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Communications

Energy Efficiency Issues

Fall 2004

University of Oulu, Finland

Node Energy Model

A typical node has a sensor system, A/D conversion circuitry, DSP and a

radio transceiver. The sensor system is very application dependent. As

discussed in the Introduction lecture the node communication components

are the ones who consume most of the energy on a typical wireless sensor

node. A simple model for a wireless link is shown below

Node Energy Model

The energy consumed when sending a packet of m bits over one hop

wireless link can be expressed as,

where,

ET = energy used by the transmitter circuitry and power

amplifier

ER = energy used by the receiver circuitry

PT = power consumption of the transmitter circuitry

PR = power consumption of the receiver circuitry

Tst = startup time of the transceiver

Eencode = energy used to encode

Edecode = energy used to decode

Node Energy Model

Assuming a linear relationship for the energy spent per bit at the transmitter

and receiver circuitry ET and ER can be written as,

(

ET (m, d ) = m eTC + eTA d α )

E R (m) = me RC

eTC, eTA, and eRC are hardware dependent parameters and α is the path loss

exponent whose value varies from 2 (for free space) to 4 (for multipath

channel models). The effect of the transceiver startup time, Tst, will

greatly depend of the type of MAC protocol used. To minimize power

consumption it is desired to have the transceiver in a sleep mode as

much as possible however constantly turning on and off the transceiver

also consumes energy to bring it to readiness for transmission or

reception.

Node Energy Model

An explicit expression for eTA can be derived as,

α

S 4π

( NFRx )( N 0 )( BW )

N r λ

eTA =

(Gant )(η amp )( Rbit )

Where,

(S/N)r = minimum required signal to noise ratio at the receiver’s

demodulator for an acceptable Eb/N0

NFrx = receiver noise figure

N0 = thermal noise floor in a 1 Hertz bandwidth (Watts/Hz)

BW = channel noise bandwidth

λ = wavelength in meters

α = path loss exponent

Gant = antenna gain

ηamp = transmitter power efficiency

Rbit = raw bit rate in bits per second

Node Energy Model

The expression for eTA can be used for those cases where a particular

hardware configuration is being considered. The dependence of eTA on

(S/N)r can be made more explicit if we rewrite the previous equation as:

α

4π

( NFRx )( N 0 )( BW )

eTA = ξ ∗ ( S N ) r where ς= λ

(Gant )(η amp )( Rbit )

how eTA and the probability of bit error p are related. p depends on Eb/N0

which in turns depends on (S/N)r. Note that Eb/N0 is independent of the

data rate. In order to relate Eb/N0 to (S/N)r, the data rate and the system

bandwidth must be taken into account, i.e.,

Node Energy Model

(S N ) r = ( Eb N 0 )( R BT ) = γ b ( R BT )

where

Eb = energy required per bit of information

R = system data rate

BT = system bandwidth

γb = signal-to-Noise ratio per bit, i.e., (Eb/N0)

Typical Bandwidth

Modulation Method

(Null-To-Null)

QPSK, DQPSK 1.0 x Bit Rate

MSK 1.5 x Bit Rate

BPSK, DBPSK, OFSK 2.0 x Bit Rate

Node Energy Model

Power Scenarios

There are two possible power scenarios:

Variable transmission power. In this case the radio dynamically adjust its

transmission power so that (S/N)r is fixed to guarantee a certain level of

Eb/N0 at the receiver. The transmission energy per bit is given by,

S

Transmission energy per bit = eTAd α = ς d α

N r

Since (S/N)r is fixed at the receiver this also means that the probability p

of bit error is fixed to the same value for each link.

Node Energy Model

Fixed transmission power. In this case the radio uses a fixed power for all

transmissions. This case is considered because several commercial radio

interfaces have a very limited capability for dynamic power adjustments.

In this case eTA d α is fixed to a certain value (ETA) at the transmitter and the

(S/N)r at the receiver will then be,

S ETA

= α

N r ς d

Since for most practical deployments d is different for each link then

(S/N)r will also be different for each link. This translates on a different

probability of bit error for wireless hop.

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

Let’s consider the following linear sensor array

communication process the energy spent in encoding, decoding, as well

as on the transceiver startup is not considered in the analysis that follows.

Let’s initially assume that there is one data packet being relayed from the

node farthest from the sink node towards the sink

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

The total energy consumed by the linear array to relay a packet of m bits

from node n to the sink is then,

[

] ∑ [e

]

n

Elinear = m eTC + eTA (d1 )α + TC + eRC α

+ eTA (d i )

i =2

or

∑ [e ]

n

α

= m − eRC + TC + eRC + eTA (d i )

i =1

It then can be shown that Elinear is minimum when all the distances di’s are

made equal to D/n, i.e. all the distances are equal.

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

It can also be shown that the optimal number of hops is,

D D

nopt = or

d d

char char

where

1

e + eRC α

d char = TC

eTA (α − 1)

Note that only depends on the path loss exponent α and on the

transceiver hardware dependent parameters. Replacing the of dchar in the

expression for Elinear we have,

Elinear = m − e RC

α −1

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

A more realistic assumption for the linear sensor array is that there is a

uniform probability along the array for the occurrence of events. In this

case, on the average, each sensor will detect the same number of number

of events whose related information need to be relayed towards the sink.

Without loss of generality one can assume that each node senses an event

at some point in time. This means that sensor i will have to relay (n-i)

packets from the upstream sensors plus the transmission of its own

packet. The average energy per bit consumption by the linear array is,

∑ [( e ) ]

n

Elinear −bit = −ne RC + TC + e RC + eTA (d i )α ( n + 1 − i )

i =1

n

(e + e RC )n(n + 1)

= − ne RC + TC

2

+ eTA ∑

i =1

( n + 1 − i ) ( d i )α

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

n

Minimizing Elinear −bit with constraint D = ∑ d i is equivalent to

i =1

minimizing the following expression,

∑ [( n + 1 − i ) (d ) ]

n n

L = eTA

i =1

i

α

−λ

∑

i =1

di − D

with respect to di and equating to 0 gives,

∂L

= eTAα (n + 1 − i )(d i ) α −1 − λ = 0

∂d i

1

λ α −1

d i =

eTAα (n + 1 − i )

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks n

The value of λ can be obtained using the condition ∑ d i = D

i =1

Thus for α=2 the values for di are,

D

di =

n

∑

(1 i ) ( n + 1 − i )

i =1

For n=10 the next figure shows an equally spaced sensor array and a

linear array where the distances are computed using the equation above

(α=2)

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

The farther away sensors consume most of their energy by transmitting

through longer distances whereas the closer to the sink sensors consume a

large portion of their energy by relaying packets from the upstream sensors

towards the sink. The total energy per bit spent by a linear array with

equally spaced sensors is

− bit =

equidistant

Elinear

n(n + 1)

2

(

eTC + e RC + eTA ( D n ) − neRC

2

)

The total energy per bit spent by a linear array with optimum separation

and α=2 is,

n(n + 1) D2

E optimum

linear − bit = ( eTC + eRC ) + eTA n

− neRC

2

∑ (1 i )

i =1

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

For eTC= eTR= 50 nJ/bit, eTA= 100 pJ/bit/m , and α = 2, the total energy

2

is shown below.

Equally spaced Optimum spaced

0.12

0.10

Energy (m J)

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0.00

0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Energy Consumption - Multihop

Networks

The energy per bit consumed at node i for the linear arrays discussed can be

computed using the following equation. It is assumed that each node relays packet

from the upstream nodes towards the sink node via the closest downstream neighbor.

For simplicity sake only one transmission is used, e.g. no ARQ type mechanism

α

Elinear (i ) = [(n + 1 − i )(eTC + eTA d i ) + (n − i )e RC ]

Equally Spaced Optimum Spaced

8.0

Total Energy=72.5 u J

6.0

Energy (u J)

4.0

2.0

Total Energy = 47.8 u J

0.0

0 5 10 15 20

Error Control – Multihop WSN

For link i assume that the probability of bit error is pi. Assume a packet

length of m bits. For the analysis below assume that a Forward Error

Correction (FEC) mechanism is being used. Let’s then call plink(i) the

probability of receiving a packet with uncorrectable errors. Conventional

use of FEC is that a packet is accepted and delivered to the next stage

which in this case is to forward it to the next node downstream. The

probability of the packet arriving to the sink node with no errors is then:

n

Pc = ∏ (1 − plink (i ) )

i =1

Error Control – Multihop WSN

Let’s assume the case where all the di’s are the same, i.e. di = D/n. Since

variable transmission power mode is also being assumed then the

probability of bit error for each link is fixed and Pc is,

Pc = (1 − plink ) n

The value of plink will depend on the received signal to noise ratio as well

as on the modulation method used. For noncoherent (envelope or square-

law) detector with binary orthogonal FSK signals in a Rayleigh slow

fading channel the probability of bit error is

1

p FSK =

2+γb

Error Control – Multihop WSN

Consider a linear code (m, k, d) is being used. For FSK-modulation with

non-coherent detection and assuming ideal interleaving the probability of

a code word being in error is bounded by

M

2 wi − 1

∑

i =2

w i

PM <

(2 + γ )

b

d min

where wi is the weight of the ith code word and M=2k. A simpler bound is:

For the multihop scenario being discussed here plink = PM and the

probability of packet error can be written as:

Pe = 1 − Pc = 1 − (1 − plink ) n = 1 − (1 − PM ) n

Error Control – Multihop WSN

The probability of successful transmission of a single code word is,

Psuccess = (1 − Pe )

Radio parameters used to obtain the results shown in the next slides

Parameter Value

NFRx 10dB

N0 -173.8 dBm/Hz or 4.17 * 10-21 J

Rbit 115.2 Kbits

λ 0.3 m

Gant -10dB or 0.1

ηamp 0.2

α 3

BW For FSK-modulation, it is assumed to be the same as Rbit

eRC 50nJ/bit

eTC 50nJ/bit

Error Control – Multihop WSN

The expected energy consumption per information bit is defined as:

i − bit Elinear

Elinear =

k Psuccess

Parameters for the studied codes are shown in Table below, t is the

error correction capability.

Hamming 7 4 3 0.57 1

Golay 23 12 7 0.52 3

Shortened

6 3 3 0.5 1

Hamming

Extended

24 12 8 0.5 3

Golay

Error Control – Multihop WSN

Characteristic distance, dchar, as a function of bit error probability

for non-coherent FSK modulation

Characteristic distance

38

37

36

35

34

Meters

33

32

31

30

29

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

Bit error probability

Error Control – Multihop WSN

5

x 10 Energy consumtion with number of hops =10

4

(6,3,3)

(7,4,3) code

3.8 (23,12,7) code

(24,12,8) code

3.6

D = 1000 m

Energy consumption per useful bit

3.4

3.2

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.2

2

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

Bit error probability of the channel with FSKmod.

Error Control – Multihop WSN

5

x 10 Energy consumtion with number of hops =30

1.5

(6,3,3)

(7,4,3) code

(23,12,7) code

1.4 (24,12,8) code

D = 1000 m

1.3

Energy consumption per useful bit

1.2

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

Bit error probability of the channel with FSKmod.

Error Control – Multihop WSN

x 10

5

Energy consumtion with number of hops =60

5

(6,3,3)

(7,4,3) code

(23,12,7) code

4.5

(24,12,8) code

D = 1000 m

4

Energy consumption per useful bit

3.5

2.5

1.5

1

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

Bit error probability of the channel with FSKmod.

Error Control – Multihop WSN

5

x 10 Energy consumption of the (7,4,3) code

5

10 Hops

30 Hops

4.5 50 Hops

60 Hops

4 D = 1000 m

Energy consumption per useful bit

3.5

2.5

1.5

0.5

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

Bit error probability of the channel with noncoherent FSKmod.

Error Control – Multihop WSN

5

x 10 Energy consumption of the (24,12,8) code

4

10 Hops

30 Hops

50 Hops

3.5 60 Hops

D = 1000 m

Energy consumption per useful bit

2.5

1.5

0.5

0 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02 0.025 0.03

Bit error probability of the channel with noncoherent FSKmod.

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