Camera | Radar | Camera

PRESENTED BYA.

SOUMYA ROLL-107G1A0402


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Speed cameras introduced in west london in 1992. A high speed camera is a device used for recording fast moving objects onto storage media. It uses either a charge-coupled device or CMOS image sensor, recording 1000 frames per second into DRAM. Speed camera uses the basic principle of doppler effect and RADAR technology. Fastest high speed camera has the ability to take pictures at a speed of 200 million frames per second.

shock. live picture set up. and drop tests.       High-speed video cameras offer the advantages of ease of use. and a variety of impact. Other applications include: machine diagnostics destructive testing paper manufacturing and converting. production line trouble shooting . immediate playback capabilities. reusable recording media. and most Importantly.

. Speed camera uses the basic principle of Doppler Effect and RADAR principle.

Sending a fixed frequency signal towards the car and then measuring the efficiency Of returning signal can deduce the car’s speed. Here. fm= frequency of received signal Fe= frequency of transmitted signal V= speed of vehicle α= angle between transmitted signal and path along which vehicle travels .

RADAR GUNS Radar (short for radio and ranging) works by transmitting a pulse of electromagnetic (EM) energy. also referred to as RF energy at a moving object. when a train blows its whistle as it passes you – you can hear the change in pitch of the whistle. Using the Doppler principle the radar gun ‘listens’ to the change in pitch of the radio waves as they reflect off the moving vehicle and thus determines the speed. as the train moves past. Similarly. .

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    DRAM is used for storage of images and data. Stores each bit in separate capacitor. Preferred over SRAM. . Advantage being its structural simplicity.

It is analog device.   It is an image sensor that converts optical image into electrical signals. Charges are converted to voltage one pixel at a time. When light strikes the chip it is held as charge on each photo sensor. .

Range of step angle. where camera moves in discrete steps.  Motion of cameras is dependent on stepper motor.75 to 90 degree.0. .

Using this technique one can stretch one second to more than ten minutes of playback time (super slow motion).97 frames/s. while television uses 25 frames/s or 29. A normal motion picture is filmed and played back at 24 frames per second. The fastest cameras are generally in use in scientific research. and industry. High speed cameras can film up to a quarter of a million frames per second by running the film over a rotating prism or mirror instead of using a shutter. . military test and evaluation. thus reducing the need for stopping and starting the film behind a shutter which would tear the film stock at such speeds.

The systems then 'find' and 'zoom' the license plate area to give crisp. first introduced in Queensland in December 1990. . The systems capture two successive 'scene' images. license plate images that are easily read to maximize successful prosecutions. pixelation-free. The Red Light cameras in are supplied by Redflex. highresolution. and Gatso (the RLC 36M-MC). The second image provides photographic evidence that the vehicle continued into the intersection illegally. The first image records an infringing vehicle that is just about to enter the intersection during the red signal phase and shows the 'red' traffic signal phase.

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Keps drivers in line. Can save lives. reduces average road speed. .   Forces people to slow down and drive at a reasonable speed.

 A problem for high speed cameras is the needed exposure for the film. . so one needs very bright light to be able to film at forty thousand frames per second sometimes leading to the subject of examination being destroyed because of the heat of the lighting.

SVSi’s StreamView™ is a portable battery-powered camera designed for quick and easy set-up in the field that captures 640x480 (VGA) images at 200fps.1. . The minimum shutter speed is 1/100.000 or 10microsecond – fast enough for any sporting event. For sports analysis eg.

but more recently they have had speed guns and automated in-vehicle systems at their disposal. Traditionally the police would have used stopwatches to measure the time taken for a vehicle to cover a known distance. .   Speed limit enforcement is the action taken by appropriately empowered authorities to check that road vehicles are complying with the speed limit in force on roads and highways. Methods used include roadside speed traps set up and operated by the police and automated roadside 'speed camera' systems which may incorporate the use of an automatic number plate recognition system.

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".1. Here are the radar "errors" detailed by the Texas manual: . Anytime a reading appears. a ticket will be wrongfully issued.." If the operator does not detect the error. the radar has sensed a signal. It cautions operators.Moving Radar mistakes: The Texas Department of Public Safety produced a comprehensive manual based on the Federal tests.the radar does not generate 'false' readings.. The radar operator must be familiar with situations that can produce 'error' readings.

"It is a widely-held misconception that the reflected target signal received by the radar antenna will always be that of the closest vehicle to the antenna." The Texas instructors confirm this problem with radar. Texas instructors warn." . that the closest vehicle is not returning the strongest signal. radar is still subject to "look-past" error. saying "It is not unfair to say that the reading you register could be a larger.   Even if the operator aims his antenna properly. better target three-quarters of a mile down the road. This error is all the more insidious because poorlytrained operators assume it can't happen. due to traffic conditions. There are times. This is caused by the radar looking past a small reflection in the foreground to read a larger reflection behind.

in fact. neither bending around curves nor following the contour of hilly terrain. If the antenna is not properly positioned. The radar beam travels in a straight line. it's clocking another car in the background. . it may seem to clock an approaching car when.

i. The way in which the speed cameras are currently used is not to make the driver slow down.e. currently deployed. Used as they hidden away. as. they are penalized and contribute little to road safety directly only generating revenue to pay for their installation and maintenance. These cameras were highly visible then no one would travel by them exceeding the speed limit and they would do their job.    Now we would like to believe that enforcement cameras are there for our on good and make our roads safer. speed camera . obey the speed limit and make the road safe but to catch and penalize the transgressors who may otherwise have slowed down if they have seen as the cameras in advance . . are not so justifiable . In general speed camera are perceived to be good idea because they protect innocent road users and pedestrians.

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