07 PPP TTE Heat Exchanger Inspection | Heat Exchanger | Corrosion

INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS

© Matthews Engineering Training Ltd

INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS
Shell-and-tube type Plate type

We will look mainly at these (most are statutory equipment as they contain ‘relevant fluids’)
© Matthews Engineering Training Ltd

INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS

Some heat exchanger technical standards
TEMA 8th Ed :‘Standards for design and construction of heat exchangers’

API 662 :Plate heat exchanger specifications
API 660 :Shell and tube heat exchangers for general refinery service ASME PTC 39 : Air cooled heat exchangers
© Matthews Engineering Training Ltd

INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS The TEMA regulations (Tubular Equipment Manufacturers’ Association A USA technical standard ( but also used for guidance in most other countries) TEMA is the main design document of interest to inspectors © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

Flow –induced vibration 7.Nomenclature (names of heat exchanger components) 2.General fabrication information Most useful 4.INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS TEMA sections 1.Design information inspectors 6.Properties of fluids 9/10: Recommended good practice © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .Manufacturing tolerances 3.Performance and operation parts for 5.Thermodynamics 8.

C and B High risk R: Severe applications : Petrochemical industry C: Moderate applications:General process uses B: Chemical process service Low risk RCB= Differences in : Minimum corrosion allowance Tube pitch.shell thickness and other design parameters © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS TEMA classes : R.

First letter :Front end arrangement Second letter :Shell flow path Third letter :Back end arrangement TEMA EXCHANGERS ARE CLASSIFIED BY TYPE :USING A 3LETTER ACRONYM © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TEMA EXCHANGER TYPES E A Exchanger type AES S © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

A: Channel and removable cover TEMA TYPES: ANOTHER EXAMPLE K: Reboiler configuration T:Pull-through floating head Kettle reboiler type AKT © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

CONTACT TYPE EXCHANGER 9% Cr alloy for high temperature steam attemporator © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

g ASME VIII-I © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .TEMA TECHNICAL CRITERIA TEMA covers ASME V111 Div 1 predominantly the tubesheet and tube components The pressure envelope is more often covered by pressure vessel code e.

TEMA EXAMPLE:NOZZLE TOLERANCES G max Major cause of overstressing of nozzle welds © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

IN-SERVICE INSPECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS 3 major areas of interest Common corrosion and erosion mechanisms Failure assessment to pressure envelope code requirements Failure assessment to TEMA requirements © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

IN-SERVICE INSPECTION Water jet cleaning before inspection Steam cleaning can cause distortions Light distillate is sometimes used BUT © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

IN-SERVICE INSPECTION Corrosion products should be sampled BEFORE water washing © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

IN-SERVICE INSPECTION Example of scale before water washing © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

IN-SERVICE INSPECTION In-service checks can be divided into 3 parts Shell Tube bundle Nozzles and fittings © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

SHELL INSPECTION OVERALL wall thinning (internal or external) Which is the most dangerous? LOCALISED wall thinning (internal or external) Remember: ‘isolated’ pitting is often ignored (according to API 510) © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd ??? .

(See inspection exercise) .SHELL INSPECTION COMMON MECHANISMS ARE: External CUI Internal wastage (impingement/erosion/corr osion) Creep damage (>400 degC) SCC in stainless steel components Flange face ‘imperfections’ (often SCC) © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd Require a Code assessment.

SHELL INSPECTION SOME EXAMPLES: External CUI Internal wastage (impingement/erosion/corr osion) Creep damage (>400 degC) SCC in stainless steel components Flange face ‘imperfections’ (often SCC) © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

SHELL INSPECTION MORE FLANGE FACE PROBLEMS: © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

SHELL INSPECTION TEMA gives limits on RF flange face imperfections Measurement in radial direction © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

SHELL INSPECTION Limits of imperfections in RF flange faces © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION SOME EXAMPLES: Tubeplate ligament erosion/cracking Leaking tube-to-tubesheet joints Tubesheet distortion Scaling/corrosion of tubes Cracking/erosion of flow baffles Some of these require a Code assessment. (See inspection exercise) © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION Tube pitch may be square or triangular (different TEMA rules for each) Erosion More difficult to mechanically clean outside Ligament © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION CuNi tubes can suffer from galvanic corrosion caused by graphite Graphite is used as a mandrel lubricant during manufacture of the tube © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION Some types suffer from intergranular corrosion Ti tubes can suffer from problems due to incomplete annealing © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION Expanded (rolled)into tubesheet :some are seam welded Standout d Rules of thumb for inspections • <5%Tube plugging (approx 1-2% taper) • Max tube standout (d/3?) • Reamed tubesheet hole (minimum expansion contact required over hole length) © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION The internal joint is rarely seal welded (poor access) Note threaded tie bar © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION Tubeplate bore measurement using a 3-point device © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION Tube-to-tubesheet joints can suffer crevice corrosion © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION Common internal pitting © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

Eddy current testing © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .TUBE BUNDLE INSPECTION NDT of heat exchanger tubes 1. Borescope (90º head) 2.

A probe induces eddy currents into the material 2.ECT INSPECTION OF TUBES ECT can locate: Wall thinning (loss of material due to corrosion) Surface breaking cracks (only) Principle: 1.Cracks or lack of material affects the response and is measured by an electric circuit © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

ECT INSPECTION OF TUBES Probe traversed through each tube © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

ECT INSPECTION OF TUBES Note defect categorisation © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

FITTINGS:BAFFLE IMPINGEMENT Maximum clearance (TEMA) between baffles and shell approx 5mm Wear is worst around inlet nozzle area Impingement wear © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd .

Heat exchangers are PRESSURE EQUIPMENT 2.INSPECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS KEY POINT SUMMARY 1. Specialised NDT techniques (ECT) 4. Corrosion/damage requires an assessment against code WHAT IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THESE? © Matthews Engineering Training Ltd . Hundreds of different designs(TEMA categories) 3. Heat exchangers are often (statutory) coded equipment 5.

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