Computer Aided Design

Engineering Drawings
(Blueprints - 2D Detail Drafting)

Contents
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2D Drawing Principles: Tolerances ANSI/ISO Tolerance Designation ANSI/ISO Classification of Limits and Fits Surface Properties Economics of Tolerances/Surface properties

The engineering drawing is the specification for the component or assembly and is an important contractual document with many legal implications, every line and every comment is important.

Attention to Detail

Part and Assembly Drawings
Part Drawings: • Detail drawings completely describe a single part with multiview orthographic projections. • Should provide all the information necessary to economically manufacture a high quality part.
Assembly Drawings: • Assembly drawings are used to show the position and functional relationship of parts in an assembly, also via multiview orthographic projections. • Generally they have no dimensions on them. • Parts are 'balloon' identified and referenced to either detail drawing numbers or catalog numbers, via a Bill of Materials (BOM)

Orthographic Views
Rear Top Left Front Bottom Rear Left Front Right Right Preferred 3 views form L shape

Top

Bottom Title Block

The Glass Box Concept .

depicting lines that would not be visible from the given perspective).• The glass box concept theorizes that an object is suspended inside a sixsided glass cube (notice the use of hidden lines on the glass box. .

• As the object is viewed from a specific orientation (perpendicular to one of the sides of the cube) visual rays project from the object to the projection plane. . These projectors are always parallel to each other.

• The object’s image is formed on the projection plane by the pierce points of the visual rays. .

• The process is repeated to construct the right side view on the profile plane .

• Similarly. the top view is projected to the horizontal plane .

. two to three orthographic views are sufficient to describe their geometry.• For many three-dimensional objects.

• The box can be unfolded to show the multiple views in a single x-y plane .

TOP • Because the observation point is located at infinity. the integrity of feature size and location are maintained. and the views are oriented orthogonally in relationship to each other. FRONT RIGHT SIDE .

when used. and are not part of the finished drawing. (Fold lines and extension lines are drawn very lightly.) FRONT RIGHT SIDE . are perpendicular to the folding lines of the glass box.TOP • Notice that the projectors or extension lines.

.020‖).Dimensional Data can then be added to the drawing • There are 3 distinct line weights to be aware of: – object lines are thick (approximately .010‖).040‖ thick). and – extension. and center lines are thin (.030-. dimension. – hidden lines are a medium thickness (.015-.007-.

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Remember that points that represent end views of lines will project to lines again in the next view. .Begin by projecting all of the known information between the views. be consistent from view to view. Keep the projectors parallel and if you use labeling.

using hidden lines. .Heavy-up all of the object lines that depict visible object lines. and show surfaces that would not be visible in the specific orientation.

.Complete the right side view by projecting all of the relevant lines and points using a 45 degree miter line. Clean up the drawing.

Remove the final construction lines to see the finished drawing .

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and should have associated arrowheads. • Cutting planes are constructed as an integral feature of the parent view. indicating the direction from which the section view will be observed.Section Views A A • Section views are used to clarify internal detail and to avoid dimensioning to hidden lines • The are established by referencing a cutting plane • Cutting planes depict the exact location on the part from which the section view will be projected. SECTION A-A . and cutting plane arrowheads always indicate the direction for the observer’s line of sight.

Projected Section Views A A SECTION A–A ROTATED 30º CLOCKWISE .

etc.A. C – C*.. are used to designate the required section view. A Cutting plane on reference view A Subtitle of actual view SECTION A-A . B .B. • *Section Designators should NOT include the alpha characters I.Cutting Plane • Alpha Characters A . • When the alphabet has been exhausted. O. BB . The characters are placed near the arrowheads and as a subtitle of the view.BB. There is no ―standard‖ for the location of the section designators. CC – CC*. etc. other than near the cutting plane arrowheads—as the examples below illustrate.AA. or Q. use double characters AA .

• The recommended angle for the standard crosshatch pattern is 45. is a repeating graphic pattern which is applied throughout all areas of the part that would be in contact with the cutting plane. or 60 degrees with horizontal. Thus. the hole is not crosshatched. 30.Crosshatching Section Views • Crosshatching. crosshatch lines should be neither parallel nor perpendicular to the outline of the feature in section—if avoidable (see the examples below). Good Practice Poor Practice Poor Practice . Similarly.

Cross Hatch Standards • The general purpose cross hatch is used in most individual detail component drawings and in assembly applications where no confusion will result. . • Each of the assembled components are depicted with a different crosshatch angle to assist in part differentiation. • Specific crosshatch symbols are sometimes used to represent each different material type.

& Fiber Bronze. Water. Concrete Marble. Liquids Wood. Leather. Aluminum Titanium Felt.Cross Hatch Symbols Sand Cast Iron (General Use) White Metal (Zinc) Steel Magnesium. etc. Glass. etc. Cross Grain With Grain . Slate. Brass.

individual cylindrical parts. .Half Sections • Half section views are the result of cutting planes being positioned on parts in such a manner that only half of the resulting view or projection is shown in section. • Half sections are generally used on objects of symmetry. or assemblies of parts.

Half Sections Shown without section: • Difficult to dimension without using hidden lines • Internal features – not as clear .

Offset Sections • Offset sections allow us to provide greater breadth of detail with fewer section views. All of the features are aligned with the cutting plane.D . D D SECTION D .

Coordinate Dimensioning and Tolerancing The collective process of modeling. The current National Standard for dimensioning and tolerancing in the United States is ASME Y14.5M .1994 REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R . defining and describing geometric sizes and feature relationships.06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED .5M . and providing all of the required technical information necessary to produce and inspect the part is called dimensioning and tolerancing. DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.1994.

1994 REMOVE ALL BURRS AND SHARP EDGES ALL FILLETS AND ROUNDS R . and be complete and accurate in every detail. General Notes DRAWN IN ACCORDANCE WITH ASME Y14.5M .25 10 82º CSK 1.06 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED Local Notes 4X 8. They should use appropriate technical language. They should be authored in such a way as to have only one possible interpretation.20 M10 X 1.Drawing Notes Notes should be concise and specific.5 X 45º CHAM .

Hatching thick • Break Lines thin thick .Line Types • Object Lines thick thin thin • Hidden Lines • Center Lines • Phantom Lines • Dimension Lines Extension Lines Leader Lines thin thin • Cutting Plane Line • Sections .

200 R 8.5 Of the four different arrowhead types that are authorized by the national standard. The points of the arrowheads on leader lines and dimension lines must make contact with the feature object line or extension lines which represent the feature being dimensioned.2M – 1994. a filled arrowhead is the highest preference. The standard size ratio for all arrowheads on mechanical drawings is 3:1 (length to width).Arrowheads • Arrowheads are used as terminators on dimension lines. 1st 2nd 3rd 4th . ASME Y14.

06 Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline. .5 mm) between the object lines and the beginning of each extension line. 1. Dimensions should not be placed within the part boundaries unless greater clarity would result.75 1.Dimension Lines and Extension Lines Extension lines overlap dimension lines (beyond the point of the arrowheads) by a distance of roughly 2-3mm There should be a visible gap (~1.

Placement of Linear Dimensions Order of Preference 2. .750 Arrows in / dimension out .250 Arrows out / dimension in .500 Arrows out / dimension out When there is not enough room between the extension lines to accommodate either the dimension value or the dimension lines they can be placed outside the extension lines as shown in the fourth example (use Flip Arrows in ProE).562 Arrows in / dimension in 1.

• They are values that have been derived from other dimensions and therefore should not be used for calculation.750) .000 (.250 .500 1.Reference Dimensions Reference Dimension Symbol (X.750) • Reference dimensions are used on drawings to provide support information only.XXX) EXAMPLE 2.250 1.500 (. . • The use of reference dimensions on drawings should be minimized.500 . production or inspection of parts.

Dimensions nearest the object outline should be at least .250 (6mm) Minimum Spacing 1.062 2.688 1.875 .250 4. followed by dimensions of greater length.000 .Location of Dimensions Shorter (intermediate) dimensions are placed closest to the outline of the part.312 Dimensions should be placed outside the actual part outline .250 inches (6 mm) apart.375 (10mm) Minimum Spacing 1. .438 1. and succeeding parallel dimension lines should be at least .375 inches (10 mm) away from the object.375 1.

312 Extension lines should not cross dimension lines if avoidable 1.438 1.688 1.062 1.688 1.000 1.438 1.375 1.062 2.Basic Dimensioning – Good Practice 4.875 .000 1.375 BETTER .250 2.312 4.875 .250 In-line dimensions can share arrowheads with contiguous dimensions 1.

62 DP .375 .375 .625 THRU .Diameter Dimensions Holes and cutouts 1.62 1.250 .250 x .

Diameter Dimensions Shafts and Holes • Whenever it is practical to do so.25 THRU 1.75 2. . external diameters are dimensioned in rectangular (or longitudinal) views.25 . slotted holes. and cutouts that are irregular in shape would normally be dimensioned in views where their true geometric shape is shown.00 . Cylindrical holes.

875 18º 18º 18º 18º .562 .50 .188 18º 3.Placement with Polar Coordinates To dimension features on a round or axisymmetric component 18º 3X 6X .

and radii R.562 .312 R.750 R.312 R14.25 R.Radial Dimensions To indicate the size of fillets. rounds.

Angular Dimensions: 92 92Þ º To indicate the size of angular details appearing as either angular or linear dimensions. 35 Length o f Chord 90 or Length o f Arc 2 x 45Þ or 2 x 2 CHAM 103 2 x 45º 50 Chamfers 63º 63Þ 95 or Alternate .

when a slot that has a given width by a specified length.250 THRU .375 CSK .12 X 45º CHAMFER . a space must precede and follow the X symbol. or a chamfer that has equal sides (.562 X 82º • The X symbol can also be used to indicate the word “by”.12). For instance. • When used to imply the word „by’. . the number of times the instruction applies is called out using the symbol X.12 X .“Times” and “By” Symbol: X 8X . • If the same feature is repeated on the drawing (such as 8 holes of the same diameter and in a specified pattern).

5 32 50 2x 12 THRU Specify reaming if accuracy/finish is important. 25 90 12 .Drilled Holes Normally specified by diameter and depth (or THRU note used). 12.5 45  14 THRU 25 90 12 12.

It has been proposed.625 . . Depth or Deep Symbol* EXAMPLE . must have a depth called out to fully describe their geometry.375 .ASME/ANSI Hole Depth Symbol • Features such as blind holes and counterbores.375 * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard.625 OR .

.ASME/ANSI Countersink Symbol Countersink Symbol* EXAMPLE • The symbol denotes a requirement for countersunk holes used to recess flathead screws. The height of the symbol is equal to the letter height on the drawing.375 .562 X 90º * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. It has been proposed. . Note that this symbol is not used in the ISO (international) standard. and the included angle is drawn at 90º.

312 . It has been proposed.ASME/ANSI Counterbore Symbol Counterbore Symbol* • This symbol denotes counterbored holes used to recess machine screw heads.562 .375 OR * This symbol is currently not used in the ISO standard. .312 .562 .375 . EXAMPLE .

2 DP Socket Cap Head or Machine screws 25 90 12 12.Counterbores and Countersinks – ISO Standard 12.8 THRU  14 C BORE x 8.8 THRU 15 CSK Flat Head 25 90 12 .5 50 32 2x  8.5 50 32 2x 8.

2A Nominal Diameter (inches) Threads per inch Thread Series UNC = Unified Coarse UNF = Unified Fine Thread Type (optional) A=External B=Internal Class of fit (optional) Note: Use standard screw sizes only .Screw Threads ISO specify metric only: M 16 x 2 M 16 x 2 .5H Class of fit of mating thread (optional) Class of fit of this thread (optional) ISO metric designation Nominal Diameter (mm) Thread Pitch(mm) American Unified Threads: 3/4 .4h .UNC .UNC 3/4 .10 .10 .

M12 Hex. Screws 'A' Lid Section 'A'-'A' . + 10%) in at le ast one compone nt in a s cre w faste ne d joint. Example Assembly 'A' Base 3 .Threads and Screw Fastening Always a 'Cle arance Hole ' (typically scr e w ma jor Dia.

) 'A' Base Detail 3 Holes 10.3 x 25 DP M12x1.75 x 15 DP MIN EQ SP on 120 PD Section 'A'-'A' 'A' .Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.

Threads and Screw Fastening (cont.7 THRU EQ SP on 120 PD Section 'A'-'A' 'A' .) Lid Detail 'A' 3 Holes  12.

The tolerance. the range of permissible size. A shaft of nominal diameter 10 mm may be measured to be an actual size of 9. . general tolerances are specified in a note.XXX = ±. General Tolerances: In ISO metric.25 unless otherwise stated". the decimal place indicates the general tolerance given in the title block notes. Actual Size: is the measured dimension. will depend on the function of the part and the particular feature being dimensioned. Tolerances .0005. or tolerance. . In English Units . . or accuracy required. Note: Fractions and this type of general tolerancing is not permissible in ISO metric standards. typically: Fractions = ±1/16. must be specified for all dimensions on a drawing.01.975 mm. Therefore. not the exact size.005.XXXX = ±0.XX = ±. usually in the title block.03. typically of the form: "General tolerances ±. by the designer/draftsperson. .X = ±.important to interchangeability and provision for replacement parts It is impossible to make parts to an exact size. Nominal Size: is the size used for general identification.

97 Limit Dimensions Unilateral Tolerance Limits are the maximum and minimum sizes permitted by the the tolerance.05 39.01 +0. Design must not over specify as tolerances have an exponential affect on cost.Specific Tolerances Specific Tolerances indicate a special situation that cannot be covered by the general tolerance.05 40 .0. Specific tolerances are placed on the drawing with the dimension and have traditionally been expressed in a number of ways: +0. All of the above methods show that the dimension has: a Lower Limit = 39.97 mm an Upper Limit = 40.03 Bilateral Tolerance 40. .08 mm Manufacturing must ensure that the dimensions are kept within the limits specified.04 40.05 mm a Tolerance = 0.

Shaft Min. Min. Hole Hole Max. Clearance SHAFT HOLE . Clearance Max.Limits and Fits 1. Clearance Fits The largest permitted shaft diameter is smaller than the diameter of the smallest hole Max. Shaft Min.

Transition Fits The diameter of the largest allowable hole is greater than that of the smallest shaft. Interference 2. Min. but the smallest hole is smaller than the largest shaft Max. Min. Interference Fits The minimum permitted diameter of the shaft is larger than the maximum diameter of the hole 3. Shaft Min. Shaft Min.Max. Hole Hole Max. Interference SHAFT HOLE Interference or clearance Max. Shaft Min. Shaft SHAFT HOLE . Hole Hole Max.

7 -0 + 0.0.7 -0 0.0.0.3 0.1.4 0.2 .1. Parts made to this fit move and turn easily but are not intended to run freely.1.71 . but with greater maximum clearance than class RC 1.6 1.6 1.0.2 .3 + 0.6 + 0.1.6 .4 + 0.0.15 .6 . where accurate location and minimum play are desired.4 1.5 1.95 -0 0.2 -0 + 0.1 + 0.6 4.0 .0.9 .9 .9 .0.3 .71 0.9 -0 + 1.8 2.95 0.4 .7 .0. but are not suitable where appreciable temperature differences are likely to be encountered.3 0.45 .0.1.75 0. RC 4 Close running fits are intended chiefly for running fits on accurate machinery with moderate surface speeds and journal pressures.0.0 .5 -0 0.0 .3 .3 .25 + 0.85 -0 0.5 .8 + 0.4 -0 Shaft g4 .1.2 + 0.55 Class RC 2 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Hole H6 Shaft g5 .9 1.45 .6 .0 -0 + 1.1.35 .0 0.8 2.3 .8 .3 .0 -0 Shaft e8 .1 .0.2 0.2 -0 Hole H7 0.3 Class RC 4 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Hole H8 + 0.6 3. or both.0.1.8 0.0.4 0.0.12 Standard Limits Hole H5 + 0.6 -0 + 0.6 .3 .55 .0. RC 5 Medium running fits are intended for higher running speeds.ANSI Extract from Table of Clearance Fits RC 1 Close sliding fits are intended for the accurate location of parts which must assemble without perceptible play. Limits are in thousandths of an inch.8 2.1.45 0.25 .12 -0 0. and in the larger sizes may seize with small temperature changes.8 0.0.65 -0 0.5 2.0.6 -0 + 2.0 -0 + 1. Class RC 1 Limits of Clearance Nominal Size Range in Inches 0 .1.6 2.6 -0 + 0. RC 2 Sliding fits are intended for accurate location.15 .0.40 0.0.8 1.2 .15 0.6 0.5 1.7 Class RC 3 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Shaft f6 .40 .0.24 0.1.0.0.0.7 1.1.1 .15 + 0. and are intended for precision work at slow speeds and light journal pressures.0.1.6 .1.2 -0 Shaft e7 . RC 3 Precision running fits are about the closest fits which can be expected to run freely.2 .24 .0.55 .0.19 1.9 -0 + 1.25 .95 -0 0.1 0.8 .1.2 .4 Class RC 6 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits 0.5 1.97 1.8 .19 .4 0.97 .7 .3.6 0.5 .0.3 .0.0 .4 -0 + 1.0.0.3 0.0 -0 + 1.3 .8 2.25 -0 + 0. RC 6 Basic hole system.6 .3 1.5 .0 2.1.2.25 .5 + 0.7 -0 + 0.5 0.2.1 -0 Hole H9 + 1.0.9 .55 -0 0.0.0.0.12 .2.1.0.3 -0 + 0.2 -0 + 0.2 3.6 0.0.1.8 .4 .6 0.6 .6 Class RC 5 Limits of Clearance Standard Limits Hole H8 + 0.2 -0 Shaft f7 .25 0.0 3.3 + 0.6 2.3 1.1.8 .0 1.35 .0.1 .2 -0 + 1.0.0.Standard Limits and Fits -.0.3 0.2 0.7 1. or heavy journal pressures.0.2 2.0.2 .1.15 0.25 0.0.

6.etc. c.. 1.45 x 3 D +0. 10...ISO Tolerance Designation The ISO system provides for: • 21 types of holes (standard tolerances) designated by uppercase letters A. d.etc.the "Fundamental Tolerances": ITn = (0. . 16.. e. which makes each tolerance grade approximately 60% of its predecessor. designated by numbers IT1 to IT16 . C...0.etc. B. and • 21 types of shafts designated by the lower case letters a. 4. b. These letters define the position of the tolerance zone relative to the nominal size. E. To each of these types of hole or shaft are applied 16 grades of tolerance..6.. 2.5..0.. D. 25.001 D) Pn where D is the mean of the range of diameters and Pn is the progression:1.

For Example: Experience has shown that the dimensional accuracy of manufactured parts is approximately proportional to the cube root of the size of the part.025 +0 . all tolerances start at the nominal size and go positive by the amount designated by the IT number.e.50 mm: Tolerance for IT7 = (0.45 x 3 40 +0.025 mm Written on a drawing as 30 H7 +0. Example: A hole is specified as: 30 H7 x The H class of holes has limits of + + 0 . i.001x 40) 16 = 0. IT7 for diameters ranging 30.

Graphical illustration of ISO standard fits Hole Series – H hole Standard .

The HOLE SYSTEM is commonly used because holes are more difficult to produce to a given size and are more difficult to inspect. a given manufacturing organization will require a number of different types of fit ranging from tight drive fits to light running fits for bearings etc. and a series of fits are obtained by only varying the limits on the shaft. 0. . H7 reamers) and gauges are common for this standard.00) is typically used and standard tooling (e. The H series (lower limit at nominal. the limits on the hole are kept constant.Selection of Fits and the ISO Hole Basis system From the above it will be realized that there are a very large number of combinations of hole deviation and tolerance with shaft deviation and tolerance. Such a series of fits may be obtained using one of two standard systems: The Shaft Basis System: The Hole Basis System: For a given nominal size a series of fits is arranged for a given nominal size using a standard shaft and varying the limits on the hole. For a given nominal size. However.g.

Provides snug fit for locating stationary parts. Suitable for loose pulleys and the looser fastener fits where freedom of assembly is of prime importance Free Running Fit. Shafts are expensive to manufacture since the clearances are small and they are not recommended for running fits except in precision equipment where the shaft loadings are very light. greater accuracy. Sliding Fits. where no substantial temperature difference is encountered.ISO Standard "Hole Basis" Clearance Fits Type of Fit Loose Running Fits. but can be freely assembled and disassembled. Where accuracy is not essential. high running speeds. Suitable for precision location fits. heavy journal pressures Close Running Fit. Hole Shaft H11 H9 c11 d10 H8 f7 H7 g6 H7 h6 . accurate location. but good for large temperature variation. Suitable for lubricated bearing. Locational Clearance Fits.

.e. ISO Standard "Hole Basis" Interference Fits Type of Fit Hole Shaft H7 H7 p6 s6 Press Fit. Transition fits averaging little or no H7 clearance and are recommended for location fits where a slight interferance can be tolerated for the purpose. a compromise between clearance and interference Push Fits. for example. for accurate H7 location. . assemblies. steel. of eliminating vibration. Suitable as the standard press fit into ferrous. i.ISO Standard "Hole Basis” Transition Fits Type of Fit Hole Shaft k6 n6 Locational Transition Fits . Drive Fit Suitable as press fits in material of low modulus of elasticity such as light alloys. cast iron etc.

00 1 mm -20 0 -30 -78 -40 -98 -50 -120 -65 -149 -80 -180 -100 -220 -120 -260 Tolerance H9 0.00 1 mm -14 -39 -20 -50 -25 -61 -32 -75 -40 -92 -50 -112 -60 -134 -72 -159 Tolerance H8 0.00 1 mm +25 0 +30 0 +36 0 +43 0 +52 0 +62 0 +74 0 +87 0 d10 0.00 1 mm -6 0 -8 0 -9 0 -11 0 -13 0 -16 0 -19 0 -22 0 +100 0 -145 -305 +100 0 -84 -185 +63 0 -43 -83 +40 0 -14 -39 +40 0 -25 0 +115 0 -170 -355 +115 0 -100 -215 -72 0 -50 -96 +46 0 -15 -44 +46 0 -29 0 +130 0 +140 0 +155 0 -190 -400 -210 -440 -230 -480 +130 0 +140 0 +155 0 -190 -400 -135 -265 -135 -290 +130 0 +89 0 +97 0 -110 -240 -62 -119 -68 -131 +81 0 +57 0 +63 0 -96 -108 -18 -54 -20 -60 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 -17 -49 -36 0 -40 0 .00 1 mm +10 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 g6 0.00 1 mm +25 0 +30 0 +36 0 +43 0 +52 0 +62 0 +76 0 +87 0 e9 0.00 1 mm +60 0 + 75 0 + 90 0 + 11 0 0 + 13 0 0 + 16 0 0 + 16 0 0 + 19 0 0 +190 0 +220 0 +220 0 +250 0 +250 0 +250 0 +290 0 +290 0 +290 0 +320 0 +320 0 +360 0 +360 0 +400 0 +400 0 c11 0.00 1 mm -60 -120 -70 -145 -80 -170 -95 -205 -110 -240 -120 -280 -130 -290 -130 -330 -150 -340 -170 -390 -180 -400 -200 -450 -210 -460 -230 -480 -240 -530 -260 -550 -280 -570 -300 -620 -330 -650 -360 -720 -400 -760 -440 84 0 -480 -850 Tolerance H9 0.00 1 mm +14 0 +18 0 +22 0 +27 0 +33 0 +39 0 +46 0 +54 0 f7 0.00 1 mm -6 -16 -10 -22 -13 -28 -16 -34 -20 -41 -25 -50 -30 -60 -36 -71 Tolerance H7 0.00 1 mm -2 -8 -4 -12 -5 -14 -6 -17 -7 -20 -9 -25 -12 -34 -12 -34 Tolerance H7 0.ISO Clearance Fits Nominal Sizes Over mm –– 3 6 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 5 25 0 28 0 31 5 35 5 40 0 45 0 To mm 3 6 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 10 0 12 0 14 0 16 0 18 0 20 0 22 5 25 0 28 0 31 5 35 5 40 0 45 0 50 0 Tolerance H11 0.00 1 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 h6 0.

Nominal Sizes Over mm –– 3 6 Tolerance H7 0.001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 25 0 +30 0 +35 0 +40 0 n6 0.001 mm +6 +0 +9 +1 +10 +1 +12 +1 +15 +2 +18 +2 +21 +2 +25 +3 +28 +3 H7 0.001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +35 0 +40 0 To mm 3 6 10 k6 0.001 mm +10 +4 +16 +8 +19 +10 +23 +12 +23 +15 +33 +17 +39 +20 +45 +23 +52 +27 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 ISO Transition Fits 18 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 +46 0 +33 +4 +46 0 +60 +34 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 -32 +40 +4 +45 +5 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 +36 +4 +73 +37 +80 +40 .

001 mm +20 +14 +27 +19 +32 +23 +39 +28 +48 +35 +59 +43 +72 +53 +78 +59 +93 +78 +101 +79 +117 +92 +125 +100 +133 +108 +151 +122 +159 +130 +169 +140 +198 +158 +202 +170 +226 +190 +244 +208 +272 +232 +292 +252 ISO Interference Fits 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 +30 0 +35 0 +51 +32 +59 +37 +40 0 +68 +43 +46 0 +79 +50 +52 0 +57 0 +63 0 +88 +56 +98 +62 +108 +68 .001 mm +12 +6 +20 +12 +24 +15 +29 +18 +35 +22 +42 +26 Tolerance H7 0.Nominal Sizes Over mm –– 3 6 10 18 30 To mm 3 6 10 18 30 40 50 65 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 250 280 315 355 400 450 500 Tolerance H7 0.001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 p6 0.001 mm +10 0 +12 0 +15 0 +18 0 +21 0 +25 0 +30 0 +30 0 +35 0 +35 0 +40 0 +40 0 +40 0 +46 0 +46 0 +46 0 +52 0 +52 0 +57 0 +57 0 +63 0 +63 0 s6 0.

Flanged Sintered Bronze Plain Bearing .

http://www.McMasterCarr.com

On-line Interactive Catalogs

http://www.skf.com/portal/skf/home/products?maincatalogue=1&lang=en&newlink=1

Tolerance Calculation - 'Worst Case Method'
for correct fit in all cases, if manufactured to specification
Allowance The minimum allowable difference between mating parts: Allowance = Smallest Hole Size - Largest Shaft Size Clearance The maximum allowable difference between mating parts: Clearance = Largest Hole Size - Smallest Shaft Size The 'Tolerance Build-up Problem' Where the combined dimension of several mating parts results in an unacceptable condition: generally non-functional (e.g. rotating or sliding action impaired), or parts will not assemble, or aesthetically unacceptable (e.g. inconsistent gaps around car doors)
'Shaft in hole' Terminology Hole Shaft

Shaft in Hole Example Worst Case Tolerancing A B 1. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (A) – Largest Shaft Size (B) 2.125 Lid on Box Example Largest feature size = 10.875 B .125 Smallest feature size = 9.0. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (A) – Smallest Shaft Size (B) A If dimension with tolerance is 10 + 0.125 .

25 Š.01but but =< 0.15 B76 +0 AxialClearance Clearance Axial by by design must Design must be be => 0.15) = 0.25 >0.00) = 0.01 <0.16) – Largest Shaft Size (76.01 2. Clearance = Largest Hole Size (76.25) – Smallest Shaft Size (76. Allowance = Smallest Hole Size (76.16 +.Tensioner Assy.25 A +. Example 76 +.25 Worst Case Tolerancing: X 1.25 .Tolerance Calculation .

may see symbol Heat Treat = H/T Rockwell = HRC. HRA etc or Ra or Rc Brinell = BNL 0.Surface Properties Texture and Hardness Surface Finish Basic Surface Texture Symbol 0.125 DP .4 HDN to 65 HRC 0.4 With Roughness Value (Typically Ra µm or µ”) With Machining Allowance 2 Material Removal by Machining Hardness Harden = HDN .

honing.3 µm (250µ‖) Typical Processes Flame Cutting Sawing.4 µm (16µ‖) 0. shaping. drilling.8 µm (32µ‖) 0. turning.2 µm (125µ‖) 1.2 µm (8µ‖) Grinding. polishing. and die casting Machining. milling. injection molding. forging. 0. rough turning.1 µm (4µ‖) Superfinishing. investment casting Diamond Turning. milling. honing Lapping. fine turning & milling. Grinding.6 µm (63µ‖) and stamping Rough machining. stamping. lapping . sand casting. planing 3. reaming.Comparative Roughness Values Roughness Ra 25 µm (1000 µ‖) 12. lapping. die and investment casting. polishing 0.5 µm (500µ‖) 6. injection molding. honing.

Medium Carbon (up to 60%): requiring higher strength. 0. hardening not required Common Types 1020 1040. Common Steel Specs: (10xx series: xx = % carbon) Mild steel (low carbon = up to 30 %): Low cost general purpose applications. springs etc.2µm (8 µ‖) 440 Stainless: (natural circa 15 HRC). Longer Life 1020: Case HDN to 65 HRC 0. 1060 axles..g.4µm (16 µ‖) Better Finish.125 mm deep min. e. 0. 0. cutting tools.g. 0.25 mm deep min. typ. High Carbon (> 60%): High wear..2µm (8 µ‖) . Hardness and Surface Finish Specs. high strength. e. Ground Bearing Shaft Examples: 1080 General Purpose 1060: Surface HDN to 55 HRC 0. con-rods etc. gears.4 µm (16 µ‖) 303 Stainless: (natural surface hardness 5 HRC ).Some Common Steel.

Specifying Welds on Drawings Weld all Around Weld on other side 6 30-50 Pitch Length Weld on arrow side Width of weld 20 6 10 20 = Weld 6mm fillet weld this side only 6 20-10 = 6 = Weld 6mm fillet weld both sides 3 = .