Project Team Building, Conflicts, and Negotiation

Identify Necessary Skills Identify People With Skills Talk to Potential Team Members Negotiate with Their Supervisor

Building the Project Team
Renegotiate with Top Management

Success? Yes Assemble the Team

No Yes Success? No Build Fallback Positions

Identify People With Skills • Train or hire • Fixed-term contract or permanent employment Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-3 .

Negotiate with The Functional Supervisors • How long the team member’s services required? • Who should choose the person? • What happens when special circumstances arise? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-4 .

Build Fallback Positions • Try to negotiate for partial assistance • Adjust project schedules and priorities accordingly • Notify top management of the consequences .

Assemble the team • Skill inventory matrix • Responsibility matrix Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-6 . Inc.

Effective Project Teams Clear Sense of Mission Productive Interdependency Cohesiveness Trust Enthusiasm:  Challenging. supportive. personally rewarding Results Orientation .

low priority Poor communication Poor leadership: one style may not fit all Turnover among project team members Dysfunctional behavior .Reasons Why Teams Fail • • • • • • • Poorly developed or unclear goals: Multiple interpretations. increased number of conflicts Poorly defined project team roles & interdependencies Lack of project team motivation: Unnecessary. lack of willingness to work together.

Stages in Group Development 1. Forming – members become acquainted 2. Storming – conflict begins 3. Performing – members work together 5. Norming – members reach agreement 4. Adjourning – group disbands .

Team Development Stages 4. Performing Adjourn Trust Flexible Supportive Confident Efficient High Morale Convene 1. Norming 2. Forming Quiet Polite Guarded Impersonal Business-like High Morale Productive Organized Establish procedures Develop team skills Confront issues Rebuild morale Testing Infighting Conflict over control Confrontational Alienation Personal agendas Low morale 3. Storming .

Achieving Cross-Functional Cooperation Superordinate Goals Task Outcomes Rules & Procedures Cross-functional cooperation Physical Proximity PsychoSocial Outcomes Accessibility .

Building High-Performing Teams Make the project team tangible – Publicity – Terminology & language Reward good behavior – Flexibility – Creativity – Pragmatism Develop a personal touch – Lead by example – Positive feedback for good performance – Accessibility & consistency .

Virtual Project Teams use electronic media to link members of a geographically dispersed project team How Can Virtual Teams Be Improved?  Use face-to-face communication when possible  Don’t let team members disappear  Establish a code of conduct  Keep everyone in the communication loop  Create a process for addressing conflict .

Conflict Management .

Conflict Management Conflict is a process that begins when you perceive that someone has frustrated or is about to frustrate a major concern of yours. Conflicts evolve: One-time causes of a conflict can change over time (the original reason may not matter). .

Categories • • • Goal-oriented conflict: • Results. project scope outcomes. criteria. control. decisions Interpersonal conflict: • Personality. authority. work ethics – GOOD or BAD conflicts – . priorities Administrative conflict: • Reporting relationships. bahaviour.

Views • • • Traditional: bad: supression. elimination Behavioral: acceptance: managing Interactionist: encouraging conflict to develop .

project) Competition for resources Uncertainty (authority) Differentiation (subcultures) • Interpersonal Faulty attributions (reasons behind behaviour) Faulty communication Personal grudges & prejudices (bringing attitudes to work) • • • • .Sources of Conflict • • Organizational Reward systems (function vs.

Conflict Resolution  Mediate – defusion/confrontation  Arbitrate – judgment  Control – cool down period  Accept – unmanageable  Eliminate – transfer Conflict is often evidence of progress! .

Conflict Resolution • Questions before intervening: – – – – Project manager’s siding? Professional or personal conflict? Can the members solve the conflict themselves? Time and inclination of the project manager? .

Negotiation a(n) (interpersonal) process that is predicated on a manager’s ability to use influence productively Who to negotiate with? .Stakeholders .Team members .Clients .Administration .Functional managers .

Questions to Ask Prior to Entering a Negotiation 1. What sort of time pressures are there? 3. Do I trust my opponent? . How much power do I have? 2.

Insist on using objective criteria.Principled Negotiation 1. broadening options. not positions Possibility to find other alternatives 3. brainstorming. multiple solutions. • Invent options for mutual gain Win-win situation. identify shared interests 4. • • • • Separate the people from the problem Put yourself in their shoes Do not deduce their intentions from your fear Do not blame the opponent for your problem Recognize and understand emotions • • Listen actively (motivation behind words) Build a working relationship (building trust) 2. • Focus on interests (fundamental motivations). understandable for both parties .

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 6-24 .Thanks for your attention! Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.