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Analyzing Data

Lesson 2-1 Rational Numbers on the Number Line

Lesson 2-2 Adding and Subtracting Rational Numbers

Lesson 2-3 Multiplying Rational Numbers

Lesson 2-4 Dividing Rational Numbers

Lesson 2-5 Statistics: Displaying and Analyzing Data

Lesson 2-6 Probability: Simple Probability and Odds

Lesson 2-7 Square Roots and Real Numbers

Example 1 Identify Coordinates on a Number Line

Example 2 Graph Numbers on a Number Line

Example 3 Absolute Value of Rational Numbers

Example 4 Expressions with Absolute Value

Name the coordinates of the points graphed on the

number line.

Name the coordinates of the points graphed on the

number line.

continues infinitely in that direction.

Name the coordinates of the points graphed on each

number line.

a.

b.

Graph .

Answer:

Graph {–1.5, 0, 1.5, …}.

Answer:

Graph {integers less than –6 or greater than or

equal to 1}.

Answer:

Graph each set of numbers.

a. {–5, 2, 3, 5}

Answer:

b.

Answer:

c. {integers less than or equal to –2 or greater than 4}

Answer:

Find .

Answer:

Find .

Answer:

Find each absolute value.

a. Answer:

b. Answer: 6.3

Replace y with 12.

Answer: Simplify.

Answer: 10

Example 1

Use a Number Line to Add Rational Numbers

Example 2 Add Rational Numbers

Example 3

Subtract Rational Numbers to Solve a Problem

Use a number line to find .

–5

+8

Step 2 Then draw a second arrow 5 units to the left to

represent adding –5.

Step 3 The second arrow ends at the sum 3.

Answer:

Use a number line to find .

–4 –1

Step 2 Draw a second arrow 4 units to the left.

Step 3 The second arrow ends at the sum –5.

Answer:

Use a number line to find each sum.

a. Answer: –3

b. Answer: –9

Find .

absolute value from the

greater absolute value.

greater absolute value is

–14, the sum is negative.

Answer:

Find .

negative, so the sum

is negative.

Answer:

Find each sum.

a. Answer: –17

b. Answer:

Stocks In the past year, a publishing company’s stock

went from $52.08 per share to $70.87 per share. Find

the change in the price of the stock.

Explore The stock price began at $52.08 per share and

ended at $70.87. You need to determine the

change in price for the year.

Plan Subtract to find the change in price.

70.87 52.08

Solve

To subtract 52.08,

add its inverse.

Subtract the

absolute values.

of 70.87 is greater,

so the result is

positive.

Answer: The price of the stock changed by $18.79.

price in the past year. Since the change in price

was positive, the price increased. This makes

sense since the ending price is more than the

beginning price.

Stocks The stock in a company went from $46.98 to

$35.09 over a one-month period. Find the change in

price for the stock.

Answer: –$11.89

Example 1 Multiply Integers

Example 2 Simplify Expressions

Example 3 Multiply Rational Numbers

Example 4

Multiply Rational Numbers to Solve a Problem

Example 5 Evaluate Expressions

Find (–8)(–6).

Answer: 48

Find (10)(–11).

Answer: –110

Find each product.

b. (–6)(–12) Answer: 72

Simplify the expression

Substitution

Distributive Property

Answer: Simplify.

Simplify the expression

Answer: 3x

Find

Answer:

Find

Answer:

Stocks The value of a company’s stock dropped by

$1.25 per share. By what amount did the total value of

the company’s stock change if the company has

issued 500,000 shares of stock?

To find the change in the total value of the company’s

stock, multiply the price lost per share by the number

of shares.

changed by –$625,000.

Construction A construction project is stopped by a

winter storm. For every day that they are unable to

work, the company loses $35,000. If the storm keeps

them from working for 4 days, how much money do

they lose?

Answer: –$140,000

Substitution

Answer:

Example 1 Divide Integers

Example 2 Simplify Before Dividing

Example 3 Divide Rational Numbers

Example 4

Divide Rational Numbers to Solve a Problem

Example 5 Simplify Algebraic Expressions

Example 6 Evaluate Algebraic Expressions

Find .

Find .

Divide.

Find each quotient.

a. Answer: 20

b. Answer: –15

Simplify

Multiply.

negative quotient

Simplify

Answer: 3

Find .

different signs →

negative quotient

Find .

of

Find each quotient.

a. Answer: 15.3

b. Answer:

Baseball The perimeter of a square baseball diamond

is 360 feet. Find the length of one side of the diamond.

number of sides.

The perimeter of a triangular building is 450 feet. Find

the length of each side.

Simplify

indicates division.

Multiply by

Distributive Property.

Answer: Simplify.

Simplify

Answer:

Evaluate if w = 2, x = –9.1 and y = 4.

and y with 4.

denominator separately.

different signs → negative quotient

Evaluate if s = 2.3, t = 5 and u = –4.

Answer: –14.375

Example 1 Create a Line Plot

Example 2 Use a Line Plot to Solve a Problem

Example 3 Create a Stem-and-Leaf Plot

Example 4 Back-to-Back Stem-and-Leaf Plot

Example 5 Analyze Data

Example 6

Determine the Best Measure of Central Tenden

Draw a line plot for the data.

11 –2 10 –2 7 2 7 4 9 0 6 9 7 2 0 4 10 7 6 9

construct a number line containing these values.

Step 2 Then place an × a number for each

time it occurs.

Draw a line plot for the data.

3 5 7 6 0 –4 6 4 7 0 0 –2 3 7

Answer:

Traffic The highway patrol did a radar survey of the

speeds of cars along a stretch of highway for 1

minute. The speeds (in miles per hour) of the 20

cars that passed are listed below.

72 70 72 74 68 69 70 72 74 75

79 75 74 72 70 64 69 66 68 67

Make a line plot of the data.

The lowest value is 64 and the highest value is 79, so use

a scale that includes those values. Place an × above each

value for each occurrence.

Answer:

Which speed occurs the most frequently?

72 miles per hour occurs most frequently.

Family Size Students in Mrs. Barrett’s class listed the

number of family members in their households below.

6 4 8 3 3 5 4 4 3 5 5 2 5 6 3 5 6 2 4 4 4

a. Make a line plot of the data.

Answer:

Answer: 4

Use the data below to make a stem-and-leaf plot.

85 116 100 121 123 131 88 97 99 116

79 90 110 129 108 93 84 75 70 132

the tens place are the stems.

Answer: Stem Leaf

7 0589

8 4558

9 022379

10 0478

11 04566

12 1369

13 112

Use the data below to make a stem-and-leaf plot.

3 5 7 11 10 15 21 11

13 25 32 37 21 10 12

0 357

1 0011235

2 115

3 27

Weather Monique wants to compare the monthly

average high temperatures of Dallas and Atlanta

before she decides to which city she wants to move.

The table shows the monthly high temperatures (°F)

for both cities.

Monthly Average

High Temperature

Dallas Atlanta

54 59 68 77 50 55 64 72

83 91 95 95 75 85 88 87

87 78 66 57 81 72 63 54

Make a stem-and-leaf plot to compare the data.

To compare the data we can use a back-to-back stem-

and-leaf plot. Since the data represent similar

measurements, the plot will share a common stem.

9 7 4 5 0 4 5

8 6 6 3 4

8 7 7 2 2 5

7 3 8 1 5 7 8

5 5 1 9

What is the difference between the highest average

temperatures in each city?

Answer: 95 – 88 or 7°

Which city has higher average temperatures?

we can see that Dallas has a higher number of average

temperatures above 80°.

Ms. Smith wants to compare the final grades for

two of her classes. The table shows the scores for

both classes.

Class A Class B

87 96 99 76

81 51 62 57

92 98 77 83

76 75 72 85

71 64 69 91

a. Make a back-to-back stem-and-leaf plot to compare

the data.

1 5 7

4 6 2 9

6 5 1 7 2 6 7

7 1 8 3 5

8 6 2 9 1 9

b. What is the difference between the highest score

in each class?

Answer: 1 point

grading period?

Answer: Class A

Which measure of central tendency best

represents the data?

Stem Leaf

4 11244458

5 0

6 257

7 39

8 1

Determine the mean, median, and mode.

The mean is about 5.5. Add the data and divide by 15.

Answer: Either the median or the mode best represent

the set of data since both measures are located in the

center of the majority of the data. In this instance, the

mean is too high.

Which measure of central tendency best

represents the data?

Stem Leaf

1 011568

2 378

3 2

4 6

5 459

Answer: The mean is about 2.9. The median is 2.5. The

mode is 1.1. Either the mean or median can be used to

represent the data. The mode is too low.

Politics The number of electoral college votes for the

12 most populous states in the 2000 Presidential

election are listed below. Which measure of central

tendency best represents the data?

21 22 18 23 15 25

14 32 13 33 13 54

The mean is about 23.6. Add the data and divide by 12.

The median is 21.5. The middle value is 21.5.

The mode is 13. The most frequent value is 13.

Answer: Either the mean or median can be used to best

represent the data. The mode is too low.

The number of points scored by the basketball team

during each game in the season is listed below. Which

measure of central tendency best represents the data?

48 45 52 63 59 64 67 72 58

51 81 62 73 68 82 73 70 65

best represent the data. The mode is too high.

Example 1 Find Probabilities of Simple Events

Example 2 Odds of an Event

Example 3 Odds Against an Event

Example 4 Probability and Odds

Find the probability of rolling a number greater

than 2 on a die.

are favorable. That is, four of the six outcomes are

numbers greater than two.

4 numbers

greater than 2

Sample space: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

6 possible

outcomes

Answer:

A class contains 6 students with black hair, 8 with

brown hair, 4 with blonde hair, and 2 with red hair.

Find P(black).

There are 6 students with black hair and 20 total students.

number of favorable outcomes

number of possible outcomes

Simplify.

hair is

A class contains 6 students with black hair, 8 with

brown hair, 4 with blonde hair, and 2 with red hair.

Find P(red or brown).

brown hair. So there are 2 + 8 or 10 students with red

or brown hair.

number of possible outcomes

Simplify.

Answer: The probability of selecting a student with red

or brown hair is

A class contains 6 students with black hair, 8 with

brown hair, 4 with blonde hair, and 2 with red hair.

Find P(not blonde).

There are 6 + 8 + 2 or 16 students who do not have

blonde hair.

number of favorable outcomes

number of possible outcomes

Simplify.

a. Find the probability of rolling a

number less than 3 on a die.

Answer:

green gumballs, 50 yellows gumballs, and 40 blue

gumballs. Find P(red).

Answer:

c. A gumball machine contains 40 red gumballs, 30

green gumballs, 50 yellows gumballs, and 40 blue

gumballs. Find P(green or yellow).

Answer:

green gumballs, 50 yellows gumballs, and 40 blue

gumballs. Find P(not blue).

Answer:

Find the odds of rolling a number greater than 2.

There are six possible outcomes, 4 are successes and

2 are failures.

4 numbers

greater than 2

Sample space: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

2 numbers

less than or

equal to 2

Find the odds of rolling a number less than 4.

Answer:

A card is selected at random from a standard

deck of 52 cards. What are the odds against

selecting a 2 or 3?

there are 52 – 4 – 4 or 44 cards that are not a 2 or a 3.

a 2 or 3

number of ways to pick

a 2 or 3

A card is selected at random from a standard

deck of 52 cards. What are the odds against

selecting a 5, 6, or 7?

Answer: 10:3

Travel Melvin is waiting to

board a flight to Washington,

D.C. According to the airline, the flight he is waiting for

is on time 80% of the times it flies. What are the odds

that the plane will be on time?

the probability that it will not be on time is 20%.

Answer: The odds that the plane will be on time are 4:1.

If the probability that it will snow this weekend is 70%,

what are the odds that it will snow?

Answer: 7:3

Example 1 Find Square Roots

Example 2 Classify Real Numbers

Example 3 Graph Real Numbers

Example 4 Compare Real Numbers

Example 5 Order Real Numbers

Example 6 Rational Approximation

Find .

roots of

Answer:

Find .

Answer:

Find each square root.

a. Answer:

b. Answer: 0.6

Name the set or sets of numbers to which

belongs.

neither a repeating nor terminating decimal, this number

is irrational.

Name the set or sets of numbers to which

belongs.

, which is a repeating decimal,

the number is a rational number.

Name the set or sets of numbers to which

belongs.

natural number, a whole number, an integer and

a rational number.

Name the set or sets of numbers to which –327

belongs.

rational number.

Name the set or sets of numbers to which each real

number belongs.

a. Answer: rationals

rationals

c. Answer: irrationals

Graph .

are included in the graph. The dot at 8 indicates that 8 is

included in the graph.

Graph .

The heavy arrow indicates that all the points to the right of

–5 are included in the graph. The circle at –5 indicates

that –5 is not included in the graph.

Graph each solution set.

a.

Answer:

b.

Answer:

Replace the • with <, >, or = to make the

sentence true.

Answer:

Replace the • with <, >, or = to make the

sentence true.

Answer:

Replace each • with <, >, or = to make each

sentence true.

a. Answer: <

b. Answer: <

Write in order from least

or about 2.4495

or about 2.4444

greatest are

Write in order from least

to greatest.

Answer:

Multiple-Choice Test Item

A –5 B 0 C D 5

The expression is an open sentence,

replacement set.

Solve the Test Item

Replace x in with each given value.

B

C

Use a calculator.

0.447214 < 1 < 2.236068 True

D

Use a calculator.

2.236068 < 1 < 0.447214 False

Multiple-Choice Test Item

A 3 B –3 C 0 D

Answer: A

Explore online information about the

information introduced in this chapter.

Click on the Connect button to launch your browser

and go to the Algebra 1 Web site. At this site, you

will find extra examples for each lesson in the

Student Edition of your textbook. When you finish

exploring, exit the browser program to return to this

presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting

to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser

and go to www.algebra1.com/extra_examples.

Click the mouse button or press the

Space Bar to display the answers.

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Space Bar to display the answers.

Click the mouse button or press the

Space Bar to display the answers.

Click the mouse button or press the

Space Bar to display the answers.

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