# Today Position and displacement transducers

 Potentiometers  Encoders  LVDT  Promity

Potentiometers • Based on a probe moving along a resistance and connected to the measurand (contact measurement) • Measure relative position, hence displacement, with ratiometric output • re usually very cheap and robust • Very low temperature sensitivity! • "an lead to high load e##ect due to mounting con#iguration along one a\$is

Potentiometers
x Rx = Rtot l0 Rtot x V= E Rtot l0 o

E0 E i= 0 Rtot

Rtot lo r

V E0 V V = Rx i lo x

Rx x

x V = Eo lo

V x= l Eo o

0th order instrument
(standing the model…)

Potentiometers θ Eo lo x V V Linear configuration Eo Angular configuration .

Potentiometers Coil based potentiometers x V Output is stepped Resolution lo n x n loops in coil .

Potentiometers Layer based potentiometers V x x Resolution infinite !theorical" .

Ω / \$+ mm '0.Potentiometers  #ull scale input  Resolution \$ % \$000 mm infinite if layer based 0&'( % '( #) if coil based  Linearity  Resistance  #atigue life 0&'( % 0&*( 0&+ % '0 .cycles .

ngular Potentiometers .

ngular Potentiometers  #ull )cale 0nput '01 % 20 revolutions  Resolution infinite if layer based 030+( % '( #) if coil based  Linearity  #atigue life 03'( % 03+( '0.cycles  .inimum tor4ue '056 7m  .aximum speed *0001/s .

Bobbin Potentiometers 0f re4uired a flexible 8ire can be used to convert linear displacement into angular displacement3 9his configuration !8or:ing also 8ith encoders" reduces load effect and axial problems as distance& more than axial displacement& is measured .

Mounting problems #ree floating probe  Lo8 loading effect  Contact depends on gravity  Lo8 fre4uency range .

igh loading effect  Contact depends on spring  #re4uency range depends on spring& mass and damping of probe itself .Mounting problems )pring loaded probe  .

igh loading effect  Contact is forced uniaxial  .igh fre4uency range < .Mounting problems #ixed probe  .

LVDT eex es' es\$ Linear Voltage Di##erential Transducer .

LVDT eex primary t es' eex es\$ es' )econdary ' t es\$ secondary \$ t .

LVDT eex e0 e0 eex t t <o 9here is a position 8here eo=0 and 8here the position reference <0 is found .

LVDT Rp .'− .\$ .\$ " dt .' = eex 5 Lp Ls = \$ es' 5 Ls \$ = es\$ 5 e0 ip .utual inductance dip ipRp + Lp − e ex = 0 dt di p e o = e s'− e s\$ = !.

LVDT linear >e0> '-01 x .

ost LV?9 already carry a demodulator onboard @ain depends on the coils loop ratio 'A .LVDT Lo8pass filter demodulator .

LVDT V carrier t x displacement t .odulated signal V V t ?emodulated signal t '-01 .

it/ at the usual location .ing.unibs.LVDT LVDT measuring principle demo available on http://archimedes.

V/mm 03\$+( .LVDT  #ull scale input !spring" !free floating"  )ensibility !ac 5 ac" !dc D dc"  Linearity B \$3+ % C3+ mm B '3\$+ % \$+0 mm * % \$+0 mV/V/mm 0306 % .

%VDT ω es' eex es\$ %otary Variable Di##erential Trans#ormer .

%VDT  #ull scale input  )ensibility !ac 5 ac" !dc 5 dc"  Linearity B *01 % 601 \$ % * mV/V1 '\$+ mV/1 E B 03*( .

E7CO?ER) .

Encoders .

Monodirectional Encoders Output A 7 pulses per revolution  Output F ' pulses per revolution output A output F !does not allo8 for direction identification" .

 Gidirectional  Output A  Output G  Output F Output A Output G Cloc:8ise rotation A is anticipating G Output F Countercloc:8ise r3 Output A Output G G is anticipating A Output F .

Encoders ∆t output HVI time  Can be used to assess the average angular velocity J ∆ϑ ω= ∆t θ = : ∆θ .

bsolute Encoders  Encoded dis: having n lines !bit" simultaneously reading the position using a standard code !binary& @ray"  A uni4ue code is assigned to each angular sector& therefore direction can be assessed  Kith a single dis: the number of angular sectors 7 is given by 7 = \$n .

Encoders 0mplicit capacitance of the 8ire limits the fre4uency range by smoothing s4uare 8aves !capacitance load/unload phenomenon" 07 OL9 07 OL9 .

.etallic surface  Alternate current supply coil !' .M"  .agnetic fields generates eddy currents on the target proportional to distance from the metallic target Eddy currents Oscillator coil .Pro\$imity .

Pro\$imity 0 measuring principle Eddy currents dissipate energy than:s to the Noule effect this dampens the oscillator amplitude by a ratio proportional to the distance from the target .

Pro\$imity 00 measuring principle Eddy currents generate a magnetic field this is pic:ed up by a secondary coil using a 8heatstone bridge to measure inductance variation .

easuring range 03\$+ % \$ mm ' % 6 mm Orobe diameter )ensitivity Linearity + % '6 mm .% 6 V/mm 030+ % 03\$ mm .Pro\$imity .

Pro\$imity \$0 '+ Output HVI Eddy current proximity are highly sensitive to target material and to edge effects A custom calibration is re4uired for nonstandard materials and non plane shapes + '0 A0)0 E6'60 A0)0 *06 Al Cu 0 * ' \$ 6 Relative distance HmmI + 0 .

Mechanical transducers comparison 9ransducer Advantages ?isadvantages &igh load e##ect Potentiometer Low cost %obust LVDT Encoder Eddy current &igh #re'uency range Demodulator re'uired (ree #loating probe Mounting precautions Low cost &igh sensitivity "ontactless %esolution )mall measuring range &igh material sensitivity .