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The Role of Energy Storage in Renewable Power Integration

Emily Fertig Sharon Wagner Carnegie Mellon University

Energy storage can facilitate renewable energy integration

Source: http://www.celgard.com/

Source: http://www.environment-green.com

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Key energy storage research areas include: • Technology-specific issues – Mechanical storage – Electrical storage – Thermal storage • Valuation of energy storage 3 .

Mechanical storage options include: • • • Compressed air energy storage (CAES) Pumped hydroelectric storage Flywheels 4 .

shpegs.org/cawegs.html .CAES can enable wind to supply quick. reliable energy 5 Source: http://www.

Germany: 290 MW (1978) • McIntosh. Alabama: 110 MW (1991) • Iowa Stored Energy Park: 2700 MW (2011) 6 .CAES has been operating for over 20 years: • Huntorf.

S.CAES has many benefits for renewables • Large storage: smoothes daily variability Key research area : • Ramps quickly: smoothes hourly variability The economic effect of integrating CAES in different • More cost-effective that batteries at GWh electricity markets and varying levels of renewable scalepenetration energy • Many locations with suitable geology in U. 7 .

Pumped hydro is limited by location Key research area: Run-of-river hydro storage (all aspects) 8 Source: http://www.tva.htm .gov/power/pumpstorart.

Flywheels can help with grid angular stability and voltage support • Produce 100-2000 kW for 550 seconds • Best for high-power. low Key research areas : energy applications •Materials development •Cost reduction •Improved manufacture techniques Source: http://www.com/ 9 .powergenworldwide.

Key energy storage research areas include: • Technology-specific issues – Mechanical storage – Electrical storage – Thermal storage • Valuation of energy storage 10 .

greencarreports.com/blog/ 11 .Batteries are wonderful for renewables. but expensive • Store and release power across a broad range of:time Key research areas scales •Large-scale demonstration projects • Smooth rapid fluctuations •Cost reduction • Mitigate daily variability Source: http://www.

com/ 12 .Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles could act as distributed grid storage • Daily load leveling Key research areas: • Frequency regulation • Reserve the public and private benefit of using •Quantify • Large-scale use: reduce battery PHEV’s for arbitrage costs through competition and •Identify policy incentives necessary to align mass production consumer behavior with maximum social welfare Source: http://keetsa.

Key energy storage research areas include: • Technology-specific issues – Mechanical storage – Electrical storage – Thermal storage • Valuation of energy storage 13 .

tehrantimes.com.htm 14 .kelcroft.com/index_View.Thermal storage can be hot or cold Source: http://www.asp?code=20 1948 Source: http://www.hk/news/ice_storage2004103 0.

ca/uploads/solar%20water %20heating.gif 15 .Demand-side “hot” storage is usually used with solar collectors Key research areas: decrease in electricity demand ••Quantify Store heatpotential energy in hot water for later use use from wide-spread ••Determine Reduce electricity demand optimum system size for max for hot water economic returns •ID policy initiatives to encourage more deployment Source: http://www.on.conservationhalton.

solarthermalmagazine.A “cold” storage system generates ice to chill water for air conditioning Key research areas: •Quantify potential shift in electricity demand Shift electricity demand for from air wide-spread useday to conditioning from •Determine optimum system size for max night economic returns •ID policy initiatives to encourage more deployment Source: http://www.com/2010/04/1 2/storing-thermal-energy-a-cool-new-way/ 16 .

storage is usually coupled with CSP Source: http://www.php 17 .volker-quaschning.On the supply-side.de/articles/fundamentals2/index.

CSP-TES has been operating commercially for 2 years Key research areas: Andasol 1 in Spain: 50 MW (2008) •Reduce costs • Smoothes hourly variation from •Quantify long-term effect of TES in CSP O&M clouds costs • Extends plant operation into nighttime peak demand hours •Evaluate the profitability of different configurations •Evaluate the effect of different policy initiatives on decision to use TES with CSP •Compare economic & environmental implications Source: of TES for different CSP technologies http://www.cfm?id=how-touse-solar-energy-at-night 18 .scientificamerican.com/article.

Key energy storage research areas include: • Technology-specific issues – Mechanical storage – Electrical storage – Thermal storage • Valuation of energy storage 19 .

An accurate valuation of energy storage should consider: • Air quality and economic benefits of offset generation capacity • Firming of renewable power to help fulfill RPS requirements • Avoided construction of new transmission capacity and transmission congestion relief from renewables • Relief of ramping requirements for base-load generators • Overall reduction in cost of ancillary services • Deferral of substation upgrades 20 .

costs and benefits for different energy storage technologies • Identify how grid and power plant operators need to adapt to support storage • Examine market and regulatory strategies needed to support storage implementation 21 .Overall. we recommend that the Renewelec Project should: • Quantify storage potential.

cmu.Emily Fertig: efertig@andrew.edu 22 .edu Sharon Wagner: sjwagner@andrew.cmu.