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Lecture 1 Basic Principle

Do Kyung Kim Department of Materials Science and Engineering KAIST, Korea

Indentation test (Hardness test)

• Hardness – resistance to penetration of a hard indenter

• Hardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to surface penetration by an indenter with a force applied to it. • Hardness – Brinell, 10 mm indenter, 3000 kg Load F /surface area of indentation A – Vickers, diamond pyramid indentation • Microhardness – Vickers microindentation : size of pyramid comparable to microstructural features. You can use to assess relative hardness of various phases or microconstituents. • Nanoindentation

• Mechanical property measurement in microscale (Micro-indentation) – To study the mechanical behavior of different orientations, we need single crystals. – For a bulk sample, it is hard to get a nanoscale response from different grains. – Very little information on the elastic-plastic transition.

Optical micrograph of a Vickers indentation (9.8 N) in soda-lime glass including impression, radial cracking, and medial cracking fringes.

• Nanoindentation = The depth sensing indentation = The instrumented indentation • Nanoindentation method gained popularity with the development of – Machines that can record small load and displacement with high accuracy and precision – Analytical models by which the load-displacement data can be used to determine modulus, hardness and other mechanical properties.

Micro vs Nano Indentation
• Microindentation
A prescribed load appled to an indenter in contact with a specimen and the load is then removed and the area of the residual impression is measured. The load divided by the by the area is called the hardness.

• Nanoindentation
A prescribed load is appled to an indenter in contact with a specimen. As the load is applied, the depth of penetration is measured. The area of contact at full load is determined by the depth of the impression and the known angle or radius of the indenter. The hardness is found by dividing the load by the area of contact. Shape of the unloading curve provides a measure of elastic modulus.

Schematics of indenter tips







Indenter geometry
Indenter type Sphere Berkovich Vickers Knoop Projected area Semi angle (θ) N/A 65.3 ° 68 ° θ1=86.25 ° θ2=65 ° 35.26 ° α Effective cone angle (α) N/A 70.2996 ° 70.32 ° 77.64 ° 42.28 ° α Intercep t factor 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 Geometr y correctio n factor (β) 1 1.034 1.012 1.012

A ≈ π2Rhp A = 3hp2tan2θ A = 4hp2tan2θ A = 2hp2tanθ1tan θ2 A = 3hp2tan2θ A = πhp2tan2α

Cube Corner






Stress field

Boussinesq fields

Hertzian fields

Sharp indenter (Berkovich)
• Advantage – Sharpt and welldefined tip geometry – Well-defined plastic deformation into the surface – Good for measuring modulus and hardness values • Disadvantage – Elastic-plastic transition is not clear.

Blunt indenter - Spherical
• Advantage – Extended elasticplastic deformation – Load displacement results can be converted to indentation stressstrain curve. – Useful in determination of yield point • Disadvantage – Tip geometry is not very sharp and the spherical surface is not always perfect.

Data Ananlysis

• P : applied load • h : indenter displacement • hr : plastic deformation after load removal • he : surface displacement at the contact perimeter

Analytical Model – Basic Concept
• Nearly all of the elements of this analysis were first developed by workers at the Baikov Institute of Metallurgy in Moscow during the 1970's (for a review see Bulychev and Alekhin). The basic assumptions of this approach are

– Deformation upon unloading is purely elastic – The compliance of the sample and of the indenter tip can be combined as springs in series

– The contact can be modeled using an analytical model for contact between a rigid indenter of defined shape with a homogeneous isotropic elastic half space using

where S is the contact stiffness and A the contact area. This relation was presented by Sneddon. Later, Pharr, Oliver and Brotzen where able to show that the equation is a robust equation which applies to tips with a wide range of shapes.

Analytical Model – Doerner-Nix Model

Analytical Model – Field and Swain

• They treated the indentation as a reloading of a preformed impression with depth hf into reconformation with the indenter.

Analytical Model – Oliver and Pharr

Continuous Stiffness Measurement (CSM)
• The nanoindentation system applies a load to the indenter tip to force the tip into the surface while simultaneously superimposing an oscillating force with a force amplitude generally several orders of magnitude smaller than the nominal load. • It provides accurate measurements of contact stiffness at all depth. • The stiffness values enable us to calculate the contact radius at any depth more

Analysis result
• Reduced modulus

1 1 − υ 2 1 − υ '2 = + * E E E'
dP = 2E * dh

E: modulus of specimen E’: modulus of indenter

• Stiffness

A p

• Contact area

A = 3 3h p tan 2 65.3 = 24.5h p

• Hardness

P H= 2 24.5h p
dP 1 1 E = dh 2h p β

• Elastic modulus

π 24.5

for β = 1.034 Berkovich indenter

Material response

Analytical Model - ETC
• Elasto-plastic materials

Analytical Model - ETC
• Energy consideration

Nanoindenter tips

Berkovich indenter
tan 60 o =

l a/2


3 a 2 al 3 2 Aproj = = a 2 4 h cos 65.27 o = b a cos 65.3o a h= = 2 3 sin 65.3o 2 3 tan 65.3o a = 2 3h tan 65.3o Aproj = 3 3h 2 tan 2 65.3o = 24.56h 2

Projected area

Berkovich vs Vickers indenter
• Berkovich projected area • Vickers projected area

Aproj = 3 3h 2 tan 2 65.3o = 24.56h 2
• Face angle of Berkovich indenter: 65. 3 °

Aproj = 4h 2 tan 2 68o = 24.504h 2

• Same projected area-to-depth ratio as Vickers indenter • Equivalent semi-angle for conical indenter: 70.3 °

A = πh p tan 2 α

Commercial machines
• MTS_Nano-Indenter XP • CSIRO_UMIS
•(Ultra-Micro-Indentation System)

• Hysitron_Triboscope


•(Nano-Hardness Tester)

Commercial machine implementation
• MTS_Nano-Indenter • CSIRO_UMIS

• Inductive force generation system • Load via leaf springs by expansion of load actuato • Displacement measured by capacitance gage • Deflection measured using a force LVDT

• Hysitron_TriboScope


• Two perpendicular transducer systems • Force applied by an electromagnetic actuator • Displacement of center plate capacitively measured • Displacement measured via a capacitive system

Force actuation
• Electromagnetic actuation • Electrostatic actuation

• most common means • Electrostatic force btwn 3-plate transducer applied • long displacement range & wide load range• Small size (tenths of mm) & good temperature stability • Large and heavy due to permanent magnet• Limited load(tenths of mN) & displacement(tenths of µN

• Spring-based force actuation

• Piezo/spring actuation

• Tip attached to end of cantilever & • Tip on leaf springs are displaced by piezoelectric actuat • Sample attached to piezoelectric actuator • Force resolution is very high ( pN range), • Displacement of laser determine displacement resolution goes up, range goes down & Tip rotation • As

Displacement measurement
• Differential capacitor • Optical lever method


ε ⋅ε0 ⋅ A d
• Photodiode measures lateral displacement • Popular method in cantilever based system • Detection of deflection < 1 Å

• Measure the difference btwn C1 and C2 due to ∆ • High precision(resolution < 1 Å) & small size • Relatively small displacement range

• Linear Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT)

• Laser interferometer

• AC voltage proportional to relative displacement • Beam intensity depends on path difference • High signal to noise ratio and low output impedance • Sensitivity < 1 Å & used in hostile environment • lower resolution compared to capacitor gage • Fabry-Perot system used for displacement detectio

Factor affecting nanoindentation
• Thermal Drift • Initial penetration depth • Instrument compliance • Indenter geometry • Piling-up and sinking-in • Indentation size effect • Surface roughness • Tip rounding • Residual stress • Specimen preparation

Thermal drift
• Drift can be due to vibration or a thermal drift • Thermal drift can be due to – Different thermal expansion in the machine – Heat generation in the electronic devices • Drift might have parallel and/or a perpendicular component to the indenter axis • Thermal drift is especially important when studying time varying phenomena like creep.

Thermal drift calibration

Indenter displacement vs time during a period of constant load. The measured drift rate is used to correct the load displacement data.

Application of thermal drift correction to the indentation loaddisplacement data

Machine compliance
• Displacement arising from the compliance of the testing machine must be subtracted from the loaddisplacement data • The machine compliance includes compliances in the sample and tip mounting and may vary from test to test • It is feasible to identify the machine compliance by the direct measurement of contact area of various indents in a known material • Anther way is to derive the machine compliance as the intercept of 1/total contact stiffness vs 1/ sqrt(maximum load) plot, if the Young’s modulus and hardness are assumed to be depth-independent

Machine compliance calibration

Usually done by manufacturer using materials with known properties (aluminum for large penetration depths, fused silica for smaller depth).

Using an accurate value of machine stiffness is very important for large contacts, where it can significantly affect the measured loaddisplacement data.

Real tip shape
• Deviation from perfect shape

Sphero-Conical tips

Area function calibration
• Ideal tip geometry yields the following area-to-depth ratio: A = 24.5 hc2 • Real tips are not perfect! • Calibration
Use material with known elastic properties (typically fused silica) and determine its area as a function of contact

• New area function

A = C1hc2 + C2hc + C3hc1/2 + C4hc1/4 + C5hc1/8 + …

Surface roughness

• As sample roughness does have a significant effect on the measured mechanical properties, one could either try to incorporate a model to account for the roughness or try to use large indentation depths at which the influence of the surface roughness is negligible. • A model to account for roughness effects on the measured hardness is proposed by Bobji and Biswas. • Nevertheless it should be noticed that any model will only be able to account for surface roughnesses which are on lateral dimensions significantly smaller compared to the geometry of the indent

Pile-up and Sinking-in

Phase transition measurement
• Nanoindentation on silicon and Raman analysis

Creep measurement
• Plastic deformation in all materials is time and temperature dependent • Important parameter to determine is the strain rate sensitivity • The average strain rate can be given by

ε ind

• It can be done by experiments at different loading rate or by studying the holding segment of a nanoindentation.

1 dhc = hc dt

Fracture toughness measurement

Combining of Laugier proposed toughness model and Ouchterlony’s radial cracking modification factors, fracture toughness can be determined. Fracture toughness expression Kc = 1.073 xv (a/l)1/2 (E/H)2/3 P / c3/2

Fatigue measurement
• Nanoscale fatigue has not been studied extensively because of lack of instruments. • CSM can provides sinusoidal force cycles at high frequencies. • Change in contact stiffness can give us fatigue behavior as contact stiffness is sensitive to damage formation.

High temperature measurement
Nanindentation with or without calibration

• Temperature match btw. indenter and sample is important for precision test. • Prior depth calibration and post thermal drift correct are necessary.

Nanomechanical testing
• Tests
– Nanohardness/Elastic modulus – Continuous Stiffness Measurements – Acoustic Emmisions – Properties at Various Temperature – Friction Coefficient – Wear Tests – Adhesion – NanoScratch Resistance – Fracture Toughness – Delamination

• Common Applications
– – – – – – – – – – – – Fracture Analysis Anti-Wear Films Lubricant Effect Paints and Coatings Nanomachining Bio-materials Metal-Matrix Composites Diamond Like Carbon Coatings Semiconductors Polymers Thin Films Testing and Development Property/Processing Relationships