Universitas Lampung-Budidaya Perairan

Cyanobacteria (mikroalga)
MAHRUS ALI, S.Pi., M.P.

1. Introduction – Algae

Drifting microalgae (phytoplankton)

Floating macroalgae

Algal cover Biomass Species Composition

Attached algae (periphyton) stone

Biology
 Microalgae: microscopic single-celled eukaryotic planktonic algae  To be magnified 100 – 400X in order to recognize family  Reproduction by cell division  Some species have own movements by flagella, other drift passively  Divided in 9 divisions according to pigment types etc.  Photoautotrophic (also heterotrophic) organisms

Photosynthesis

As with all plants, algae photosynthesise, i.e. they convert carbon into organic matter. Light is the source of energy, which drives this reaction with wavelength and photoperiod the main factors. Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2

In the dark, algae shifts from photosynthesis to respiration, and the equation is reversed and glucose is needed for energy

Nutrients
As the concentrations of cells in phytoplankton cultures are generally higher than those found in nature, algal cultures must therefore be enriched with additional nutrients and mineral to make up for the deficiencies in the seawater.
 Nutrients as nitrate and phosphate are important for synthesis of DNA  Minerals, trace elements and vitamins are important for synthesis of pigments, enzymes etc.

Introduction
 Mostly blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), green algae, and red algae  Tend to be more patchy than diatoms  More difficult to sample than diatoms (e.g. Cladophora)     More difficult to count Difficult to identify to species level Green algae are the ―nuisance algae‖ Blue-green algae can be produce toxins → potential danger

Struktur

Unicellular

Multicellular
1. Colonies 2. Aggregations •Palmelloid (Tetraspora) •Dendroid (Dinobryon) •Amoeboid (Chlororachnion) 3.Filaments 4. Coenocytic / Vaucheria 5.Parenkematus/ Ulva 6. Psedoparenkematus / Batrachospermum 7. Erect thallus / Chara

7

CELLULAR ORGANIZATION
 Flagella=organs of locomotion.  Chloroplast=site of photosynthesis. Thylakoids are present in the chloroplast. The pigments are present in the thylakoids.  Pyrenoid-structure associated with chloroplast. Contains ribulose-1,5bisphosphate Carboxylase, proteins and carbohydrates.  Eye-spot=part of chloroplast. Directs the cell towards light.
Source: A Biology of the Algae By Philip Sze, third edition, WCB MCGraw-Hill

8

REPRODUCTION

Sexual-Gametes
Vegetative Cell divisions/ Fragmentation =part of the filament breaks off from the rest and forms a new one. Asexual Reproduction Zoospores after losing their flagella, form new filaments. No sexual fusion.

9

SEXUAL REPRODUCTION
 ISOGAMY-Both gametes have flagella and similar in size and morphology.

 ANISOGAMY-Gametes have flagella but are dissimilar in shape and size. One gamete is distinctly smaller than the other one.

 OOGAMY-gamete with flagella (sperm) fuses with a larger, non flagellated gamete (egg).

10

First: Asexual Reproduction includes:

1. Vegetation reproduction:
a. In unicellular algae: simple cell division some time called binary fission (such as Gleocapsa). b. In multicellular (colonies, filamentous, thallus, etc) by:  Fragmentation such as Microsystis.  Hormogonia: A small, motile filament, formed by some Cyanobacteria, that detaches and grows by cell division into a new filament such as Oscillatoria.  Propagules: a structure capable of producing a new individual such as Sphacelaria.
11

Vegetative reproduction

Cell Division
A cell could not keep growing bigger forever. Food molecules could not reach the inside of a large cell fast enough to keep it alive. So when a cell reached a certain size it had to divide into two smaller cells called daughters. The daughters grew and, when they reached that certain size, they too divided, this processes called binary fission.
12

Vegetative reproduction

Hormogonia in Oscillatoria

13

Basis of algal Classification
 the different groups of algae can be classified on the basis of a number of characteristics. 1. Color has been an important means of classifying algae, and gives many groups their names. However, other characteristics, such as type of photosynthetic food reserve, flagella type, cell wall structure and composition, and life history, have been important in further distinguishing the algal divisions.

14

Flagella

Locomotion in algae is largely based on the action of flagella. The figure below illustrates the wide variety of flagella present in the algae. The primary distinctions used for classification are the number of flagella, their location on the cell, and their morphology. Two major types of flagella are recognized: the smooth, or acronematic, and the hairy, or pleuronematic, types. The smooth flagella generally moves by whiplash motion and the hairy flagella moves by a pulling motion.
15

ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
 LAND---WATER  FRESH WATER---MARINE HABITATS  FLOATING (PLANKTONIC)—BENTHIC (BOTTOM DWELLERS)  EPIPHYTES

16

PERANAN CYANOBACTERIA
 Sebagai phytoplankton (produsen di perairan)  Sebagai vegetasi perintis  Mampu mengikat Nitrogen bebas (contoh : nostoc, Anabaena).  Sebagai penghasil PST (Protein Sel Tunggal) contoh Spirulina.

OSCILLATORIA

ANABAENA

RIVULARIA

Budidaya
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Kultur Erlenmeyer ( 1 liter)
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Sterilisasi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Teknik Sterilisasi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Kebutuhan Nutrisi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Cahaya
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

pH
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Aerasi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Suhu
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Salinitas
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Kondisi Optimum
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Media Kultur
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Persyaratan Media
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Makro Nutrien
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Mikronutrien
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Nutrien
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Kultur Stok
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Mini Kultur
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Isolasi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Media Isolasi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Isolasi dengan Dilusi
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Isolasi dengan Streak
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Kultur Murni
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Tahapan Kultur
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Manajemen dan Fasilitas Kultur
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Up-Scaling Kultur Mikroalga
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Kultur Skala Industri
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

Penghitungan Mikroalga
mahrus_ali (http://www.nakedfisher.blogspot.com)

Universitas Lampung

MAHRUS ALI