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Parts of Speech

 Nouns name a person, place, thing, or idea.
 (i.e. persons: George Solti, conductor,
musicians, audience. Places: theater,
Symphony Center. Things: instruments,
chairs, podium, music stands. Ideas:
inspiration, joy, cooperation, freedom.)
Singular Plural
 Pronoun: a word used
in place of a noun
(antecedent) or another
pronoun. (i.e. personal First person I, me, my, mine We, us, our, ours

Second person You, your, yours You, your, yours

Third person He, him, she, it, They, them,
his, her, their, theirs
hers, its

A verb is a word used to express an action, a
condition, or a state of being.
The Mexicans fought a French army. (action)
They wanted independence. (action you
cannot see)
Cinco de Mayo is very popular in Mexico City.
Verb Phrases

 A verb phrase is made Forms of is, am, are,
up of a main verb and be: was, were,
one or more helping be, being,
verbs. been
 Common Helping
Verbs: Forms of do, does,
do: did
Helping Verbs continued

Forms of have: has, have, had

Others: may, might, can, should,
could, would, shall, will

 Modifies or limits the meaning of a noun or
Example: We saw the famous singer and
the legendary Carnegie Hall.
 Adjectives answer the questions:
– What Kind, Which One, How Many, How Much?
Proper Adjectives

 American artists Proper Proper
 Japanese lanterns Nouns: Adjectives:
** Fresh, original Portugal Portuguese
adjectives sharpen your
writing where dull
overused adjectives like Egypt Egyptian
good or great leave
your reader North North
uninterested. America American

 Adverbs modify a verb, an adjective, or
another adverb. Examples:
1.We instantly recognized Beethoven’s
Fifth Symphony.
2.The famous notes rang out quite
3.The orchestra waited until the auditorium

grew completely quiet.
Adverbs continued

 Adverbs answer the questions:
– Where?
– When?
– How?
– To what extent?

Many adverbs are formed by adding –ly to
adjectives. Sometimes the spelling changes
because of this addition.
Commonly Used Adverbs:

Afterward Fast Low Often Today

Already Forth More Slow Tomorrow

Also Hard Near Some- Too
Back Instead Next Still Yet

Even Late Not Straight

Far Long Now Then

 Anadverb that defines the degree of an
adjective or another adverb. Intensifiers
always precede the adjectives or adverbs
they are modifying.

(i.e. We were rather surprised that classical
music is very popular.)
Common Adverb-Intensifiers

Extremely Most Quite So Truly

Just Nearly Rather Somewhat Very

More Only Really Too
A preposition shows the relationship between
a noun or an pronoun and another work in a
List of Commonly Used Prepositions

About Before During Off Toward
Above Behind Except On Under
Across Below For Onto Underneath
After Beneath From Out Until
Against Beside In Outside Up
Along Between Inside Over Upon
Among Beyond Into Since With
Around By Like Through Within
As Despite Near Throughout Without
At Down Of To
A conjunction connects words or groups of
words. There are three kinds of conjunctions:
coordinating, correlative, and subordinating.
conjunctive adverbs are adverbs that
function somewhat like conjunctions.
Coordinating Conjunctions:

 Connect words or
groups of words of
equal importance in a

and but for nor

or so yet
Correlative Conjunctions:

 These are word pairs
that serve to join words
or groups or words.

both…and neither… nor whether… or

either… or not only… but
Subordinating Conjunctions:

 Introduce subordinate
clauses-- clauses that
cannot stand alone--
and join them to
independent clauses.

After As though If So that When
Although Because Provided Than Where
As Before Since Unless Whereas
As if Even In order Until While
though that
Conjunctive Adverbs:

 Used to express
relationships between
independent clauses.

Accordingly Consequently Hence nevertheless Still
Also Finally However Otherwise Therefore
Besides furthermore Instead Similarly Thus
A word or a phrase used to express emotion.
 Usually set apart from the rest of the
sentence by either a ! Or a ,
Yikes! Our project is due tomorrow.
Well, where should we start?
Common Interjections:

*A strong interjection is

 Ouch
 Aha followed by an
 Gee exclamation point. A
 Boy mile interjection is set off
 Imagine by commas.
 Unbelievable