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INTRODUCTION

• Nanorobot is intended for treatment and/or
of medicinal problems like:
 Tumors
 Asteriosclerosis
 Blood clots
 Accumulation of scar tissue
Construction
 Size
 Methods of entry
 Means of propulsion
 Control device
 Power source
 Removal of device afterwards
Factors to consider
How to
 Introduce the device into body
 Move the device around the body
 Know where the device should go
 Control the device
 Power the device
 Know what must be done
 Remove the device
How to introduce the device into
the body
we are gaining access through
circulatory system
 Smaller the machine the better
 Accessing through large diameter artery.
How to access the device
around the body
we are gaining access through
circulatory system
Possibilities:
 Must be carried to site of operation
 Must be propelled
Carrying to site of operation
It is done by normal blood flow
Limits
 Cannot be used in tumors and blood clots
 Cannot be made stagnant
Must be propelled
Requirement
The device must be able to
 move at a practical speed against the flow of blood.
 move when blood is pooling rather than flowing steadily.
 move in surges, so as to be able to get through the heart
without being stuck, in the case of emergencies.
 to react to changes in blood flow rate so as to maintain
position, or somehow anchor itself to the body so as to
remain unmoving while operating.
 change direction laterally, so as to navigate the
bloodstream.
Methods of propulsion

• PROPELLER-
Electric motor of size 1/64th of an inch
on a side
Use shrouded blade design to avoid
damage to surrounding tissue
It is simple, well understood and exists
exists since 1960.
How do we know where
the device should go
Sensor is used to locate position of
microrobot
They are of two types-
internal
external
Internal sensor
• It is used to navigate site of unwanted
tissue.
• It is used to distinguish between healthy &
unwanted tissue.
External sensor
Used to
 determine location of operation site.
 gain a idea of where the microrobot is in
relation
to that tissue.
There are many techniques like
 Ultrasonic
 MRI
 IR
Ultrasonic

 in active mode, a ultrasonic beam is
beamed into the body, reflected back
and received signal is processed.
 In passive mode, a ultrasonic signal of
very specific pattern is generated by
microrobot.
IR rays
 In passive mode, various tissues in body
generate signals & can be detected &
interpreted by external sensor.
 In the active mode, a signal is generated
from outside the body .It is allowed to
reflect from/pass through tissues and the
result is interpreted.
 The IR technique is more practical.
How do we control the device
By means of internal sensor
They are of two types:
used to find final navigation
used during actual operation.
How do we control the device
They are of following technique
chemical
spectroscopic
UHF
spectroscopic
 It involves taking continuous small
samples of surrounding tissues &
analyzing them for appropriate chemicals.
 Done by laser diode/electric arc to
vaporize small amount of tissues.
 Side effects are minimum.
 Power requirement can be met by
capacitors.
 Equipment has no moving parts.
Means of treatment
There are different types
 Break clump of substance & eliminate it.
 Destroy the substance and allow body to
eliminate.
 Use microrobot to physically remove the
unwanted tissue.
Physical removal
 Destroys the unwanted tissue in site
 Avoids damaging the cancerous cells &
releasing chemicals.

Ultrasonic-
the frequency of energy could be applied
at specific frequency. needed to disrupt
specific chemical bond.
It destroys tumor producing chemicals.
Heat
use heat to destroy cancerous cells
 high level of heat is applied for a short time

Microwave
 It is designed to generate US signal & convert it
into heat & kill the cancerous cells.
From above a microrobot that can have several
“treatment modules” is preferred.
power
It is of 2 types.
 source within the body
 source external to the body

source within the body
 Body heat-uses body heat to power the
microrobot.
 The problem is that it requires energy gradient
function.
Power from bloodstream
 microrobot has electrodes mounted on
outer casing that combines with blood
stream to form battery.
 Powered by means of fuel cell
 Carry the required amount of energy using
nuclear power source.
External source
 Physical connection
wire is used.
wire must be flexible.
wire must be thin
 The power source must be
electricity
light
 Electricity
needs a return path
heating of wire is inevitable.
 Light
uses fiber optic cable.
brittleness of wire must be taken into
account.
 Electricity is better option.
No physical connection
 Ultrasonic-antenna is fixed in microrobot
ultrasonic energy is beamed into the body
& converted to electricity.
 Induced magnetic-body is surrounded by
magnetic field
Field induces current within a rotating
closed conducting loop in microrobot.
Pinpoint heat source can be obtained.
Control system
 Need to steer microrobot to where the
sensor says
 Need to know where to go
 Need to know the route
 Need to apply treatment effectively.
 Need to reach outlet from body.
Applications
 Kidney stones- by introducing microrobot
into urethra we can break the stone
directly.
 Liverstone- by introducing microrobot into
bile duct we can break the stone directly.
 Burn & wound debriding-microrobot can
be used to clean wound & burns. it is used
to remove dirt & foreign particles.
conclusion
• most or all of the engineering technologies to create a
series of practical and effective microrobots already
exist. Rather than keep our eyes fixed on the far future,
let us start now by creating some actual working devices
that will allow us to cure some of the most deadly
ailments known, as well as advance our capabilities
directly, rather than as the side effects of other
technologies. A concerted development effort could have
a working model of the microrobot ready within a year or
two, and this would certainly advance the development
of nanotechnology.