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UET, Taxila

1- Strength and fracture of engineering solids. David K. Felbeck & A. G. Atkins, Prentice Hall (1995) ISBN: 9780138561130 2- Mechanics of materials (An Introduction to the Mechanics of Elastic And Plastic Deformation of Solids and Structural Materials, E. J. Hearn, Butterworth (1997) ISBN 0750632658

References:

**How Materials Carry Load
**

Basic modes of loading a material are: Tension, compression and shear

Tension

Compression

Shear

Definition of Stress:

Loads applied on a material which are distributed over a surface.

For example, the point load shown in the following figure might actually be a uniformly distributed load that has been replaced by its equivalent point load.

P A

σ

**Another Definition of stress
**

Stress is the load applied per unit area of the surface it is applied on.

Normal stress Normal stress is the stress normal to a surface and is denoted by the symbol "σ" (sigma). In the above figure the normal stress is uniform over the surface of the bar and is given by:

Normal Stress Equation

P σ = A

Where: P is the normal load & A is the area

Shear Stress

Shear stress is the stress tangent to a surface.

If in the following figure the shear stress τ (tau) that results in the shear load V is uniformly distributed over the surface, then the shear stress can be calculated by dividing the shear force by the area it is applied on.

Shear Stress Equation

V τ= A

Where: V is the shear load & A is the area

A V

τ

Units of Stresses

The units of stress are the units of load divided by the units of area.

In the SI system the unit of stress is "Pa" and in the U.S. system it is "Psi". Pa and Psi are related to the basic units through following relations:

Pa & Psi Equations

1 Pa = 1 Psi =

1 N 1 m 1 lb 1 in

2 2

**10 Pa = 1 MPa 10 Psi = 1 Ksi
**

3

6

Pressure gauge (Same units as stress)

Conversion

1 Pa = 145.04×10

−6

psi

Basic modes of deformation Basic modes of deformation of a material are:

Extension, Contraction & shearing

Material element can be extended, compressed, or sheared. The following figure shows how the square section to the left changes its shape during extension, contraction and shearing.

Extension Contraction

Shearing

Definition of Strain:

Strain is the way engineers represent the distortion of a body.

Another definition

strain is the geometrical expression of deformation caused by the action of stress on a physical body.

Axial strain Axial strain (normal strain) in a bar is a measure of the extension of a bar per unit length of the bar before deformation.

The following figure shows a bar of initial length “lo” that is extended by the application of a load to the length “l”.

Representation of strain

lo

l

The axial strain, denoted by ε (epsilon), in a homogeneously deforming bar is calculated by dividing the amount the bar extends by its initial length.

Axial Strain

Strain Equation This yield the equation:

l − l ε= l

**Positive and negative strains
**

A positive axial strain represents extension and a negative axial strain represents a contraction. Strain has no units since it is one length divided by another length.

Shear Strain

Shear strain, denoted by “γ” (gamma), is a measure of how the angle between orthogonal lines drawn on an undeformed body changes with deformation. In the following figure the square has been sheared into a parallelogram.

Shear Strain

u γ h γ 1 γ

γ γ

**Equation of Shear Strain
**

The shear strain is calculated from the equation:

u γ = h

As can be seen from the following figure, the shear strain is equal to the tangent of the change in angle or the two orthogonal sides.

u γ h γ

θ γ

Another Equation of shear strain

u γ = tan(θ ) = h

The difference between γ and θ becomes less and less as the angle θ (in radians) becomes small. This is since the tangent of an angle, given in radians, can be approximated by the angle for small values of the angle.

In most structural materials, the shearing is small and we can use the approximation

γ ≈θ

for θ < 1 <

Tensile behavior different materials: In a typical tensile test one tries to induce uniform extension of the gage section of a tensile specimen.

The gage section of the tensile specimen is normally of uniform rectangular or circular cross-section. The following figure shows a typical dogbone sample.

P

P Gage length

P

P

The two ends are used for fixing into the grips, which apply the load. As can be seen from the free-body diagram to the right, the load in the gage section is the same as the load applied by the grips.

Using extensometers to measure the change of length in the gage section and a load cells to measure the load applied by the grips on the sample one calculates the axial strain and normal stress (knowing the initial gage length and cross-sectional area of the gage section).

The result is a stress-strain diagram, a diagram of how stress is changing in the sample as a function of the strain for the given loading. A typical stressstrain diagram for a mild steel is shown below.

**Mild Steel Stress-Strain Curve
**

Stress, σ Ultimate stress, σ u Yield stress, σ y

Strain, ε

**The different regions of the area response denoted by their characteristics as follows
**

Stress, σ Ultimate stress, σ u Yield stress, σ y

3 4 5

1

2

Strain, ε

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Linear elastic: region of proportional elastic loading Nonlinear elastic: up to yield Perfect plasticity: plastic flow at constant load Strain hardening: plastic flow with the increase of stress Necking: localization of deformation and rupture

**Brittle versus Ductile behavior
**

Brittle materials fail at small strains and in tension. Examples of such materials are glass, cast iron, and ceramics. Ductile materials fail at large strains and in shear. Examples of ductile materials are mild steel, aluminum and rubber.

The ductility of a material is characterized by the strain at which the material fails. An alternate measure is the percent reduction in cross-sectional area at failure.

Different types of response: Elastic response: If the loading and unloading stressstrain plot overlap each other the response is elastic. The response of steel below the yield stress is considered to be elastic.

**Elastic Response (Linear & Non-linear)
**

σ

Linear Elastic

Nonlinear Elastic

ε

After loading beyond the yield point, the material no longer unloads along the loading path. There is a permanent stretch in the sample after unloading.

The strain associated with this permanent extension is called the plastic strain “εp” (on the figure).

As shown in the figure, the unloading path is parallel to the initial linear elastic loading path.

σ

Loading Unloading

ε

Most plastics when loaded continue to deform over time even without increasing the load. This continues extension under constant referred to as creep. If held at constant strain, the load required to hold the strain decreases with time.

Relaxation

The decrease in load over time at constant stretch is referred to as relaxation.

Bearing Stress: Even though bearing stress is not a fundamental type of stress, it is a useful concept for the design of connections in which one part pushes against another. The compressive load divided by a characteristic area perpendicular to it yields the bearing stress which is denoted by “σb“.

Therefore, in form, the bearing stress is no different from the compressive axial stress and is given by

F σb = A

Where: F is the compressive load and A is a characteristic area perpendicular to it.

F F t t d F

F F F

εp

Cylindrical bolt or rivet F t t F

For example, if two plates are connected by a bolt or rivet as shown, each plate pushes against the side of the bolt with load F. It is not clear what the contact area between the bolt and the plate is since it depends on the size of the bolt and the shape of the deformation that results.

Also, the distribution of the load on the bolt varies from point to point, but as a first approximation one can use the shown rectangle of area A=td to get a representative bearing stress for the bolt as

F σb = td

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