PROTECTIVE COUNTERMEASURES

VIPPSC 10-13

TERRORIST SURVEILLANCE
• Although the goals of surveillance remain constant, the means by which surveillance is conducted differ depending on who is interested in you or your protectee. • The terrorist organization is interested in daily routine. • Establishing an individual’s schedule can provide terrorists with valuable information, such as the time the target leaves for work, what route is taken and the kind of vehicle driven.

The Terrorist always needs to be one step ahead of security
• If the agent has an armored vehicle the terrorist should have an armor-defeating weapon, such as a rocketpropelled grenade (RPG) or a light, anti-tank weapon (LAW). • The terrorist surveillance group looks for predictable patterns which determine a logical place to stage an attack. • The terrorist understands choke points. • The protective detail is presented with greater challenges near the protectee’s residence and work place since the potential attacker knows that the target must be at either one of these two locations at some point during the day.

To confuse surveillance team, change:
• Routes; • Times of departure and arrival

• Vehicles (stealth or dummy convoy);
• Number of vehicles in convoy; and • Configuration of convoy.

. • All surveillance/counter-surveillance should be immediately reported to the detail leader to determine its threat level.• All protective detail must vary as much inaccurate information as possible. while continuing to provide comprehensive surveillance/countersurveillance. • Terrorists usually employ newer members to conduct initial surveillance as part of their test mission.

. if one of these new operatives are captured by police they will have little.• These individuals often are not trained in surveillance tactics and. if any. are easily detected. as a result. information about the inner cells of the terrorist structure. • Also.

PRO-ACTIVE VS REACTIVE SECURITY MEASURES • Certainly marksmanship proficiency and specialized driving skills are necessary. if an attack gets to where one needs to use these skills. when a series of opportunities were missed in predicting and thus preventing the attack from occurring it means you already failed to protect your protectee. • Pro-active measures uncover an attack plan while in its preparation stage. . however.

• These measures include detecting surveillance. . they provide clues that terrorist activity is in the works. • Pre-incident occurences may be unrelated but sometimes. piecing together intelligence reports and identifying pre-incident indicators. when examined together.

e. car thefts.. • There is new construction along the protectee’s primary route. • Uniforms from public utility companies. i. stolen weapons. military facilities and police departments are reported missing. . passport fraud.Types of Pre-incident indicators • An increase in criminal activity.

. it is likely an attack plan in its initial stages. • To verify pre-incident indicators. set up a surveillance detection route which deviates from the intended route to an unscheduled location.• People around the protectee’s home and office seem to come and go with correlated movement according to the protectee’s schedule. • If the suspected survey follows the protectee into the location.

• Once a surveillance detection unit is in operation and security increased. • All in all this is not bad so it is better to suspect too many than not enough. . everyone looks suspicious.

. – Communications equipment – Physical gestures which coordinate with the protectee’s movement. – Note taking.• What indicators would differentiate between suspected and actual surveillance? – Correlated movement – Inappropriate or crude disguises.

• Excessive picture taking. • Remember. . • More interest in the protective detail than the protectee. correlation is necessary for surveillance to occur. perhaps with sophisticated photographic equipment.

• Rather. • Employ counter-surveillance methods to uncover information or a safe house which may lead to the core of the organization. . do not apprehend the surveillant.• If surveillance is verified. keep in mind that initial surveillance is conducted by newer terrorist members. the detail/intelligence units can probably identify and neutralize them. If they make mistakes.

taking an inappropriate interest in the detail.• One method is an inconspicuous tail or sweep car/motorcycle. – The sweep car will be effective in this manner because the terrorists attention will be focused on the detail in front of him and they will not be aware of what’s behind them. . – The terrorists surveillance vehicle will trail the convoy.

mannerisms. parked vehicles. rented apartments. bus stops. – They attempt to blend in with the dress. and time schedules of the local populace. only limited to the terrorist imagination. – Examples: • • • • • • (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) phone booths. garages. vendors. .TYPES OF SURVEILLANCE • Fixed surveillance – The surveillant remains in the same position over time to observe the activities of a particular subject or location.

or from telephones. – The terrorist may use any number of surveillants and various types of vehicles in doing this. • Technical Surveillance – Equipment used to record conversations in rooms.• Moving/Mobile Surveillance – The subject is followed on foot or by vehicle. automobiles. .

in successive segments. .• Combination Surveillance – Any combination of fixed. over an extended period of time. • Progressive Surveillance – Time intensive. moving. or technical surveillance. involving surveilling a subject along a route.

rounds a corner slowly or pokes it’s nose around a corner and then withdraws. especially motorcycles. • Vehicles parked in the same spot for an extended time. • Vehicles that pass the target and park.COMMON TERRORIST SURVEILLANCE MISTAKES • Vehicles parked in prohibited zones. • Vehicle that goes through an intersection slowly. • Vehicles that stop or start as the protectee or detail moves. . with possible surveillants sitting in the front seat.

. • Vehicles that slow and duck behind other vehicles when the protectee slows. • Vehicles that follow the detail through a red light. • Any vehicle that maintains the same distance from the protectee even at varying speeds. • Flashing lights between vehicles.• A vehicle that signals a turn and fail to execute the turn.

• Vehicles passing in a traffic circle until the detail has taken an exit. pulling out as if to pass.• Vehicles moving on parallel streets at roughly the same speed as the protectee. • Vehicles stopping nearby when the protectee or detail stops. then dropping back. . • Vehicles apparently hiding behind traffic.

• Persons leaving or entering a store. • Persons hesitating or looking around when entering a building that the protectee has just entered.• Persons dismounting vehicles when the protectee or detail stops. restaurant. etc. • Persons turning away when observed by the protective detail or SD team. immediately before or after the protectee. .

Possible communication between drivers. another departing. • Broken down vehicles. One vehicle arriving. or stop as they do.• Persons who begin to move as the protectee or detail does. • Persons standing on the street or in lobbies. . • Sloppy suveillant shift changes near the residence. reading newspapers or magazines.

especially the footwear. equipment. • Work crews in or near chokepoints. Inquire with appropriate agency to verify the legitimacy of the work order.• Any vehicle with an altered or obliterated license plate in or near a choke point. . and clothing. • Persons inappropriately dressed for the area or season. Check vehicles.

. • It is the responsibility of the protective detail (both the protective drivers and advance detail) to plot out the routes that will be taken or could be used to get from point A to point B.ROUTE SURVEY • A route survey is simply an area street map indicating where the detail and protectee will be travelling.

– Choke points or potential attack sites. and – the normal day-to-day activities of the area in order to determine when something is out of the ordinary. including: – Strong points such as hospitals and police stations.• The detail must become familiar with every aspect of the route to be taken. – possible surveillance sites. such as public parks or street vendors. .

it is likely the attack will occur in or around the area where surveillance is taking place. • Remember. .• The ideal route will have minimal choke points and many strong points.

• The SDR uses a logical detour in which the target doubles back on their route. .SURVEILLANCE DETECTION ROUTE (SDR or “pag-pag”) • One method of detecting or confirming surveillance is through the use of a surveillance detection route (SDR). The SDR forces correlation between the surveillance and the targeted individual.

• It would be very likely that anyone would make the same combination of turns. .• This “natural reverse” should allow the target to observe anyone following them into and out of the SDR.

.OBSERVATION • Observation is the complete awareness by an individual of his surroundings achieved through maximum employment of the senses. • Expert observation enables on to recognize and recall any object or situation accurately and completely.

• Regarding Objects: – First. observe its general characteristics – Note any distinguished features – Note these details in a specific order which covers all aspects of the object being observed. observe any changeable details. – Finally. .

i. size. commemorative plate. model and year.e. condition and color – any distinguishing characteristics – Its make.• When Observing vehicles. . the following sequence should be followed: – First its plate number. general type. – Identifying information on name plates and body parts.

e.• When observing People. notice their: – Sex – Race(i. American Indian. Mongolian. may be more descriptive of the local populace and should be learned. Black. such as mestizo or Hispanic. – Color of Skin.): Caucasian. or Malayan. – Height . Other terms.

posture and gait. – Observe specific physical characteristics such as the shape of the head. heavy. thin.– Build: Very heavy. a limp or birthmark. . medium.e. i. stocky. or emaciated. slender. – Age: Estimated within a five year span. – Note any distinguishing physical characteristics.

LEVELS OF AWARENESS • There are different levels of awareness by which we perceive our surroundings. developed a system of mental preparation known as “Coopers Colors”. • Retired US Marine Corps officer. • This system of colors is a mental awareness model which will allow a person to adjust one’s height of awareness depending on the circumstances of the surrounding environment. • It is currently taught to many US law enforcement and security officers. . Jeff Cooper.

• A person in this state is so overwhelmed by the situation they are shocked into an inability to react. • You perceive events and changing in condition yellow 24 hours a day. . • An attack on a person in this state will probably be successful.• Unaware of the surroundings • An attack on an individual in condition white will probably be successful. • A person can only stay in this condition for about 3 to 4 hours. • State of Action .“FIGHT or FLIGHT” • DURING this state a person will exhibit the symptoms of physical reaction to high stress. • Heightened state of awareness. • General awareness of surroundings.

• A person in this state is so overwhelmed by the situation they are shocked into an inability to react. • Heightened state of awareness. . • An attack on a person in this state will probably be successful.• Unaware of the surroundings • An attack on an individual in condition white will probably be successful. • A person can only stay in this condition for about 3 to 4 hours. • State of Action . • General awareness of surroundings.“FIGHT or FLIGHT” • DURING this state a person will exhibit the symptoms of physical reaction to high stress. • You perceive events and changing in condition yellow 24 hours a day.

TYPES OF ATTACK • Looking at the route. cover or concealment for the terrorists? . could the terrorists succeed in kidnapping the protectee or staging a bomb attack? • Is there an escape route.

small caliber weapons.RAG rocket. hand grenade. – EXAMPLE: assassination attempt on President Reagan. • Stand-off attack . .sub-machine gun.• Weapons at close range .

F. . • Explosives / Random violence. • Escape. – EXAMPLE: Secretary of State Schultz. La Paz.A.• Kidnapping / Selective violence. Cologne. – Hostage must remain unharmed to be used as a bargaining chip for the terrorists. Germany 2977 by R. Bolivia 1986. bombing. – EXAMPLE: Hans Martin Schleyer kidnapping.

• Establish what is normal in an area to be able to identify suspicious activity. • Strong points and escape routes should be identified on a street map and visually verified. .SUMMARY • The protective detail is responsible for familiarizing itself with all possible routes. • Know what type of attack could be used against your Protectee in the area you will be working.