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WiMAX Overview WiMAX System Architecture

14th November 2006 Esa Viitanen

Company Confidential
1 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

WiMAX Introduction

Company Confidential
2 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

Nokia WiMAX Program High-level Direction
• Lightweight, high-speed wireless, personal access to Internet with portability • Main, initial use case:
• Laptop and
• Tablet Internet access, • Walking between cells without loosing session (IP address) and/or VPN connection

• Substantially lower cost of ownership than 3G • Hide system complexity from user and operator through automated operability, moving towards plug-and-play • Usage of non-cellular licensed spectrum

Company Confidential
3 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

… . with WiMAX radio Company Confidential 4 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.WiMAX Terminals • Operators start first with fixed and nomadic terminals • CPE boxes • Ethernet and POTS interfaces • Indoor or outdoor antenna • Applications: • Broadband Wireless .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .DSL replacement • Wireless Local Loop • PCMCIA cards • For laptops • WiMAX radio integrated in laptops • Intel WiMAX chipset coming to laptops in 2008 • And continue later with true mobile terminals • PDAs • Mobile handsets • Starting from high-end business phones • Cameras.

WiMAX.5. typically 15 – 30 MHz • Typical cell ranges @ 2.5 GHz (licensed) • 5. for suburban and urban areas with indoor coverage • 5 – 10 km with outdoor antenna • Estimated aggregate data rates per sector: • 4 Mbps per sector UL for a 10 MHz carrier • 13 Mbps per sector DL in case of 3x 10 MHz carrier used • Network architecture: • IP based Company Confidential 5 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.5 GHz (licensed) • 3. 10 MHz • Frequency bands for WiMAX: • 2.16e • WiMAX is a TDD system • With various carrier bandwidths: 3. Quick Overview on the Air Interface 802.5 GHz: • 500 – 1500 m.8 GHz (unlicensed) • Amount of spectrum needed: • Min.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . 5. 10 MHz.

16e-2005 • Mobile WiMAX air interface standard • Nokia WiMAX is based on this. both for fixed and mobile WiMAX applications • PHY and MAC layers • WiMAX Forum recommendations • End-to-End Network Systems Architecture. Core Service Network • WiMAX Forum refers to a number of IETF RFCs Company Confidential 6 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. Access Service Network and • CSN.WiMAX.16d-2004 • Fixed WiMAX air interface standard • Nokia does not implement this • IEEE 802. Standards • IEEE 802. reference model for • ASN.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

WiMAX Networks Company Confidential 7 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

rural areas.WiMAX Network Architecture • There are two basic applications for WiMAX networks • Fixed/nomadic WiMAX • Broadband Wireless access to Internet and Wireless Local Loop • In developing countries.data overlay networks • Nokia has two different WiMAX Network Reference Architectures • Fixed WiMAX Reference Architecture for DSL operators • Provides Ethernet transport to the terminals . where copper cables do not exist • Providing DSL type access • Mobile WiMAX • Mobile access to Internet • Complementary to current cellular networks .like DSL access • Mobile evolution adds local mobility (local handovers) • Mobile WiMAX Reference Architecture for Mobile Operators • Adds wide area mobility • Provides IP transport to the terminals Company Confidential 8 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

TE CPE xDSL V A10 BRAS ETH V ASP / NSP Network infra (AAA. subscriber db.. DHCP.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . TE CPE BS Company Confidential 9 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.16e-2005 BS TE T BS O&M OMS BTSOM . …) Laptop PC WiMAX i/f R1 ..Fixed WiMAX Reference Architecture for DSL operators . TE TE CPE xDSL DSLAM DSLAM TE T . billing.....

TE R1 CPE BS BS O&M OMS ASN GW O&M BTSOM Company Confidential 10 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.. TE CPE xDSL V A10 BRAS ASP / NSP Network infra (AAA. …) MSS Laptop PC WiMAX i/f TE T R1 BS V ETH R3aaa R6 ASN GW CSN P&CF AAA ..ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .. billing. subscriber db.. DHCP.Mobile WiMAX Evolution for DSL Operators DSLAM TE T .

Physical Architecture Microwave access LDAP Subs.Fixed WiMAX – DSL Network.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . DB O&M NetAct AAA MW IU BRAS Fiber core DSLAM OMS DHCP/DNS FW NAPT Internet ADSL2+ VDSL2 Copper access GPS BS DSL CPE ASN CSN Company Confidential 11 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

DB HLR/ HSS R2 R1 LIG R3aaa Radius CSN P&CF AAA Postpaid CG MSS BS R6 R1 X2 ASN GW X7 Laptop PC WiMAX i/f BS R4 Internet CSN HA R3mip MIP FW/ NAPT ..ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .. TE CPE BS BS O&M OMS ASN GW O&M BTSOM NWI3 Company Confidential 12 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename... ASN GW R1 DHCP/DNS LI G Network Management System (NetAct) ..Mobile WiMAX Reference Architecture for Mobile Operators Subs. TE T ..

DB NetAct (OSS) AAA MW IU Access DHCP/DNS OMS 3xASN GW Fiber core FW NAPT Internet LIG Core DHCP/DNS HA GPS BS DSLAM Copper access DSL NT BRAS ASN V1-Filename.Mobile WiMAX Network.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials CSN Company Confidential 13 © 2005 Nokia . Physical Architecture Microwave access Subs.

WiMAX Network Elements Company Confidential 14 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

xDSL NT. DHCP/DNS. FW/NAPT Microwave radios.WiMAX Network Elements • Nokia WiMAX Network Elements • BS • ASN GW • OMS Base Station Access Service Network GateWay Operation and Maintenance Server • Commercial Network Elements • HA • AAA Mobile IP Home Agent Authentication.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . … Company Confidential 15 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. Switches. Authorization and Accounting Server • Supplementary Elements • • • • NetAct LIG IP transport elements BS transport elements Network Management System Legal Intercept Gateway Routers.

5GHz and 3. 19” 3U module Antenna • Ethernet interface to network • OBSAI RP3-01 optical interface to RF RF Module • Separate RF head • 2TX/2RX.5GHz RF and antenna options • PUSC (incl all SC) • GPS based synchronization Company Confidential 16 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Mobile WiMAX rel 1 – Flexi Base Station • Based on the WCDMA Ariel BTS platform • Outdoor. MRC.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . ~ 4 W • Scalable bandwidth up to 10MHz • 2. external antenna • RF and BB MIMO capable OBSAI RP3-01 optical • TX power 36dBm.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Partially Used SubCarriers e. 3 x 10 MHz bandwidth Single carrier (Omni-directional) 1+1+1 Company Confidential 17 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. Fully Used SubCarriers e.Frequency Allocation sector #1 uses 1/3 of all subcarriers sector #2 uses 1/3 of all subcarriers all sectors use all subcarriers cell uses all subcarriers f1 f1 f1 f1 f3 f2 f1 sector #3 uses 1/3 of all subcarriers PUSC.g. 10 MHz bandwidth FUSC.g.

ASN GateWay • Indoor network element • 19” wide 1 U high • Main functionalities • Mobility control (Handovers) between Base stations • Mobile IP Foreign Agent • Authenticator • Security key distribution • Rate Limiting (Downlink) • Paging • Scalable element • Scalable by adding additional GWs • Traffic routing and tunneling capacity • 2Gbits per box Downlink + 1Gbits Uplink • Control plane capacity • 200 WiMAX Base station Cells • Resiliency at network level Company Confidential 18 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

and Accounting Main functionalities: • Authentication algorithms/methods • Optionally allocates IP addresses for terminals at authentication phase • Fetches the subscriber profiles from the subscriber and subscription databases • Distributes QoS profiles to ASN GW • Reports CDRs to the billing system Company Confidential 19 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. Authorization.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .AAA .Authentication.

for example for mobility between cities Used also for roaming between other networks Company Confidential 20 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.HA .Mobile IP Home Agent Main functionalities: • • • • • Interfaces WiMAX User plane to the Internet.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . to other IP networks and to services Optionally allocates IP HoA addresses for terminals Performs handovers between ASN GWs Needed only in large networks.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Operation and Management Server • Main functionalities: • WiMAX RAN mediator for NetAct • Mediates BSs and ASN GWs Company Confidential 21 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.OMS .

uses 1:1 and 1:N VLAN mappings • Needs case by case configuring. according to TR-101.Standard Radius protocol • V interface • Interface between BS and BRAS (BRAS = Broadband Remote Access Server) • Ethernet based interface. to interface with the operator’s existing DSL network • AAA i/f • LDAP interface to operators Subscriber database. also a MAP interface to 2G/3G HLR/HSS • Typically FTP interface for collecting CDRs to operators postpaid billing system • AAA interfaces vary according to operator’s infrastructure and need an integration project Company Confidential 22 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Standard Mobile IP protocol • Control plane interface between ASN GW and AAA Server .Main WiMAX Interfaces • R1 • Encrypted WiMAX air interface • Between Base Station and Terminal • R6 • Interface between the BS and ASN GW • GRE tunneling in user plane and IPSec in control plane • R3 • User plane interface between ASN GW and Home Agent .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

WiMAX BS Transport Company Confidential 23 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

in Rel 2 Company Confidential 24 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. possibly xDSL lines) • A number of E1/T1 lines (initial solution only) • WiMAX BS transport interfaces • Ethernet 100Base-TX • Gigabit Ethernet 1000Base-SX/LX optical • FlexBus with Ethernet transport. in Rel 2 • 8 x E1/T1.not applicable for WiMAX • Build a new transport to the WiMAX BS site • WiMAX Transport solutions • Microwave radio links • Ethernet leased lines (fiber or copper.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .WiMAX BS Site Transport • Three sector 1+1+1 WiMAX BS average capacity is 8 … 24 Mbit/sec • Current GSM or WCDMA backhaul transport is too thin .

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .BS Site Transport Options ASN GW Ethernet E1/T1 other Ethernet Switch Router DSLAM Ethernet (Leased) Line E1/T1 (Leased) Lines MWR-IU DSL NT BS BS BS Chaining Company Confidential 25 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .WiMAX System Features Company Confidential 26 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

for USIM for shared secret • WiMAX DSL interworking architecture uses the DSL Authentication methods available in BRAS • DHCP Option 82 authentication. based on MAC address of the terminal • PPP.WiMAX Authentication • Mobile WiMAX uses EAP Authentication methods • Subscriber authentication. user name / password authentication Company Confidential 27 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename..ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . protocol run between the Terminal and AAA server • Several EAP methods available • EAP-AKA • EAP-TTLS • ..

for VoIP traffic • Implementation in BS scheduler • Access Transport Network QoS • Two priorities in Nokia Release 1: • “VoIP” • “BE” • Based on DiffServ • User Data rate limiting • For traffic between the Terminal and ASN GW • At subscriber service flow level Company Confidential 28 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Unsolicited Grant Service.extended real time Polling Service.Best Effort. for continuous fixed bit-rate data streams .WiMAX User QoS • Air interface QoS • Nokia Release 1 has three air interface QoS classes • UGS • BE . for other traffic like browsing • ertPS .

they may not have a Home Agent • Idle mode and Paging • Implemented for saving the battery life in mobile devices • Paging is needed mainly for incoming VoIP calls (SIP calls) Company Confidential 29 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.WiMAX Mobility • Fixed / Nomadic Mobility • The usage is stationary • Moving without a connection • Portable / Full Mobility • Handovers • R6 mobility – tunnel switching between Base Stations • R4 mobility – extending a tunnel through the next ASN GW (Inter BS handover) (Inter ASN GW handover) • Network resource optimization • R3 mobility – Mobile IP (Inter ASN GW handover) • This is not exactly a handover.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . but network resource optimization after a number of handovers • Small networks may not implement R3 handover.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . R4 and R3 Mobility ASN Gateway (FA) 0 1 2 R4 R3 3 HA ASN Gateway (FA) CSN Network (NSP-B) R6 ASN Network (NAP-A) Company Confidential 30 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Mobility Cases: R6.

WiMAX Overview WiMAX System Architecture Thank You Company Confidential 31 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .