Types of testing

Page 1

a major factor in its success or failure as a good measuring instrument will be determinate by the item types that it contains.Whatever purpose a test has. Page 2 .

on the other hand. and produce greater scorer reliability. Indirect items try to find out about a student´s language knowledge through more controlled items. try to measure a student´s knowledge and ability by getting at what lies beneath their receptive and productive skills.Direct and indirect test items A test item is “direct” If it asks candidates to perform the communicative skill which is being tested. easier to mark. Direct test items try to be as much like real-life language use as a possible. crucially. These are often quicker to design and. “Indirect” test items. Page 3 .

Like: asking students to choose the correct tense of a verb Like: writing a composition or doing a conversational oral test.Discrete-point testing only test one thing at the time. Integrative testing expect students to use a variety of language at any one given time. Note: the combination gives a good overall picture of student ability Page 4 .

in the first place. thereby cutting out the possibility of scorer error. also there are distractors may actually put ideas into student´s heads that they read them. they extremely difficult to write well. the answer book for these tests can be read by machines. Above all this was because they were easy to mark. There are a number of problems with the multiple choice questions.INDIRECT TEST ITEM TYPES There is a wide range of indirect test possibilities Multiple choice questions (MCQ´S): a traditional vocabulary multiple choice question looks like this: 1) Sara [ am / is / are ] a teacher For many years MCQ´s were considered to be ideal test instruments for measuring student´s knowledge of grammar and vocabulary. not people. Page 5 .

and therefore it becomes more integrative in its reach.g. They can be prepared quickly. collocation. It produces test items like this: They sat on a bench attached 1___ a picnic table. on the face of it.CLOZE PROCEDURES Cloze procedure seem to offer us the ideal indirect but integrative testing item. fixed phases. and in some cases there are several possible answers. Page 6 . like a perfect test instrument. since. anything may be tested (e. Below them they 2___ see the river gurgling between overgrown 3____ Cloze testings seems. The procedure is random. reading comprehension). Some are difficult to supply than others. it avoids test designer failings. because of the randomness of the deleted words. grammar.

I'm sorry that I didn´t get her an anniversary present. Page 7 . the following item tests the candidates´ knowledge of verb and clause patterns that are triggered by the use of I wish. I wish ____________________________ In order to complete the item successfully the student has to understand the first sentence. retaining the exact meaning of the original.TRANSFORMATION AND PARAPHRASE A common test item asks candidates to rewrite sentences in a slightly different form. For example.

though it is not always possible to ensure only one correct order. finding errors in sentences. including sentence fill-ins. The following example is typical. Called/ I / I´m / in / sorry / wasn´t / when / you Re-ordering exercises are fairly easy to write. Put the words in order to make correct sentences. and choosing the correct form of a word. There are many other indirect techniques too. choosing the correct tense of verbs in sentences and passages.SENTENCE RE-ORDERING: Getting students to put words in the right order to make appropriate sentences tells us quite a lot about their underlying knowledge of syntax and lexicogrammatical elements. Page 8 .