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1 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.

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Cell Resource
2 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Cell Resource KPI
Describing the triggering mechanisms and rules of the most important
counters belonging to Cell Resource Table.
Describing the most important KPI of the Cell Resource Table:

Power measurements UL
PrxNoise
Cell Load estimations UL
Power measurements DL
Cell Load estimations DL
Code Blocking Rate
Cell Availability
3 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The counters are dependent on the RNP parameters
PrxTarget [dB] and PrxOffset [dB].

If PrxNoise autotuning is allowed, you should remember
this when interpreting measurement results.

If PrxNoise autotuning is not allowed, PrxNoise counters
values do not change.

UL power measurements
4 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Fractional load
[0..1]
Load curve in UL
PrxTotal [dBm]

PrxTarget [dB]
PrxTarget [dB]+
PrxOffset [dB]
1
Noise Rise
NR [dB]
PrxNoise
[dBm]
UL Load curve
5 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Autotuning algorithm, refresh..
The auto-tuning algorithm adjusts the
PrxNoise value, thus moving the
reference point of the UL load curve and
the relevant parameters defining the
thresholds for the UL Admission Control
(see RANPAR material for more
details).

This means that all the areas can be
shifted up and down and a certain
measured value of PrxTotal may trigger
different areas during the day.

Autotuning algorithm should be on in
order to combat UL power spikes in the
admission phase.
With default values

WCEL: PrxNoise= -104dBm
RNC: PrxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute= 20dB

thus, the maximum autotuned value is -84dBm
Fractional load
[0..1]
0
Load curve in UL
PrxTotal [dBm]

PrxTarget [dB]
PrxTarget [dB]+
PrxOffset [dB]
1
Noise Rise
NR [dB]
PrxNoise
[dBm]
PrxNoise +
PrxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute
PrxNoise - PrxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute
6 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Prx Total measurements
BTS
RNC
NBAP-c: RADIO RESOURCE INDICATION
PrxTotal, PtxTotal
BTS reports total UL interference (RSSI)
Resolution 0.1 dB
Range [-112, ...,-50] dBm

RSSI_LEV _000: RSSI < -112.0 dBm
RSSI_LEV _001: -112.0 dBm <= RSSI < -111.9
dBm
RSSI_LEV _002: -111.9 dBm <= RSSI < -111.8
dBm
RSSI_LEV _619: -50.2 dBm <= RSSI < -50.1 dBm
RSSI_LEV _620: -50.1 dBm <= RSSI < -50.0 dBm
RSSI_LEV _621: -50.0 dBm <= RSSI
The value in dBm can be derived by:
[-112.0+ (RSSI_LEV)/10] dBm
7 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The BTS reports PrxTotal of each cell to the CRNC periodically in NBAP-c: RADIO
RESOURCE INDICATION message.
When the RRM (Radio Resource Management) in the RNC receives it, the relevant
PrxTotal counters are updated according to the defined 5 UL load areas. The counters
are already averaged values presented in dBm.
PrxTotal measurements
Sample 1 : Unloaded
Sample 2&3 : Feasible load area 1
Sample 4 : Feasible load area 2
Sample 5 : Marginal load area
Sample 6 : Overload area
X = collected sample of PrxTotal measurement
x
x
x
x
x
x
8 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The UL load areas (or classes) are defined in the following table:
CLASS AREA INCREMENTED IF
CLASS 0 Unloaded (Lrt=<UnloadedRT) AND (Lnrt=<UnloadedNRT)
CLASS 1 Feasible_Load_Area_1 (PrxTarget -PrxOffset >= PrxTotal ) AND ((Lrt>UnloadedRT) OR
(Lnrt>UnloadedNRT))
CLASS 2 Feasible_Load_Area_2 (PrxTarget > PrxTotal > PrxTarget -PrxOffset) AND
((Lrt>=UnloadedRT) OR (Lnrt>= UnloadedNRT))
CLASS 3 Marginal_Load_Area (PrxTarget + PrxOffset > PrxTotal >=PrxTarget) AND
((Lrt>UnloadedRT) OR (Lnrt> UnloadedNRT))
CLASS 4 Overload_Area (PrxTotal >= PrxTarget + PrxOffset) AND ((Lrt>UnloadedRT) OR
(Lnrt>UnloadedNRT))
Based on the these criteria above, the CLASS is selected and the measurement result (received
by every radio resource indication, typically every 200 ms) is assigned to the corresponding
counter AVE PRXTOT CLASS X.
The corresponding PRXTOT_DENOM_X is incremented by 1.
PrxTotal measurements
H
9 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Prx Total measurement
Class 0

According to the criteria above,
selection of class 0 is driven by
load estimation, not by power
measurement.

Due to external and inter-cell
interference the measurement
PrxTotal in Class O might result
to be higher than that in the other
load classes.
Class 0 is detected when own cell is considered unloaded (or very low load):

LRT s UnloadedRT (2%) and LNRT s UnloadedNRT (1%)

UnloadedRT and UnloadedNRT are RNC internal parameters
X = collected sample of PrxTotal measurement
U
N
L
O
A
D
E
D

A
R
E
A

10 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Average PrxTotal KPI
The Average PrxTotal KPI is the average uplink received interference power.




This KPI may be used to identify sites which are experiencing:
high uplink traffic load (configure additional carrier?)
high background interference
high uplink intercell interference (soft handover problem?)
problems with PrxTotal measurements (configuration errors during NodeB
commissioning)
The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis
| | dBm
k DENOM PRXTOT
k DENOM PRXTOT k CLASS PRXTOT AVE
Classes All k
Classes All k

=
=

_
_
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
Average done in Watt!
H
11 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

UL Noise Rise KPI
If autotuning algorithm is on (and RNC: PrxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute parameter value is set
large enough to allow the variation of PrxNoise value), excluding PrxTotal in Class 0 (that is
the PrxNoise) from the Ave PrxTotal KPI gives the UL Noise Rise


Load
Prx_total
100%
Prx_noise
0 _ _ _
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
_
_
CLASS PRXTOT AVE
k DENOM PRXTOT
k DENOM PRXTOT k CLASS PRXTOT AVE
NR
Classes All k
Classes All k

=
=
Load
NR

=
1
1
| | dB
H
12 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Time in Class X KPI
The Time in class X KPI is the percentage of time the cell has been in class X .






This KPI can be used for:

Percentage of time in class 3-4: useful to identify cells which are approaching the
point at which there may be significant rejected
capacity requests. This KPI may be use as a trigger
for a capacity upgrade process (i.e. by additional
carrier)
Percentage of time in class 0

The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis

| | % 100
_ _
_ _
_

= Classes All k
k DENOM PRXTOT
X DENOM PRXTOT
H
PrxTotal > PrxTarget PrxOffset
13 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Cell Noise
14 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

In case own cell is considered unloaded (i.e. Lrt<UnloadedRT and Lnrt<UnloadedNRT), the
received PrxTotal value is used by the autotuning algorithm to update the PrxNoise value.

AVE_PRX_NOISE counter is the average (over the measurement period) PrxNoise value used
in UL admission control.
It is updated in every radio resource indication period (typically 200ms). It gets the previous
value if cell load does not fulfill the unloaded conditions above. The real dBm value is
obtained when divided by -100.
PRX_NOISE_DENOM_1 counter is updated on every RRI (Radio Resource Indication)
message received.
It indicates interference when above ~ 100dBm (it can also be the sign of incorrect MHA
commissionning, see next slide).
The counter/KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis. The counter/KPI is dependent on auto
tuning algorithm.
Average PrxNoise, counter and KPI
H
15 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Min and Max PrxNoise
MAX_PRX_NOISE is updated if own cell is unloaded (i.e. Lrt<UnloadedRT and
Lnrt<UnloadedNRT) and the value of PrxTotal is smaller than the current value of
PrxNoise.
MIN_PRX_NOISE is updated if own cell is unloaded (i.e. Lrt<UnloadedRT and
Lnrt<UnloadedNRT) and the value of PrxTotal is bigger than the current value of
PrxNoise.
The real dBm value for both counters is obtained when divided by -100.
The average amplitude of PrxNoise variation (or Average APrxNoise) can be useful to
evaluate the nature of the interference, thus discriminate between continous/low
variation interference and short/high variation interference (e.g. when above ~5dB).

The counter/KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis. It is useful to detect
UL power spikes.
The counter/KPI is dependent on auto tuning algorithm.
H
16 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

NodeB commissioning parameters are used to adjust the reported interference level, PrxTotal, in
NBAP-c: RADIO RESOURCE INDICATION messages in order to have the UL interference
measurement referred at the correct reference point (with MHA in use, the antenna port ).
RNC WBTS
RRI: PrxTotal
BTS parameters:
L_feeder
G_mha
MHA_in_use
PrxTotal_BTS
PrxTotal_ANT
G_mha
L_feeder
BTS Calculation for RRI_PrxTotal:

If MHA_in_use is not in use (MHA_in_use =false)
RRI_PrxTotal = Prx_Total_BTS

If MHA_in_use is in use (MHA_in_use =true)
RRI_PrxTotal = PrxTotal_ANT = Prx_Total_BTS + L_feeder G_mha
UE
CPICH_RSCP
MHA commissioning parameters, refresh..
17 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Actually load counters values are estimations, not
measurements.
UL Cell Load estimations
18 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The received wideband channel interference power of the cell, PrxTotal, can be divided into
following components:


the received power caused by the UEs of the own cell, PrxOwn
the received powers caused by the UEs of the surrounding cells,
PrxOther
and the system noise, PrxNoise (depending, for example, on the
environment and the background noise)
Interference caused by own cell users can be further divided into RT and NRT components:

PrxTotal = PrxOwn + PrxOther + PrxNoise
PrxOwn = PrxRT + PrxNRT
RT and NRT received power
19 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

RT and NRT Load Factor (1/2)
Interference caused by own cell RT users can be expressed as:


where Lrt represents the load factor of the own cell RT users.
Similarly, interference caused by own cell NRT users can be expressed as:


where Lnrt represents the load factor of the own cell NRT users.
Based on definitions, the value of Lrt (or Lnrt) is between [0&1], and Lrt + Lnrt < 1.
PrxNRT = Lnrt * PrxTotal
PrxRT = Lrt * PrxTotal
20 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The values of load factors are estimates, not the direct measurements, depending on the
Eb/No, , and bit rate, R, of the active users.

RT and NRT Load Factor (2/2)

=
+
=
Users active nrt N
i
i i
nrt
R
W
L
_ _ _
1
1
1


=
+
=
Users active rt N
i
i i
rt
R
W
L
_ _ _
1
1
1

21 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0



There are specific counters for Lrt and Lnrt for each CLASS (0 4).
At the same time as Radio Resource Indication message is received in the RNC, and PrxTotal
value is inside CLASS X range, not only AVE PRXTOT CLASS X is updated, but also
AVE_LRT_CLASS_X and AVE_LNRT_CLASS_X counters are updated (with the estimated
LRT and LNRT values).

Counter values are already averaged and
real % value is obtained when the
counter value is divided by 100.

LRT_DENOM_X and LNRT_DENOM_X
are incremented by 1 at the same time
as PRXTOT_DENOM_X is updated,
when Radio Resource Indication
message arrives.
Useful also to detect hanging load.
Uplink Lrt & Lnrt estimation
X = collected sample of PrxTotal measurement
M
U
N
L
O
A
D
E
D

A
R
E
A

22 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Hanging Resource detection case
A hanging resource problem was detected as a consequence of the testing of the
Autotuning algorithm.

PRxNoiseMaxTuneAbsolute parameter value was changed from 0.5 to 20 dB to test
its benefit on the UL Admission Control functionality.

After the change it seems that for a cell the algorithm is not working because it shows an
Average Prx Noise KPI still high (-92.5 dBm) and never changing (average=
maximum=minimum).

23 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

CONSTANT UL
LOAD (7.5%)
Cell is considered
always loaded by the
RNC
PrxNoise is
never updated
Further
investigations
revealed two
hanging RLs with
SF32, always
allocated to the
same SRNTIs.
NO SAMPLES
IN CLASS 0
Cell is never
unloaded!
24 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

DL Power measurements
25 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Ptx Total measurements
BTS
RNC
NBAP-c: RADIO RESOURCE INDICATION
PrxTotal, PtxTotal
BTS reports total DL transmitted power, PtxTotal, periodically (typically every 200ms), in
every Radio Resource Indication message.
BTS reports PtxTotal as percentage value, the ratio between the total transmitted power and
the maximum transmission power. In the RNC however, the unit of PtxTotal is 0.01*dBm.
26 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

PtxTotal measurements
Ptx CCHs
The BTS reports PrxTotal of each cell to the CRNC periodically in NBAP-c: RADIO
RESOURCE INDICATION message.
When the RRM (Radio Resource Management) in the RNC receives it, the relevant
PtxTotal counters are updated according to the defined 5 DL load areas. The real
dBm value is obtained when divided by -100.

Sample 1 : Unloaded
Sample 2 : Feasible load area 1
Sample 3 : Feasible load area 2
Sample 4 : Marginal load area
Sample 5 : Overload area
27 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The DL load areas (or classes) are defined in the following table:
Based on the these criteria above, the CLASS is selected and the measurement result (received
by every radio resource indication, typically every 200 ms) is assigned to the corresponding
counter AVE PTXTOT CLASS X.
The corresponding PTXTOT_DENOM_X is incremented by 1.
CLASS AREA INCREMENTED IF
CLASS
0
Unloaded PtxTotal = power of all CCHs on (no UEs in cell_dch)
CLASS
1
Feasible_Load_Area_1 PtxTarget -PtxOffset > PtxTotal > (ALL CCH)
CLASS
2
Feasible_Load_Area_2 PtxTarget > PtxTotal >= PtxTarget - PtxOffset
CLASS
3
Marginal_Load_Area PtxTarget + PtxOffset > PtxTotal >= PtxTarget
CLASS
4
Overload_Area PtxTotal >= PtxTarget + PtxOffset
H
PtxTotal measurements
28 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Average PtxTotal KPI
The Average PtxTotal KPI is the average downlink transmitted power.
The result includes DL common channels transmitted power (~35.5dBm with CPICH
power=33dBm and default values for common channels tx power parameters) and DL
dedicated physical channels transmission power.



This KPI may be used to identify sites which are experiencing:
need for WPA/carriers expansion
high DL path loss/ interference (check AC failures)
distant traffic
incorrect configuration of common channels power
The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis
H
| | dBm
k DENOM PTXTOT
k DENOM PTXTOT k CLASS PTXTOT AVE
Classes All k
Classes All k

=
=

_
_
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
Average done in Watt!
29 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

The Ave_Ptx_Total KPI may be used to identify sites which are either experiencing high downlink
traffic load or incorrect configuration of the common channel powers. This KPI may be used as
a trigger for a capacity upgrade process.
Nevertheless, the Ave_Ptx_Total KPI addresses only the total downlink transmit power
requirement. It does not address the transmit power requirement on a per radio link basis.
The RNC counter AVE_TRX_FOR_RL_IN_CELL provides the measurement on a per radio link
basis.
Measurement unit UTRAN_CODE_POWER is defined in 3GPP TS 25.133.

Theres dependency with counter NBR_OF_RLS (when NBAP: RADIO LINK MEASUREMENTS
REPORT message is received from the BTS, this counter is updated by the number of radio
link measurement results included in the message).



30 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Average Power Rise
Power rise is defined as TX power increase over common channel power
Can be calculated as:
0 _ _ _
_ _
_ _ _ _ _
_
_
CLASS PTXTOT AVE
k DENOM PTXTOT
k DENOM PTXTOT k CLASS PTXTOT AVE
Classes All k
Classes All k

=
=

| | dB
H
31 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Time in Class X KPI
The Time in class X KPI is the percentage of time the cell has been in class X .





This KPI can be used for to measure the percentage of time in class 3-4, to detect cell
overload problems.

It has to be reminded that Class 0 means power for DL common channels, and it has an
impact on the KPI.
Neverthless, Class 0 is not triggered if BTS is not active.

The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis

H
| | % 100
_ _
_ _
_

= Classes All k
k DENOM PTXTOT
X DENOM PTXTOT
32 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

In Uplink:
load estimation, Lrt&Lnrt, allows better understanding of the loading
status of a cell than power measurements since theres no dependency
on PrxNoise level
load measurements are more appropriate for Busy Hours detection
In Downlink:
power measurements provide proper indication of cell load
however, PtxRT&NRT measurements allow distinction of RT and NRT
traffic
both power measurements might be used for Busy Hours detection


DL Power measurements, RT&NRT
33 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

BTS periodically (typically every 500ms) reports the transmitted power, P
tx_average
, per every
radio link by using a dedicated NBAP-d /RADIO LINK MEASUREMENT REPORT-
message.
RNC (AC/PS) is able to identify to service (RT or NRT, or multi) the Ptx_average values
belongs.
Ptx_RT & Ptx_NRT calculation
BTS
RNC
NBAP-d: RADIO LINK MEAS REPORT
PtxAverag
e
34 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Ptx_RT & Ptx_NRT measurements
The counter for specific CLASS is updated at the same time as AVE PTXTOT CLASS X counter
i.e. when Radio Resource Indication message arrives
When the PtxTotal value is inside CLASS X range, the AVE_PTXRT_CLASS_X and
AVE_PTXNRT_CLASS_X counters are updated with the estimated PTX RT and NRT values
This counter is a sum over a measurement period divided by a denominator, and it is an average
value.
Real dBm value is obtained when divided by 100
M
Ptx CCHs
PTXRT_DENOM_X and
PTXNRT_DENOM_X are incremented
by 1 at the same time as
PTXTOT_DENOM_X is updated, when
Radio Resource Indication message
arrives.

The KPI is meaningful only for cell level
and on hour basis

35 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Average DL Power for RT and NRT KPIs
| | dBm
i
i

=

=
4
0
OM_i PTX_RT_DEN
4
0
OM_i PTX_RT_DEN _CLASS_i AVE_PTX_RT
_RT AVE_DL_PTX
| | dBm
i
i

=

=
4
0
NOM_i PTX_NRT_DE
4
0
NOM_i PTX_NRT_DE T_CLASS_i AVE_PTX_NR
_NRT AVE_DL_PTX
The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis
Average done in Watt!
Average done in Watt!
M
36 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Code Usage
37 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Code Tree Occupancy KPI
A single downlink scrambling code supports an OVSF (Orthogonal Variable Spreading
Factor) code tree containing 508 codes, based upon spreading factors from 4 to 256.
The Average Code Tree Occupancy KPI provides an indication of the percentage of
codes which are either used or blocked by used codes.





Both counters are updated every 20 s.
The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis

Counters for Min and Max Code Tree Occupancy already in percentage.
Max code occupancy can be used to detect busy hour.
| | % 100
_CAPACITY DENOM_CODE
ITY CODE_CAPAC

M
38 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Common Channels channelisation codes
Channelisation codes assigned both to common and dedicated downlink channels are included
by the KPI.
The codes used by the common channels are:
Primary CPICH - Cch,256,0
Primary CCPCH - Cch,256,1
AICH - Cch,256,2
PICH - Cch,256,3
Secondary CCPCH - Cch,64,1
The use of these channelisation codes blocks:
1 SF4 code, 1 SF8 code, 1 SF16 code, 1 SF32 code, 2SF64 code, 4
SF128 codes and 8SF256 codes.
The total number of codes used by the common channels is thus 18 (over 508, ~3%
occupancy).
It should be recognised that the Secondary CCPCH and AICH are not always active.
Moreover, this calculation is based upon a single S-CCPCH configuration.


39 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Code Blocking KPI
There are counters triggered when no codes of SF X (X=4,8, 256) are available.
There is a counter incremented when the code is successfully allocated









The KPI is meaningful only for cell level and on hour basis
| | % 100
_ _ _
_ _ _ _
_ _ _
256
4
256
4

=
=
x
x
SFx AVAILABLE CODES NO
ALLO TREE CODE SUCC NBR
SFx AVAILABLE CODES NO
L
40 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Cell Availability
41 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Cell Availability KPI
Counter "DENOM_CODE_CAPACITY" is incremented every 20s only if the cell is in WORKING
state.

Cell Availability Formula is the following:

[%]
period t measuremen in min
CAPACITY CODE DENOM
ty Availabili Cell 100 *
) (# * 3
_ _
_ =
Denominator results in 4320
checks per 24 hour period.
Or 180 checks per 1 hour
period.
42 NOKIA 13-469506 v.1.0

Questions?