# Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department

Welcome!
The reason for this Program
 Electricity is the most commonly used at construction sites.  Unsafe use of Electricity can cause serious accidents including electrocution (death).

The goal of this Program
 Learn basic fundamentals of electricity.  Learn how electricity effects human body.  Learn to identify common electrical hazards and protection devices.
Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department

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Welcome!
 The program is not designed to teach you to work on Electrical Equipment.
 If you find any problem with electrical equipment, you should report it to supervisor/engineer.

Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department

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Insulators are non-conductors – Rubber.Basic Fundamentals of Electricity Electricity flows through conductors – metals. the human body etc. The Human Body is a Conductor. wood etc. water. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 4 .

Electric Pressure (water pressure). Current Electricity Flow Rate in amperes (water flow rate). Impedance/Resistance. Resistance to flow of current/electricity (pipe friction) Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 5 .Basic Fundamentals of Electricity Voltage.

Circuit Elements Fault. Objects which are part of a circuit and through which current flows. Grounding. Current flow through an intended path. Ground conductor provides connection between equipment and earth. Path of flow of current/electricity. Provides protection from electric shock.Basic Fundamentals of Electricity Circuit. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 6 .

Basic Fundamentals of Electricity Basic Rules Circuit is not live until current flows. Current prefers to flows through the least resistance path. Current in a circuit = Voltage/Impedance (Resistance). Electrical current won’t flow until circuit is complete (power source to equipment (load) to power source). Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 7 .

You get shock when the body becomes part of electrical circuit – current enters the body at one point and leaves at another point.How you get an electric shock? Electricity travels in closed circuit. Shock occurs when a person contacts: Both wires of an energized circuit. A metallic part in contact with an energized circuit while the person is in contact with ground. One wire of an energized circuit and ground. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 8 .

Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 9 .How electrical current affects human body Three factors that affect the severity of the Shock. Length of time the body is in circuit. Amount of current that flows through the body. Path of the current through the body.

How electrical current affects human body Other factors that may affect the severity of the shock The voltage of the circuit. The phase of the heart cycle when the shock occurs. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 10 . The presence of moisture in the environment/body. The general health of the person (body resistance).

respiratory arrest.) Muscular contraction and nerve damage occur. muscular control is lost. Ventricular fibrillation (the rhythmic pumping action of the heart ceases. hand-to-foot shock of one second duration. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 11 . This is called freezing current. 6-30 mA 50-150 mA 10004300 mA Painful shock.Probable effect of shock on human body General relationship for a 50 cycles. Slight shock. not painful but disturbing. 1mA 5 mA Slight tingling sensation. Death is possible. severe muscular contractions. Average individual can let go. Extreme painful. Death is most likely.

wet skin dramatically drops the body’s resistance to approximately 1 kilo ohm. human skin is very resistant. Wet condition current = 230/1000 = 230 mA Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 12 . Human body resistance is approximately 100 kilo ohms Dry condition current = 230/100.000 = 2.3 mA Under wet conditions.Probable effect of shock on human body Under dry conditions.

Probable effect of shock on human body Human Resistance to Electrical Current Body Area Dry Skin Wet Skin Resistance (ohms) 100.000 0hms Internal body – hand to foot Ear to ear 400 to 600 ohms (about) 100 ohms Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 13 .000 to 600.000 ohms 1.

the person may be thrown away. even low voltage could be dangerous.Probable effect of shock on human body If the extensor muscles are excited by the shock. This often result in a fall from elevation that may kill the victim. If muscular contraction caused by stimulation does not allow the victim to free himself from electric circuit. because degree of injury increases with time the body is in contact with circuit. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 14 .

100 mA for 3 seconds = 900 mA for 0.03 seconds in causing fibrillation. A difference of less than 100 mA exists between a current that is barely perceptible and one that can kill.Probable effect of shock on human body Low Voltage does not imply low Hazard. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 15 .

Current = 1000/500 = 2 Amps. This can cause cardiac arrest and serious damage to internal organs. the lowered resistance results in heavy current through the human body. Once the skin is punctured. At 1000 volts. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 16 .Probable effect of shock on human body High Voltage greatly reduces the body’s resistance by breaking down human skin.

Injuries to human body from electric shocks Shock related injuries include: Electric Burns. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 17 . Internal Injuries. Involuntary muscle contractions.

Injuries to human body from electric shocks Electric Burns. Thermal contact burns occur when skin comes in contact with overheated electric equipment. High temperature produced by electric arc or explosion cause flash burns. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 18 . Electric burns are the result of heat generated by the flow of electric current through the body and cause tissue damage.

These internal injuries may not be immediately apparent to victim or others. tissue damage. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 19 .Injuries to human body from electric shocks Internal Injuries. these can result in death. however if left untreated. nerve or muscle damage. Excessive current flowing through the human body cause serious damage to internal organs including internal bleeding.

hand muscles may contract. This may lead to injury or death or victim to fall from elevation. Muscles violently contract when stimulated by excessive current. If the victim is holding an electrocuting object. These can cause damage to muscles. tendons and ligaments and may even cause broken bones. making it impossible to drop the object and prolong contact with current. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 20 .Injuries to human body from electric shocks Involuntary Muscle Contraction. Normal muscle contraction is caused by very small amount of current that is created inside our body.

However in majority of accidents at construction sites the current flows through hand to feet.Injuries to human body from electric shocks Severity of Electric Shocks Injuries from electric shock are less severe when the current does not pass through or near nerve centers and vital organs. the shocks are usually serious. Since such a path involves both heart and lungs. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 21 .

What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Contact with Live Parts. Equipment not used properly Improper use of extension and flexible wires/cords. Lack of ground fault protection. Path to ground missing or discontinuous. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 22 .

Electrical boards or live parts are protected by suitable enclosures and appropriate warning signs displayed.What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Contact with live parts. Area around electrical equipment is not used as passageways when energized parts are exposed. Theses workers are provided with rubber gloves. There is adequate illumination and those working on the equipment are not endangered by live parts. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 23 . Electrical equipment and wiring are in safe condition. Temporary wiring that caries high voltage (over 440 volts) is guarded and fenced to keep out unauthorized personnel.

If there is no ground fault protection. it can cause current through worker’s body resulting in electric shock. short circuits and exposed wires.What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Lack of ground fault protection Due to the nature of work at construction site. electrical equipment are prone to excessive wear and tear that results in insulation breaks. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 24 .

Provide earth to all 3 phase electric equipment through assured equipment grounding conductor program. 15 amps hand held electric tools. cracked tool casing etc. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 25 . Visually inspect all equipment for fray cords.What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Lack of ground fault protection Use earth leakage circuit breakers for all 230 volt. Use tools and equipment according to the manufacturer's instructions. missing ground links. single phase. Ground conductor is not used as the return path. Follow manufacturers’ recommended testing instructions to ensure GFCI is working properly.

What are the hazards in use of electricity ? GFCI (Ground-fault circuit interrupter) A device that detects an insulation failure by comparing the amount of current flowing to electrical equipment with the amount of current returning from the equipment. Whenever the difference is greater than 5 milliamps. It is also called ELCB (Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker) Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 26 . the GFCI trips and thereby interrupts the flow of electricity.

distributions boards. Inspect electrical systems frequently to ensure that the path to ground is continuous. Visually inspect all electrical equipment before use. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 27 . Remove any defective equipment from service. fault current may travel through worker’s body causing accident (electric shocks etc) Ground all power supply systems. electrical equipment. If the power supply to electrical equipment at site is not grounded or the path is broken.What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Path to ground missing or discontinuous. Use double insulated tools.

g. safety feature built in by the manufacture may not work and may damage the equipment or cause injury. Using circuit breakers or fuses with wrong rating for over current protection e. Using multi-receptacle boxes and placing them on ground. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 28 . Using only two wires for three wired tools.What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Equipment not used properly If electrical equipment is used in a manner for which it is not designed. Using tools or cords with worn insulation or exposed wires. using 20 amp circuit breaker for 15 amp tool.

Flexible cords are not subjected to mechanical injury.What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Improper use of extension and flexible wires/cords. The normal wear and tear on extension/flexible wires can loosen or expose wires and may create hazardous conditions. Use flexible cords in continuous length without splices. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 29 . Remove cords from receptacles by pulling on the plug. Use extension cords that are 3-wired type and are for hard usage. not wire.

What are the hazards in use of electricity ? Flexible cords are not placed near/in water/liquids. Flexible cords are equipped with metal clad industrial plugs. Flexible cords are used for only portable tools. Inspect cords regularly and remove any defective cords. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 30 .

Electrical Shocks. Respond immediately in case of electrical emergencies. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 31 . There are: Electrical Fires.What to do – in case of electrical accidents Electrical accidents are very serious. Knowing what to do can make a life-or-death difference.

Never use water on electrical fires. Call local fire brigade and inform that it is electrical fire. because water conducts electricity. Use only dry chemical powder or carbondioxide type fire extinguisher.What to do – in case of electrical accidents Electrical Fires – Electrical fires are different from other fires. throwing water may cause the fire to become bigger. Take these steps. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 32 . Switch off the main power supply.

it may be possible that he is still in contact with source of electricity.  Call for help. You could also become part of electric circuit and get a shock. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 33 .What to do – in case of electrical accidents Electric Shock – If some one has got an electric shock.  When the victim is not in contact with electricity you may give first aid. Take these steps:  Switch off the main power supply. Do NOT touch the person or anything he is touching. This may include CPR.

Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 34 .  The technique should be continued until victim is revived or death is diagnosed by a physician.What if some one is injured  Since the most common result of electrical accident is failure of the nervous which controls breathing. it is important the the victim be applied to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

the heart quivers and doesn't pump blood. • Cardiac arrest is often caused by an abnormal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation (VF).What if some one is injured What is Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) • Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies including cardiac arrest due to electric shocks. The victim in VF cardiac arrest needs CPR and delivery of a shock to the heart. When VF develops. Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 35 . Defibrillation eliminates the abnormal VF heart rhythm and allows the normal rhythm to resume. called defibrillation.

the absence of oxygenated blood can cause irreparable brain damage in only a few minutes.What if some one is injured  CPR involves a combination of mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and chest compression that keeps oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.  When the heart stops. Death will occur within 8 to 10 minutes. St. John Ambulance Society provides necessary training on CPR Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 36 .

What if some one is injured Possibility of revival of electric shock victim Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 37 .

Thank you Technical Services (HQ) Safety Department 38 .