This construction work in progress in trichi. thermal. In advanced countries MHD generators are widely used but in developing countries like India it is still under Construction.geothermal energy & from magnato hydrodynamic(mhd) generators. is hydral. The field of MHD was initiated by Hannes Alfvén. Associate cement corporation(ACC) & Russian technologists .under joint efforts of BARC(Bhaba Atomic Research Centre). for which he got the Nobel Prize in 1970. MHD power generation is a new system of electric power generation which is said to be of high efficiency and low pollution.Eighty percent of total electricity is produced in the world.solar.while remaining 20% is produced from nuclear. in tamilnadu.

in which heat is taken up at a higher temperature is partly converted into use full work and the remainder is rejected at a lower temperature.An MHD generators converting heat energy of a fuel directly into electrical energy without conventional electric generator. . In this system. the thermal efficiency of an MHD converter is increased by supplying the heat at the highest practical temperature and rejecting it at the lowest practical temperature. an MHD converter system is a heat engine.Like all heat engines.

. An electric conductor moving through a magnetic field experiences a retarding force as well as an induced electric field and current. This is the principle of the conventional generator where the Conductors consists of copper strips. In MHD generator the solid conductors are replaced by gaseous conductor.When an electric conductor moves across a magnetic field a voltage is Induced in it which produces an electric current. an ionized gas. a current is generated and extracted by placing electrode in a suitable position in the steam. If such a gas is passed at a high velocity through a powerful magnetic field. The principle can be explained as follows.


Where. u=velocity of the conductor B=Magnetic field intensity The induced current is given by. =electric conductivity The retarding force on the conductor is Lorentz force given by .The effect is a result of faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction The induced emf is given by Where.

If the flow direction is right angles to the magnetic field direction . an electromotive force (or electric voltage) is induced in the right direction at right angles to both to both flow & field direction.The electromagnetic is the principle not limited to solid conductors . it is called the MAGNATO HYDRODYNAMIC(MHD) . as shown in the next slide.energy conversion. . The movement of a conducting fluid through a magnetic field can also generate electrical energy. When a fluid is used for the energy conversion technique.



The end view drawing illustrates the construction of the flow of channel. The presence of the negatively charged electrons make the carrier gas an electrical conductor.The conducting fluid is forced between the plates with a kinetic energy & pressure differential sufficient to overcome the magnetic induction Force Find. The atoms of seed element split off electrons. Ionization is produced either by thermal means i.e. . by an elevated temperature or by seeding with substance like cesium or potassium vapours which ionize at relatively low temperatures. An ionized gas is employed as a conducting fluid.

Thus the MHD systems can be classified broadly as follows: 1) Open cycle system 2)Close cycle system a)Seeded inert gas system b) Liquid metal system .

generally potassium carbonate is injected in to the combustion chamber .Fuel use may be oil through an oil tank or gasified coal through a coal gasification plant. oil or natural gas ) is burnt in the combustor. combustion chamber. The fuel(coal . The seed material . The hot gases from combustor is then seeded with a small amount of an ionized alkali metal(cesium or potassium ) to increase the electrical conductivity of the gas. the potassium is then ionized by the hot combustion gases at temperature roughly (2300-2700 °c) .


the random motion energy of the molecules in the hot gas is largely converted into directed. . Thus the gas emerges from the nozzle and enters the MHD generator units at a high velocity. little or no preheating is then required. An alternative is use to compressed oxygen alone for combustion of fuel.the compressed air used to burn the coal in the combustion chamber .To attain such high temperature .A lower preheat temperature would be adequate if the air where enriched in oxygen. The hot pressurized working fluid living the combustor flows through the convergent divergent nozzle. mass of energy. In passing through the nozzle . The additional cost of the oxygen might be balanced by saving on the preheater.must be adequate at least 1100°c.

The hot gas expands through the rocket like generator surrounded by powerful magnet. The arrangement of the electrode connection is determined by the need to reduce loss arising from the Hall effect. . By this effect the magnetic field. acts on the MHD generated current and produces a voltage in flow direction of the working fluid rather than at right angles to it.The MHD generator is divergent channel made of heat resistant alloy with external water cooling . During motion of the gas the +ve & -ve ions move to the electrode and constitute an electric current .

1) Electrical thermal conductivity is maintain in the working fluid by Ionization of a seed material. 2) A liquid metal provides the conductivity. The working fluid is helium or argon with cesium seeding. all through a liquid carrier is been used with a liquid metal conductor. as in open cycle system. The carrier is usually a chemical inert gas. . The working fluid is circulated in a closed loop and is heated by the combustion gases using a heat exchanger .Hence the heat sources & the working fluid are independent.Two general type of closed cycle MHD generators are being investigated.


this is the heat rejection stage of the cycle. the heat is transferred in to a carrier gas argon or helium of the MHD cycle. . the compressed gas then expand in the MHD generator & its pressure & temperature fall. After leaving the generator. Finally the gas is recompressed & return for reheating. Coal is gasified & the gas burn in a combustor to provide heat. On the left it is external heating loop.In a closed cycle system the carrier gas operates in a form of Brayton cycle. In the primary heat exchanger . In a closed system the gas is compressed & the heat is supplied by the source. The complete system has three distinct but interlocking loops. The combustion pressure after passing through the air preheater & purifier are discharge to the atmosphere. At essentially constant pressure.heat is removed from the gas by a cooler.

if necessary prior to discharge through a stack to the atmosphere. The hot argon gas is seeding with cesium & resulting working fluid is passed through the MHD generator at high speed. so also are the ash & the flue gases. Then the fuel gases are used to preheat the combustion air & then treated for fly ash and SO2 removal. The dc power out of MHD generator is converted in ac by the inverter & is then fed into the grid. The loop in the centre is MHD loop. .Because the combustion system is separate from the working fluid. hence the problem of extracting the seed material from the fly ash does not arise.

The working fluid is introduced into the MHD generator through a nozzle in usual ways. an inert gas is convenient carrier. . the carrier gas then provides the required high direct velocity of the electrical conductor.When a liquid metal provides the electrical conductivity. The hot gas is then incorporated into the liquid metal usually hot sodium to form the working fluid. The carrier gas is pressurized & heated by passage through a heat exchanger with an combustion chamber. The latter then consists of gas bubbles uniformly dispersed in an approximately equal volume of liquid sodium.


even under moderate pressure is below 900°c. but the max thermal efficiency is lower. with a boiling point near 1300°c as the electrical conductor lithium is much more expensive then sodium. but losses in a closed system may be small. compressed & returned to the combustion chamber for reheating & mixing with recovered liquid metal. . Finally the carrier gas is cooled. The lower operating temp then in other MHD conversion systems may be advantageous for the material stand point. the liquid metal is separated from the carrier gases.After passage through the generator. Part of the heat remaining in the gas is transferred into water in a heat exchanger to produce steam for operating a turbine generator . A possible compromise might be to use liquid lithium. The working fluid temp is usually around 800° c as the boiling point of sodium.

1) The conversion efficiency of a MHD system can be around 50 percent As compared to less than 40 percent for the most efficient steam plants. so more reliable. 5)It has ability to produces power free of pollution 6)The size of the plant is considerably smaller than conventional fossil fuel plants . with the Improvements in experience & technology. 4)The closed systems produces power free pollution. 2)Large amount of power is generated 3)It has no moving parts. Still higher thermal efficiencies (60-65%)are expected in future.

The reduced fuel consumption would offer additional economic & special benefits and also lead to conservation of energy sources. 10)These system permits better fuel utilization . This elimination reduces losses of energy . 8)It has been estimated that over hall operational .cost in an MHD plant would be about 20% less than the conventional steam plants. has the capability of generating in large units & has the ability to make rapid start to full load. 11)It is possible to utilize MHD for peak power generation & emergency services(up to 100 years per year) It has been estimated the MHD equipments for such duties is simpler . yet it has been reported that capital costs of MHD plants will be competitive with those of conventional steam plants. 9) Direct conversion of heat in to electricity permits to eliminate the gas turbine(compared with a gas turbine power plant) or both the boiler & the turbine (compared with a still power plant). .7)Although the cost cannot be predicted very accurately.

2) The material used in the MHD power plant doesn’t withstand in high temperatures. .1) Heavy losses in the power electrode in MHD power plant.

The technology of MHD power generation is poised for a big leap and as a major contender for future plant scheme. In India the department of science and the technology has sponsored a research and development programme in the field of coal based MHD generator. It has a lot of power still to get researched out but could be a future energy resource in the coming years. .In this topic we had a brief overview on the operation and related aspects of Magneto Hydrodynamic Generation.

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