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Indicator Color change with pH increased pH range

Picric acid Colorless - Yellow 0.1 – 0.8


Thymol Blue Red - Yellow 1.2 – 2.8
2,6-dinitrophenol Colorless – Yellow 2.0 – 4.0
Yellow methyl Red – Yellow 2.9 – 4.0
Bromphenol blue Yellow – Blue 3.0 – 4.6
Methyl orange Red – Yellow 3.1. – 4.4.
Bromcresol green Yellow – Blue 3.8 – 5.4
Methyl red Yellow – Red 4.2 – 6.2
Litmus Red – Blue 4.5 – 8.3
Methyl purple Purple – Green 4.8 – 5.4
p-nitrophenol Colorless - Yellow 5.0 – 7.0
Broncresol purple Yellow – Purple 5.2 – 6.8
Bromcresol blue Yellow – Blue 6.0 – 7.6
Neutral red Red – Yellow 6.8 -8.0
Phenol red Yellow – Red 6.8 – 8.4
p-α-naphtolphthalein Yellow – Blue 7.0 – 9.0
Phenolphthalein Colorless – Pink 8.0 – 9.6
Tymolphthlaein Colorless – Blue 9.3 – 10.6
Alizarin yellow R Yellow – Violet 10.1 – 12.0
1,3,5-trinitrobenzena Colorless - Orange 12.0 – 14.0
pH(Cont’d)

As we can see from the table above, each


indicator has its specific range.

So when we want to do titration where the


prediction of pH will be around 8.0 – 9.0,
the indicator used will be…
Phenolphthalein

Solution SBI 2008 34


pH(Cont’d)

Now, let’s back to the pH calculation. We have


learned how to calculate pH for strong acid and
base. Can the same formulae be used straight
way for weak acid and base?

Well, the formulae to calculate pH and pOH are


basically the same, but how to calculate [H+]
and [OH-] are different.

As an example how to calculate concentration of


[H+] let’s see what happen for a weak acid HA

Solution SBI 2008 35


pH(Cont’d)
Weak acid HA (with the valency
of 1) will be ionized as follows:
+ -
HA H + A
The Ka value for this acid is then
+ -
[H ][A ] As the concentration acid dissociated is
Ka = too small compared to the initial con-
[HA] centration, so [HA] = [Acid] – x = [Acid]
With x the acid which has been dissociated
In this case: The equilibrium equation is then:
[H+] = [A-], so
[H+][A-] = [H+]2
Solution SBI 2008 36
pH(Cont’d)
+ 2 + 2
[H ] [H ]
Ka = or Ka =
[HA] [Acid]
+
So we calculate [H ] as

+
[H ] = Ka [acid]

When ionization degree (α)is known, then to


calculate the acid which has been dissociated as:
[H+] = α x [acid]

To find the concentration of [OH-] from weak base, the


same way as the weak acid applies.

Solution SBI 2008 37


pH(Cont’d)

Example 1.
Please calculate pH of 6.0 g CH3COOH which is
dissolved in 1000 mL solution (assume Ka as 1
x 10-5)
Answer: Calculate the [H+]
First find the concentration of acid.
M = (mass/Mr) x (1000/volume) =
(6/60)(1000/1000)
+
[H ] = Ka [acid]
= 0.1 M
pH = -log [H+]
= -log 10-3
=3
[H+] = V1 x 10-5 x 0.1
-3 Solution SBI 2008 38
pH(Cont’d)

Example 2. 1.75 g of NH4OH (Mr= 35 and Kb 1 x


10-5) is dissolved up to 500 mL, calculate the pH
of this solution!

Question of Solution
1. Which of the following solution has the highest
molarity in 1000 mL solution? (Mr H2SO4 =98,
HCl=36.5, HBr=81, H3PO4=98)
a. 1.96 g H2SO4 b. 1.46 g HCl c. 0.81 g HBr
d. 0.98 g H3PO4
2. Based on question no. 1, the pH of H2SO4 will
be
Solution SBI 2008 39
pH(Cont’d)
Question of Solution
3. Which of the following base solution can
neutralize HCl solution in question 1?
a. 40 mL NaOH 0.5 M b. 20 mL NaOH 1 M c.
40 mL NaOH d. 60 mL NaOH 0.5 M
4. Based on question no. 1, if α of H2SO4 is 1, the
solution will boil at (ρ=1, Kb of water=0.52
°C/mole)
a. 100.0312°C b. 100.0624°C c. 100.0156°C
d. none is correct
5. If R=0.082 Latm/K.mole and temperature is
27°C, α H3PO4 is 0.85, the osmotic pressure of
H3PO4 in question 1 will be.. (in atm)
a. 0.123 b. 0.246 c. 0.492 d. Solution
0.984 SBI 2008 40
pH(Cont’d)
Question of Solution
6. Which of the following HCl has a concentration
equal to HBr in question 1 (all HCl in 100 mL,
Mr 36.5)?
a. 36.5 g b. 3.65 g c. 3.65 mg d. 36.5
mg
7. What is ionization degree of HCN 1 M if
Ka 6.25 x 10-10
a. 6.25 x 10-5 b. 6.25 x 10-2 c. 2.5 x 10-5 d. 2.5
x 10-2
8. pH of HA acid which concentration of 0.08 M is
3. Calculate the Ka and α !!!! (essay)

Solution SBI 2008 41