# Session 12

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Session Objectives
• To study the concepts of linked list. • To study the different operations performed on the linked list.

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Session Topics

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A linked list is a data structure which is a collection of zero or more nodes where each node has some information. Between, each node in the list, there exists a logical relationship so that given the address of the first node, any node in that list can be obtained. Each node can hold the data along with a pointer field using which address of the next node can be obtained.
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Storage representation of a node
In a linked allocation technique, a node in a linked list has two fields. infowhich contains the actual information linkwhich contains address of the next node A node can be represented as a structure as follows struct node { int info; struct node *link; };
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A singly linked list is a linked list, where each node has designated field called link field which contains address of the next node. If there exists only one link field in each and every node In the list, then the list is a Singly Linked List.

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node first = 1004

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node 1004

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Pictorial Representation of Singly linked list

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Operations performed on singly linked list
• Inserting a node into the list • Deleting a node from the list • Display the contents of the list
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To insert an item at the front end 10
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Function to insert an item at the front end of the list
NODE insert_front(int item,NODE first) { NODE temp; temp = get_node(); /* Obtain a node */ temp->info = item; /* Insert the item */ temp->link = first; return temp; /* Return the first node */ }

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Function to obtain a new node from the availability list
NODE get_node() { NODE x; /* Try to allocate the required size of memory */ x = (NODE)malloc(sizeof(struct node)); if(x == NULL) { printf(“Out of memory\n”);/*Allocation failed*/ exit(0); } /* Allocation successful, return address */ return x; }
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To delete a node from the front end
first temp

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first

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Function to delete an item from the front end of the list
NODE delete_front(NODE first) { NODE temp; if(first == NULL) /* Is list empty */ { printf(“List empty\n”); return first; } /* Retain the address of the node to be deleted*/ temp = first; first = first->link; /* Update first */ /* Display and delete the front node */ printf(“The item deleted is %d\n”,temp->info); free_node(temp); return first; /* return address of first node */ } 12

To insert an item at the rear end
cur

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Function to insert an item at the rear end of the list
NODE insert_rear(int item, NODE first) { NODE temp; /* Node to be inserted */ NODE cur; /* To hold the address of the last node*/ temp = get_node(); temp ->info = item; temp->link = NULL; /* Return the new node created if list is empty*/ if(first==NULL) return temp; /* If list exists,obtain address of last node */ cur = first; while(cur->link != NULL) { cur = cur->link; } /* Insert the node at the end */ cur->link = temp; /* Return address of the first node */ return first; }

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Delete a node from the rear end
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After deleting first = NULL

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prev first

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Function to delete an item from the rear end of the list
NODE delete_rear(NODE first) { NODE cur,prev; if(first == NULL) { printf(“List empty!Cannot delete\n”); return first; } if(first ->link == NULL) { /* Only one node is present and delete it*/ printf(“The item to be deleted is %d\n”,first->info); freenode(first); /*Return to availability list */ first = NULL; return first; }

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contd….Function to delete an item from the rear end of the list
/* Obtain address of the last node and just previous to that */ prev = NULL; cur = first; while(cur->link!=NULL) { prev = cur; cur = cur->link; } printf(“The item deleted is %d\n”,cur->info); freenode(cur); /* Delete the last node */ prev->link = NULL; /* Node pointed to by prev is made the last node*/ return first; /* Return address of the first node */ } 17

Linear linked list containing the address of the first node in the link field of the last node results in a Circular Singly linked list or Circular list. last

Pictorial representation of Circular singly linked list

NOTE: In a circular list if the address of any node x is known, one can traverse the entire list from that node and thus, all nodes are reachable. Operations performed on a Circular list:
insert _front , insert_rear, delete_front, delete_rear

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To insert a node at the front end of a Circular list
last

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Function to insert an item at the front end of the Circular list
NODE insert_front(int item, NODE last) { NODE temp; temp=get_node();/*Create a new node to be inserted*/ temp->info = item; if(last == NULL)/* Make temp as the first node */ last = temp; else /*Insert at the front end */ temp->link = last->link; last->link = temp; /*Link last node to first node*/ return last; /* Return the last node */ }

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Insert a node at the rear end
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Function to insert an item at the rear end of the list
NODE insert_rear(int item,NODE last) { NODE temp; temp = get_node; /*Create a new node */ temp->info = item; if(last == NULL)/*Make temp as the first node*/ last = temp; else /*Insert at the rear end*/ temp->link = last->link; last->link = temp; /*Link last node to first node*/ return temp;/*Make the new node as the last node */ } 22

Delete a node from the front end
first last

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To delete an item from the front end

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Function to delete an item from the front end of the list
NODE delete_front(NODE last) { NODE temp,first; if(last == NULL) /* If no list exists */ { printf(“List is empty\n”); return NULL; } if(last->link ==last) /* Is there only one node? */ { printf(“The item deleted is %d\n”,last->info); free_node(last); return NULL; } first=last->link; /*Obtain the item to be deleted*/ /*Store new first node in link of last*/ last->link = first->link; printf(“The item deleted is %d\n”,first->info); free_node(first); /*Delete the old first node */ return last; }

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Function to delete a node from the rear end
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To delete a node from the rear end

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After deleting a node from the rear end

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Function to delete a node from the rear end
NODE delete_rear(NODE last){ NODE prev; if(last == NULL) /* If no list exists */ { printf(“List is empty\n”); return NULL; } if(last->link ==last) /* Is there only one node? */ { printf(“The item deleted is %d\n”,last->info); free_node(last); return NULL; } prev = last->link; /*Obtain address of previous node*/ while(prev->link != last) prev = prev->link; prev->link = last->link;/*prev node is made the last node*/ printf(“The item deleted is %d\n”,last->info); free_node(last);/*Delete the old node*/ return prev; /* return the new last node */

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Summary