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TWI CSWIP 3.

1 WIS 5 WELDING INSPECTION CONSUMABLES IDENTIFICATION & CONTROL SECTION 14


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WELDING CONSUMABLES.
FILLER RODS or FILLER WIRES:
Consumables added separately to the weld pool.

ELECTRODES:
Consumables which are part of the welding circuit, providing one end of the arc.

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WELDING CONSUMABLES
All those things used up in the production of a weld Though generally, we refer to those elements that are used in a specific welding process i.e:

Electrodes, Wires, Fluxes and Gases

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WELDING CONSUMABLES
welding fluxes (SAW) TIG/PAW rods

cored wire

SAW strips

MIG/MAG solid wire covered electrodes

SAW solid wire welding gases (MIG/MAG, FCAW, TIG)


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Courtesy of ESAB AB

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COVERED ELECTRODES.
THREE GENERIC TYPES OF ELECTRODE COVERING:

RUTILE CELLULOSIC BASIC

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COVERED ELLECTRODE PACKAGES


Plastic foil sealed cardboard box rutile electrodes general purpose basic electrodes acid electrodes Tin can cellulosic electrodes
Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Vacuum sealed pack extra low hydrogen electrodes


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Covered electrode inspection


1: Electrode size (diameter and length)

2: Covering condition: adherence, cracks, chips and concentricity

3: Electrode classification /designation


EN 499-E46 3 1Ni B
Iron powder Ease arc ignition & reduce stop/start porosity (optional!)

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Covered electrode treatment


Rutile. General purpose electrodes. Cellulosic: Developed for positional welding in the vertical down position. Stove pipe welding. Keep dry. May be dried up to 120C- No baking! Use straight from the box Do Not require baking or drying! May require baking to achieve low hydrogen content! Vacuum packed used straight from box within 4 hours.

Basic. Low hydrogen electrodes. Used for high quality welds.


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Type of coverings
Rutile covering: are based on titanium oxide

easy to strike arc, less spatter, easy to remove slag, excellent for positional welding
produce finely rippled regular welds; also concave fillet welds increase fatigue life! can be dried needs a reasonable proportion of combined water to keep the covering intact if moisture is driven off, the binding of the flux will suffer hydrogen content is 25-30 ml/100 g of weld metal
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Type of coverings
Cellulosic covering: flour and wood pulp are common constituents weld metal has a very high hydrogen content resultant slag layer is thin

coarse weld profile


excellent penetration can weld on vertical down position fast travel speed! does not require baking or drying (excessive heat will damage electrode covering!) restricted to stove pipe welding! hydrogen content is 80-90 ml/100 g of weld metal
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Type of coverings
Basic covering: contain calcium compounds like calcium fluoride and calcium carbonate a.k.a. lime-coated basic refers to the chemical behaviour of the flux can contain iron powder increased efficiency (but less slag poor positional capabilities!) have the lowest level of hydrogen (less than 5 ml/100 g of weld metal) needs baking to perform correctly (at approximately 350C for 2,5 hours; see also manufacturer recommendations!) after baking, maintain at minimum 120C to prevent moisture pick-up cannot be rebaked indefinitely!
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Covered electrode treatment


Baking oven need temperature control
requires calibration

Heated quivers only for maintaining of electrodes after baking


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Covered electrode treatment


Basic electrodes Baking in oven 2,5 hours at 350C!

Limited number of rebakes!

After baking, maintain in oven at 150C

If not used within 4 hours, return to oven and rebake!


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Use from quivers at 75C

Weld

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FUNCTIONS OF THE FLUX.


CAN BE SUMMARISED AS: 1. Provides a gas shield to protect the molten pool from atmospheric contamination. 2. Provides a slag which gives additional shielding to the weld pool. The slag also slows down cooling. 3. Improves the physical properties of the arc. Additives improve arc initiation, stability and ease of use. 4. Weld metal alloys can be introduced to improve metallurigal properties of the weld and increase electrode efficiency.
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Electrode efficiency
up to 180% for iron powder electrodes

mass of metal deposited Electrode efficiency mass of core wire melted

75-90% for usual electrodes


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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


Compulsory
S. T. C.

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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


Optional

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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


Compulsory Optional

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BS EN 499 MMA Covered Electrodes


E 46 3 1Ni B 5 4 H5
Covered Electrode

Yield Strength N/mm2 Tensile Strength N/mm2


Toughness Chemical composition

Flux Covering Weld Metal Recovery and Current Type Welding Position
Hydrogen Content
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CONSUMABLES .

QUESTIONS ?

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BSEN 499 Question 1.


Describe each part of the following types of electrode; E 38 0 C E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5 E 42 2 R 1 3 H15

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BSEN 499 Question 1. Answer


Describe each part of the following types of electrode; E 38 0 C E Electrode 38 Strength, Yield, UTS, Elongation. 0 Impact Properties. (47 joules @ 0C) No symbol Chemical composition 2.0Mn C Covering Cellulosic E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5 E 42 2 R 1 3 H15
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BSEN 499 Question 1. Answer


E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5 E - Electrode 50 Strength, Yield, UTS, Elongation. 4 Impact Properties. (47 joules @ -40C) 2Ni Chemical composition.(1.4Mn,1.8 -2.6Ni) B Covering Basic 2 Weld metal recovery & type of current 1 Position H5 Hydrogen content E 42 2 R 1 3 H15
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BSEN 499 Question 1. Answer


E 42 2 R 1 3 H15

E - Electrode 42 Strength, Yield, UTS, Elongation. 2 Impact Properties. (47 joules @ -20C) No symbol Chemical composition.(2.0Mn) R Covering Rutile 1 Weld metal recovery & type of current 3 Position

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BSEN 499 Question 2.


Which, if any of the following types of electrode would require baking? E 38 0 C E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5

E 42 2 R 1 3 H15

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BSEN 499 Question 2. Answer.


Which, if any of the following types of electrode would require baking? E 38 0 C Cellulosic No baking

E 50 4 2Ni B 2 1 H5 Basic Will require baking E 42 2 R 1 3 H15 Rutile Keep dry but no baking
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BSEN 499 Question 3.

What is meant by S.T.C. ?

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BSEN 499 Question 3.


STC STRENGTH. TOUGHNESS. COVERING.

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AWS A5.1 electrode designation

E 7018

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AWS A5.1 Electrodes


E 70 1 8
Covered Electrode Tensile Strength (p.s.i) Welding Position

Flux Covering & Electrical Characteristics


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AWS A5.5 electrode designation

E 8016 -D3

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AWS A5.5 Alloyed Electrodes


E 80 1 6 D3
Covered Electrode

Tensile Strength (p.s.i)


Welding Position Flux Covering

Alloy Content
1.5%Mn/0.5%Mo
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BSEN 499 Question .


Would a change of electrode from one classified to BSEN 499 as E 46 3 1Ni B to an electrode classified to AWS A5.1 as E 7018 be considered as an essential variable for;

A Welding Procedure Qualification Test


A Welder Qualification Test

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BSEN 499 Question .


A Welding Procedure Qualification Test An essential variable

A Welder Qualification Test A non-essential variable as both electrodes are basic

Welder qualification test based on degree of difficulty.

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AWS Question 1.
Which of the following AWS classified electrodes have cellulose coatings? E6010 E7016 E7012 E6011 E6013 E7018 E9010 - G
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ANSWER AWS Question 1.


Which of the following AWS classified electrodes have cellulose coatings? E6010- Cellulosic E7016 - Basic E7012 Rutile Wrong value for UTS E6011 - Cellulosic E6013 Rutile E7018 Basic E9010 G Cellulosic - Classified to AWS A5.5
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SAW filler material


Wire/flux combination designation acc. BS EN 756: Type of welding flux Tensile properties

Standard number

EN 756 - S 46 3 AB S2
Wire electrode and/or wire/flux combination Impact properties Chemical composition of wire electrode
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SAW filler material


Wire/flux combination designation acc. AWS A-5.17: Temperature for impact test Minimum UTS of weld metal (10 ksi) Standard number

AWS A-5.17 F 6 A 2-EM12K 2 EM12K


SAW welding flux

Heat treatment conditions


Chemical composition of wire electrode
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SAW Fluxes
Agglomerated

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SAW Fluxes
Fused

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CONSUMABLES .

QUESTIONS ?

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Other filler material treatment


Welding flux:
might be fused or agglomerated supplied in bags must be kept warm and dry handling and stacking requires care
Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Fused fluxes are normally not hygroscopic but particles can hold surface moisture so only drying
Agglomerated fluxes contain chemically bonded water. Similar treatment as basic electrodes

If flux is too fine it will pack and not feed properly. It cannot be recycled indefinitely
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BSEN 440 MAG filler material


Wire designation acc. BS EN 440: Type of shielding gas Tensile properties

Standard number

EN 440 - G 46 3 M G3Si1
Weld deposit produced by gas shielded metal arc welding Impact properties Type of wire electrode
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AWS MAG filler material


Wire designation acc. AWS A-5.18: Chemical composition of the solid wire or of the weld metal in case of composite electrodes Minimum UTS of weld metal (ksi) Standard number

AWS A-5.18 ER 70 S-6 S-6


Designate an electrode/rod (ER) or only an electrode (E) Solid (S) or composite (C) wire
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Other filler material treatment


Consumable inserts:
used for root runs on pipes used in conjunction with TIG welding available for carbon steel, Cr-Mo steel, austenitic stainless steel, nickel and copper-nickel alloys different shapes to suit application

Radius
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Gases
supplied in cylinders

colour coded to minimise wrong use


subject to regulations concerned handling, quantities and positioning of storage areas moisture content is limited to avoid cold cracking Dew point (the temperature at which the vapour begins to condense) must be checked

storage tanks for large quantities


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BS EN 10204-Type of documents
Non-specific inspection documents Type 2.1 Name: Declaration of compliance with the order Content: statement of compliance with the order (doesnt include test results!) Who validate it - the manufacturer
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Type 2.2
Name: Test report Content: statement of compliance with the order (include test results!) Who validate it - the manufacturer

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BS EN 10204-Type of documents
Specific inspection documents

Type 3.1

Type 3.2

Name: Inspection certificate 3.1 Content: statement of compliance with the order (include specific test results!) Who validate it - the manufacturer inspection (independent of manufacturing department!)

Name: Inspection certificate 3.2 Content: statement of compliance with the order (include specific test results!) Who validate it - the manufacturer inspection (independent of manufacturing department!) + purchasers/official designated authorised inspector

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Quality assurance
filler material must be stored in an area with controlled temperature and humidity

poor handling and incorrect stacking may damage coatings, rendering the electrodes unusable
there should be an issue and return policy for welding consumables (system procedure) control systems for electrode treatment must be checked and calibrated; those operations must be recorded filler material suppliers must be approved before purchasing any material
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Other filler material treatment


Welding flux: must be kept warm and dry handling and stacking requires care

fused fluxes are normally not hygroscopic but particles can hold surface moisture only drying
agglomerated fluxes contain chemically bonded water similar treatment as basic electrodes for high quality, agglomerated fluxes can be recycled with new flux added if flux is too fine it will pack and not feed properly cannot be recycled indefinitely
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Other filler material treatment


Ceramic backing: used to support the weld pool on root runs usually fitted on an aluminium self adhesive tape allow increased welding current without danger of burn-through increased productivity, consistent quality different profiles to suit different applications no backing/drying required
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Other filler material treatment


Welding wires: supplied on wire/plastic spools or coils

random or line winding

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

plastic spool

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

wire spool

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

coil

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Other filler material treatment


Welding wires: carbon and low alloy wires are copper coated stainless steel wires are not coated

wires must be kept clean and free from oil and dust flux cored wires does not require baking or drying
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Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of ESAB AB

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Other filler material treatment


How to check the quality of welding wires:
Cast diameter Helix size - limited to 25 mm to avoid problems with arc wandering!

Cast diameter improves the contact force and define the contact point; usually 4001200 mm

Contact point close to contact tip end - GOOD!


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Contact point remote from contact tip end - POOR!

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Other filler material treatment


Welding rods: supplied in cardboard/plastic tubes

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

must be kept clean and free from oil and dust


might require degreasing

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Other filler material treatment


Application of consumable inserts

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Covered electrode treatment


Cellulosic and acid electrodes Use straight from the box - No baking/drying! If necessary, dry up to 120C- No baking!

Rutile electrodes

Vacuum packed basic electrodes

Use straight from the pack within 4 hours No rebaking!

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Other filler material treatment


Welding flux: might be fused, agglomerated or mixed supplied in bags/pails (approx. 25 kg) or bulk bags (approx. 1200 kg)

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric


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Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

Courtesy of Lincoln Electric

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Inspection of consumables
Why? How?
Non-specific inspection carried out by the manufacturer in accordance with its own procedures the products inspected are NOT necessarily the products supplied!
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To assess whether the products are in compliance with the requirements of the order or not see BS EN 10204 Specific inspection carried out before delivery in accordance to product specification inspection is performed on the products to be supplied or on test units of which the products supplied are part

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Moisture pick-up

Moisture pick-up as a function of: temperature humidity


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Type of coverings
Acid covering: contains large quantities of iron oxide - need deoxidants to preserve mechanical properties of the weld deposit (especially toughness!) the slag cannot remove impurities from the weld pool susceptible to solidification cracking! high in hydrogen susceptible to cold cracking! produces flat and smooth welds, with deep penetration fast freezing/easy to detach slag used for positional welding does not require backing or drying limited use due to poor mechanical properties!
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