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INTRODUCTION TO GSM

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HISTORY

1979-80 Came the first Cellular Mobile system such as
  

AMPS ( Advance Mobile Phone Service) NMT ( Nordic Mobile Telephony ) TACS ( Total Access Communication System) These were analog in Nature and known as First Generation System

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HISTORY

During 1990 many digital mobile standards were introduced in different regions/ countries
DAMPS ( Digital Advance Mobile Phone Service)  GSM ( Global System for Mobile Communications)  CDMA ( Code Division Multiple Access ) These are known as 2nd Generation System

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HISTORY

For introduction of data transfer capability on the Mobile ,additional Hardware was introduced in GSM systems, known as GPRS ( General Packet Radio Service ) . These are being referred as 2.5 G System

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FUTURE

Now a Global Standard IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecom.-2000) is proposed which shall encapsulate all the existing networks and different access technologies to provide any time and any where type of communication known as 3rd Generation standard.

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GSM

As early as 1982, the CEPT ( Confederation of European P&T ) formed a Group called Global system for Mobile Communications (GSM) The objective was to develop a building mobile radio standard for Europe GSM is an European digital mobile telephony Standard specified by the ETSI and provides a common standard.

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GSM

The GSM Standard is the first international that gives subscriber full access to the network of various operating companies in all participating countries.

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GSM Operational Requirements
  

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 

International Roaming High Spectral Efficiency Improved Transmission Quality as compared to Analog Systems High Link Integrity Provision of Tele Services & Bearer Services

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GSM Operational Requirements

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Economy in both sparsely and heavily populated areas Better use of available frequencies in order to improve the user capacity of Mobile Communications. Large selection of interfaces to other services such as PSTN/ISDN, PSPDN etc.

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SPECIFICATIONS
Trunked Radio system.  Access Method - TDMA/FDMA  Frequency Bands Mobile to Cell - 890-915 Mhz Cell to Mobile - 935-960 Mhz Therefore the frequencies for the uplink and the downlink are different ( Frequency Division Duplex) and the bandwidth of the GSM System is 25 Mhz..

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SPECIFICATIONS
Cell To Mobile – Down Link 935-960 Mhz

1805-1880 Mhz
Mobile to Cell – Up Link 890-915 Mhz 1710-1785 Mhz

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SPECIFICATIONS

Channel Bandwidth – 200 Khz Number of Channels – 124 channels pairs ( 25 Mhz/200 Khz )are available spaced at 200 Khz intervals Due to interference to other systems, the very first carrier is not used.

GSM - MULTIPLE ACCESS GSM uses both FDMA & TDMA

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• FDMA Access along Frequency axis • Total 124 RF Channels available. One or more carrier assigned to each base station

• Absolute Radio Freq Carrier Number (ARFCN) 1 & 124 not used
untill it is co-ordinated with Non -GSM operators in adjacent freq. bands.

• In most cases 124 RF Channels are used 1 2 3 4 5 6

124

……...
Freq
890.2 890.4 890.6 890.8 891.0 914.8

Mhz.

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Specifications

  

Therefore the actual frequency of an ARFCN is Ful(n)= 890.0 Mhz +(0.2 Mhz)*n And Fdl(n)= Ful(n) + 45 Mhz Where n= 1<=n<=124

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FDMA/TDMA
 

Each channel pair serves eight ( Full Rate ) or Sixteen (half rate) channels successively in a Timed Cycle. In FDMA system each channel requires a transmitter and receiver 8 Voice channels, staggered in Time are transmitted via one carrier frequency Each of the 124 FDMA linked carrier frequency is used to transmit 8 TDMA voice channels Discontinuous nature of TDMA makes the entire 200 Khz bandwidth available to all 8 Voice channels.

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GSM FDMA
890 25 MHz
0

BSNL

915
1 2

935 25 MHz
0 1 Base to Mobile

960
2

Mobile to Base
890.2
890.4 890.6
(MHz)

935.2

935.4

935.6

200 kHz

45MHz

200 kHz

Channel layout and frequency bands of operation

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GSM TDMA
Amplitude

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45 MHz
7 8 5 6 2 1 3 4 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8

Frequency

F1 (Cell Rx)

F2

F1’ F2’ (Cell transmit)

Typical TDMA/ FDMA frame structure

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TIME

FDMA/TDMA Scheme

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BP2 BP1 BP8 BP7 BP6 BP5 BP4 BP3 BP2 BP1 890.0 890.2 890.4 890.6 890.8 891.0 891.2

BURST

FREQ MHz 915.8

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PHYSICAL CHANNELS
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8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

FRAME OF 8 TIME SLOTS

FRAME REPETITION

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

PHYSICAL CHANNELS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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BURSTING

Therefore the mobile transmits only in one time slot and stay idle for the remaining seven time slots with its transmitter off. This periodic switching (ON&OFF) is called BURSTING ( 216.6 Hz=1/4.615ms)

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MODULATION METHOD

Modulation Method
 

GMSK ( Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying )

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Duplex Operations

Frequency Division Duplex Frequency for uplink and downlink are different. Time Division Duplex The mobile station transmits 3 timeslots latter than the BTS but the Time slot number stays same as if both are using the same time slot at the same time.

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Duplex Operation
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3

BTS Transmits

5

6

7

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

0

MS Transmits

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Timing Advance & Power Control

BSNL

In a cell MS can be at different distances, hence different delay and diff. Attenuations Due to above the collisions of signals from mobiles assigned to adjacent time slots Mobiles farthest from the base station are given a head start.

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Timing Advance & Power Control

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To compensate for the attenuation over different distances within the cell, the BTS commands the MS to use different power levels in such a way that the power arriving at the base station receiver is approx same for each time slot.

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Timing Advance & Power Control
B
A

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TSn

TSn+1

BTS
A
Long signal delay

B
Short Signal Delay Small signal Attenuation

High signal Attenuation

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Logical channels

Traffic Channel :Used for Transmission of Speech
 

Full Rate Half Rate

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Logical channels

Control Channel : Intended to carry signalling and synchronisation for network management messages and channel maintenance task.
  

Broad Cast Channel BCH Common Control Channel CCCH Dedicated Control Channel DCCH

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Broadcast Channel

Transmitted by the BTS and are intended to provide sufficient information to the mobile station for it to synchronize with the network.

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Broadcast Channel
Broadcast Control Channel BCCH Informs the mobile station about specific parameters it need to identify the network or to gain access to the network ( LAC, MNC, Freq. Of neighboring cells etc.)

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Broadcast Channel

Frequency correction Channel FCCH Informs the mobile station about the frequency reference of the system. This logical channel is mapped onto the freq. Correction burst. It appears on frequency correction burst and freq. Corr. Burst contains only FCCH.

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Broadcast Channel

Synchronization Channel SCH Informs the mobile station about the key it needs to be able to demodulate the information coming from the base station.It is mapped on to synchronization burst.

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Common Control Channel
They support the establishment of a dedicated link between a mobile and base station .

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Common Control Channel

Random Access Channel It is used by the MS to request a dedicated channel from the network. It is mapped into the random access burst and contains the first message sent to the BTS.

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Common Control Channel

Paging Channel PCH BTS calls individual MSs within its cell on this channel.

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Common Control Channel

Access Grant Channel AGCH MS gets information from the BTS on which dedicated channel it should use for its immediate needs from the access grant channel. The information about the timing advance also comes on this channel.

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Dedicated Control Channel

They are used for message transfer between the network and the MS, not the traffic. The messages are needed for registration, authentication and call set up. They are also used for low level signalling messages for channel maintenance.

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Dedicated Control Channel

Standalone Dedicated Control Channel : SDCCH It is intended for the transfer of signaling information between a mobile and a BTS

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Dedicated Control Channel

Slow Associated Control Channel : SACCH It is used in association with either traffic channel or SDCCH. The purpose is channel maintenance to maintain a link between mobile and BTS. In the downlink – latest information about the system ( Timing advance and power control ) and in the uplink– measurement performed on the neighboring cells.

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Dedicated Control Channel

Fast Associated Control Channel : FACCH If during a call there is a need for some heavy duty signalling, then FACCH appears in place of the traffic channel.

OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
• • • •
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Subscribers are not allocated dedicated channels TCH Allocated to users only when needed

Hence IDLE MODE & DEDICATED MODE DEDICATED MODE

-• IDLE MODE

When a full Bi -directional P to P CHL has been allocated during an established call When MS is powered on (active) without being in dedicated mode

--

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OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS
-IDLE MODE When MS is powered on (active) without being in dedicated mode
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• MS stays continuously in touch with BS
• Listens to transmissions from BS to intercept Paging Messages ( for incoming calls) • • Monitors Radio Environment in order to evaluate Chl Quality & choose the most suitable BS • Listens to BS to avail short message broadcast service

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Yuri Sherman