What is cancer?
Cells in the body normally divide in a very controlled fashion. In cancer, the genetic material found in each cell is damaged for some reason, and causes the cell to lose the ability to divide in a controlled way, and the cell begins to divide uncontrollably. The abnormal cells accumulate into a tumor, and have the potential to spread cancerous cells to other organs (a process known as metastasis or spread). This metastatic process is what leads to death from cancer. The epidemiology of cancer is the study of the factors affecting cancer.

and do not invade or metastasize. which are self-limited. diagnosis. and sometimes metastasis (spread to other locations in the body via lymph or blood). These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors . The branch of medicine concerned with the study. invasion (intrusion on and destruction of adjacent tissues).What is cancer?    Cancer (medical term: malignant neoplasm ) is a class of diseases in which a group of cells display uncontrolled growth ( division beyond the normal limits). and prevention of cancer is oncology . treatment.

specifically solid neoplasm. does not invade other tissues and does not form metastases . In current English. lump or mass. it meant any abnormal swelling. • Malignant neoplasm or malignant tumor synonymous with cancer . Neoplasms can be benign or malignant. the word tumor has become synonymous with neoplasm.Terminology • Tumor or tumour: originally. • Neoplasm : The scientific term to describe an abnormal proliferation of genetically altered cells. • Benign neoplasm or benign tumor : a tumor (solid neoplasm) that stops growing by itself. however.

• Screening : a test done on healthy people to detect tumors before they become apparent. • Pre-malignancy . pre-cancer or non-invasive tumor: A neoplasm that is not invasive but has the potential to progress to cancer (become invasive) if left untreated. • A mammogram is a screening test. • These lesions are.Terminology • Invasive tumor is another synonym of cancer . . The name refers to invasion of surrounding tissues. in order of increasing potential for cancer.

Terminology • Diagnosis : The confirmation of the cancerous nature of a lump. • Surgical excision : The removal of a tumor by a surgeon . • Surgical margins : The evaluation by a pathologist of the edges of the tissue removed by the surgeon to determine if the tumor was removed completely ("negative margins") or if tumor was left behind ("positive margins"). • This usually requires a biopsy or removal of the tumor by surgery . followed by examination by a pathologist . .

• Stage : a number (usually on a scale of 4) established by the oncologist to describe the degree of invasion of the body by the tumor. . • Recurrence : new tumors that appear at the site of the original tumor after surgery.Terminology • Grade : a number (usually on a scale of 3) established by a pathologist to describe the degree of resemblance of the tumor to the surrounding benign tissue. • Metastasis : new tumors that appear far from the original tumor.

• Adjuvant therapy: treatment. • Alternatively. • Radiation therapy : treatment with radiations. It is usually expressed as a probability of survival five years after diagnosis. given after surgery to kill the remaining cancer cells. either chemotherapy or radiation therapy. it can be expressed as the number of years when 50% of the patients are still alive. • Prognosis : the probability of cure after the therapy.Terminology • Chemotherapy : treatment with drugs. .

• Blastic tumor or blastoma : A tumor (usually malignant) which resembles an immature or embryonic tissue. in fetuses. . in horses most often found at the poll (base of the skull).Classification • Carcinoma : Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells. In adults most often found in the testicle and ovary . and young children most often found on the body midline. particularly at the tip of the tailbone. • Lymphoma and leukemia : Malignancies derived from hematopoietic ( blood -forming) cells • Germ cell tumor : Tumors derived from tot potent cells. This group represents the most common cancers. or mesenchymal cells. prostate . babies. lung and colon cancer . including the common forms of breast . Many of these tumors are most common in children. • Sarcoma : Malignant tumors derived from connective tissue .

the adjective ductal refers to the appearance of the cancer under the microscope. the English organ name is used. a cancer of the fat cells is called liposarcoma . with the Latin or Greek word for the organ of origin as the root. a cancer of the liver is called hepatocarcinoma .Classification • Malignant tumors (cancers) are usually named using carcinoma . . the most common type of breast cancer is called ductal carcinoma of the breast or mammary ductal carcinoma . resembling normal breast ducts. -sarcoma or -blastoma as a suffix. • For instance. • For common cancers. • For instance. • Here.

• For instance. a benign tumor of the smooth muscle of the uterus is called leiomyoma (the common name of this frequent tumor is fibroid ). • Unfortunately. . examples being melanoma and seminoma.Classification • Benign tumors (which are not cancers) are named using -oma as a suffix with the organ name as the root. some cancers also use the -oma suffix.

8 %) .Lung (17.4%) Colorectal Cancer(9.8%) Stomach (10.4%) Death from cancer .10 million diagnosed 6 million die Worldwide .Problem Statement: • • • • • • • World Every year.3 %) Breast Cancer(10.Lung Cancer (12.4%) Liver (8.

4 % of all deaths – cancer • 7 lakh new cases detected every year • Males .Problem Statement: • India 3.Cervix Breast mouth/oropharynx oesophagus .mouth/oropharynx oesophagus stomach Lower respiratory tract • Females .

CAUSES OF CANCER • • • • • • • • • Environmental Genetic Tobacco Alcohol Dietary Factors Occupational exposures Viruses. Parasites Customs . drugs. pollution.. Lifestyles Others – sunlight.Eg .Retinoblastoma in Children • Leukemia in Mongols .habits.

larynx. • Decades of research has demonstrated the link between tobacco use and cancer in the lung. stomach.Smoking and Tobacco: • The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking. neck. bladder. • Tobacco smoke contains over fifty known carcinogens. including nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons . . oesophagus and pancreas. kidney. head.

• However. and about one in five worldwide. • Indeed.CONTINUE…. more recently. the numbers of smokers worldwide is still rising. decreases in smoking followed by decreases in lung cancer death rates in men. • Tobacco is responsible for about one in three of all cancer deaths in the developed world. leading to what some organizations have described as the tobacco epidemic . with increases in smoking followed by dramatic increases in lung cancer death rates and. lung cancer death rates in the United States have mirrored smoking patterns.

• The main viruses associated with human cancers are human papillomavirus . viral infection. hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus.Viral or bacterial infection: • Some cancers can be caused by infection with pathogens . .

. • Although only a minority of those infected with Helicobacter go on to develop cancer.CONTINUE…. • The most prominent example is the link between chronic infection of the wall of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer . since this pathogen is quite common it is probably responsible for the majority of these cancers..

Signs and symptoms .

• Blood loss from any natural orifice • A swelling that does not get better • Unexplained loss of weight . • A change in wart or mole A persistent change in bowel habits • A persistent cough or hoarseness • Excessive loss during menstrual periods or loss of blood outside usual dates.Danger Signals: • A lump or a hard area in breast.

• Risk factors : Tobacco . • Cancer cervix: Most common cancer of women – developing countries. Cultural patterns.PREVALENCE • Oral cancer: 50 – 70% of all cancers diagnosed in india . • Stomach Cancer • Breast Cancer: commonest cause of death of middle aged women-developed countries (35 – 50 yrs). Precancerous lesions. . Causative agent – HPV • Lung cancer: Most common cancer in the world. Alcohol.

treatment of pre-malignant lesions). leading to the claim that cancer is a largely preventable disease • By avoiding carcinogens or altering their metabolism .CANCER CONTROL: • Cancer prevention is defined as active measures to decrease the incidence of cancer. pursuing a lifestyle or diet that modifies cancer-causing factors and/or medical intervention ( chemoprevention . . • The vast majority of cancer risk factors are environmental or lifestyle-related in nature.

• OR • secondary prevention .CANCER CONTROL: • The epidemiological concept of "prevention" is usually defined as either primary prevention . . aimed at reducing recurrence or complications of a previously diagnosed illness. for people who have not been diagnosed with a particular disease.

• In 2006. which together cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. called Gardasil . . Food and Drug Administration approved a human papilloma virus vaccine.Primary prevention: • Advances in cancer research have made a vaccine designed to prevent cancer available. • The vaccine protects against four HPV types.S. the U.

and indicated that females as young as age 9 and as old as age 26 are also candidates for immunization. the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) officially recommended that females aged 11– 12 receive the vaccine.Primary prevention: • In March 2007. .

more definitive and invasive follow up tests are performed to confirm the diagnosis. • If signs of cancer are detected. • Methods: Mass Screening by comprehensive cancer detection examination.Cancer Screening: • Cancer screening is an attempt to detect unsuspected cancers in an asymptomatic population. safe. noninvasive procedures with acceptably low rates of false positive results. • Mass Screening at single sites • Selective screening . • Screening tests suitable for large numbers of healthy people must be relatively affordable.for those at special risk • Pre malignant lesion can be identified • Most cancers are localized in initial stages 75% occurs at accessible body sites .

. • Early diagnosis may lead to extended life. • Palpation • Mammography. • A number of different screening tests have been developed for different malignancies. but may also falsely prolong the lead time to death. • Breast cancer screening can be done by • Breast self-examination .Screening: • Screening for cancer can lead to earlier diagnosis in specific cases.