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Fourier Series 1

mahmud mustain

Fourier Series

In mathematics, infinite series are very important. They are used extensively in calculators and computers for evaluating values of many functions. The Fourier Series is really interesting, as it uses many of the mathematical techniques that you have learned before, like graphs, integration, differentiation, summation notation, trigonometry, etc

Numbers • A geometric progression is a set of numbers with a common ratio. Example: 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 • An infinite series that converges to a particular value has a common ratio less than 1.Infinite Series . the series will converge to the function as we take more and more terms. = 3/2 • When we expand functions in terms of some infinite series. 8.. Example: 1. . Example: 1 + 1/3 + 1/9 + 1/27 + . 16 • A series is the sum of a sequence of numbers. 2. 4..

Infinite Series Expansions of Functions • We learned before in the Infinite Series Expansions chapter how to re-express many functions (like sin x. ex. To get a better approximation. • We saw how our polynomial was a good approximation near some value x = a (in the case of Taylor Series) or x = 0 (in the case of Maclaurin Series). . we needed to add more terms of the polynomial. etc) as a polynomial with an infinite number of terms. log x.

However.A Trigonometric Infinite Series • In this chapter we are also going to re-express functions in terms of an infinite series.Fourier Series . we are going to use the sum of sine and cosine functions. later we will see the Fast Fourier Transform. For example. instead of using a polynomial for our infinite series. • Fourier Series is used in the analysis of signals in electronics. which talks about pulse code modulation which is used when recording digital music. .

which approximates a saw-tooth signal: • How does it work? As we add more terms to the series. .Example • We will see functions like the following. we find that it converges to a particular shape.

Taking one extra term in the series each time and drawing separate graphs. we have: f(t) = 1 (first term of the series): .

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. and is the mean value.Full Range Fourier Series where an and bn are the Fourier coefficients. sometimes referred to as the dc level.

Fourier Coefficients For Full Range Series Over Any Range -L TO L .

• When these conditions. the Fourier series for the function f(t) exists. are satisfied. (c) it has a finite number of positive and negative maxima and minima.Dirichlet Conditions • Any periodic waveform of period p = 2L. . (b) it has a finite average value in the period 2L. can be expressed in a Fourier series provided that (a) it has a finite number of discontinuities within the period 2L. • Each of the examples in this chapter obey the Dirichlet Conditions and so the Fourier Series exists. called the Dirichlet conditions.

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AL-HAMDULILLAH .

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