cell although serving GSM cell load
is below load threshold for an inter-system handover.
The UE is successfully hand-overed from GSM cell to UTRAN cell.
64 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

Coverage Based ISHO for Voice
dedicated mode
New HO and PC algorithm allows ISHO in case some of higher priority triggers are
met, but handover not possible due conflict with some other criteria. Priority of
coverage based ISHO is updated to level 9 ( old ISHO was level 13 and not possible
if higher level HO decision in process )GERAN to UTRAN handover is executed only
if Service Handover IE ( of Assignment request or Handover Request) does not deny
it ( 3GPP 48.008 Rel 6 clause 3.2.2.75)

New HO decision priority table:
1. Interference (uplink or downlink)
2. Intra-segment inter-band because of downlink level (from higher to lower frequency band)
3. Uplink quality
4. Downlink quality
5. AMR unpacking (uplink level or uplink unpacking quality triggers)
6. Uplink level
7. AMR unpacking (downlink level or downlink unpacking quality triggers)
8. Downlink level
9. Coverage based inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
10. IMSI-based inter-system handover to WCDMA RAN
11. IMSI-based handover
12. DTM-based handover to WCDMA RAN
.
.
65 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt




2G
3G good Ec/No, low RSCP
CPICH RSCP
criterion will
improve the ISHO
or IS-NCCR
success rate
Ec/No as only criterion
2G
3G good Ec/No, low RSCP
RSCP as additional criterion
Received signal code power (RSCP) can be used as an additional 2G to 3G cell inter-system handover
or IS-NCCR criterion in dedicated mode to improve 2G to 3G handover/cell reselection success rate
CPICH is a common downlink pilot channel in 3G
Can be used with 3GPP Rel.5 and later terminals (RSCP criterion is an optional feature for
Rel.99 and Rel.4 terminals)
RCSP gives a better estimate of the 3G uplink performance than the earlier used reselection criterion
CPICH Ec/No alone
Without the use of RSCP criterion, the terminal could directed to a 3G cell with too weak signal
and fluctuating Ec/No which could cause a return back to 2G network
Note: Ec/No gives a good estimate of 3G downlink quality
RSCP value measured by the terminal needs to exceed a certain threshold level managed by BSC,
before the measured 3G cell is added in the measurement report sent back to BSC
WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
Introduction
66 Nokia Siemens Networks 05_RN20111EN13GLN0_ISHO.ppt

WCDMA Neighbour Cell Reporting Enhancement
New parameter
A new reporting parameter FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD_2 is
introduced in Measurement Information and System Information Type
2quater messages on CS domain and in Packet Measurement Order,
Packet Cell Change Order, PSI3quater and PSI5 messages on PS domain.
This new parameter sets threshold value for non-reported CPICH RSCP
measurement quantity of neighbor UTRAN FDD cell. Dual-mode mobile that
supports the FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD_2 parameter does not
report neighbor UTRAN FDD cells that have CPICH RSCP value below the
FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD_2 parameter.
This feature does not change structure of measurement reports and it does
not have influence to ISHO / ISNCCR algorithms of BSC. BSC manages the
new FDD_REPORTING_THRESHOLD_2 parameter and delivers it for dual
mode mobiles.