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Lubricants Products that increase skin slip in dry skin that is rough & flaky. Moisturizer

Impart moisture to the skin, increasing skin flexibility, and repair to reverse the appearance of aging skin. Emollient An agent that softens the skin or soothes irritation in the skin or mucous membrane.
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Physiology of Xerosis
• Xerosis is a result of decreased water content of the stratum corneum which leads to abnormal desquamation of corneocytes. • Skin to appear and feel normal; the water content must be above 10%. • Electron microscopic studies of dry skin demonstrate a stratum corneum - thicker, fissured and disorganised.

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Remoisturisation of the Skin Occurs in four steps : 1. Synthesis of Intracellular lipids Sales Training . Initiation of barrier repair 2. To minimize evaporation of moisture from dermis to epidermal layer 4. To minimize evaporation of moisture from epidermal layer 3.

paraffin silicone oils vegetable & animal fats phospholipids .lecithin etc. mineral oil.Four mechanisms to Rehydrate Stratum Corneum 1. Sales Training . Occlusives :   Retards transepidermal water loss Some widely used substances are :     hydrocarbon oils & waxes like petrolatum.

Sales Training . Humectants :  Draws water from environment when humidity exceeds 70% and more commonly from the deeper epidermal & dermal tissues to rehydrate the stratum corneum.Rehydrating Agents 2.

e. urea etc. sodium lactate.g. glycerine. Sales Training . honey.Rehydrating Agents Humectants : • Skin feels smoother by filing holes in the stratum corneum through swelling.

• Good moisturizer should combine both occlusive and humectant properties.Rehydrating Agents Humectants : • Under low humidity conditions glycerine draws moisture from the skin and increase transepidermal water loss. Sales Training .

Hydrophilic Matrices :    Prevents water evaporation and soothes skin. Sales Training .newer hydrophilic matrices found in some moisturizers. Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular weight substance . Available in the form of colloidal oatmeal baths.Rehydrating Agents 3.

Sales Training .Rehydrating Agents 4. Sunscreen :  Prevents cellular damage and thus prevent dehydration.

Sales Training . but their effect is temporary.Mechanisms of Emollients • Functions by filling the spaces between the desquamating skins scale with oil droplets.

isopropyl isostearate. e. Sales Training . diisopropyl dilinoleate.g.Emollients can be divided into several categories Protective Emollient : • Remain on the skin longer than average and allow the skin to feel smooth immediately.

Emollients Fatty Emollient : • Also have a long lasting film on the skin but may feel greasy. castor oil. propylene glycol etc. e.g. Sales Training .

Sales Training .Emollients Dry Emollients : • Do not offer much skin protection but produce a dry feeling. isopropyl palmitate etc.g. e.

e. Sales Training . dimethicones. constrictor or binder) • Minimal greasy residue and can reduce the oil feel of other emollients.g. cyclomethicones.Emollients Astringent Emollients : (Draws together.

linolenic and arachidonic acids are referred to as Vitamin F.Special Additives Added to moisturizers to enhance their marketing claims and possibly their efficacy. Essential Fatty Acid unsaturated linoleic. Sales Training . • • Ceramides play an important role in skin barrier formation & repair.

Special Additives Vitamins : • Pantothenic acid or Vitamin B Complex is commonly used in many chemical forms. Vitamin A. C & D : • Usefulness of topical vitamins is dubious. Vitamin E : • Said to enhance percutaneous absorption. Sales Training .

Sales Training .Natural Moisturising Factor (NMF) • Regulate the moisture content of the stratum corneum. • Consist of a mixture of amino acids. derivatives of amino acids and salts.

creatinine. uric acid. calcium. carboxylic acid. urea. Sales Training . pyrrolidone. sodium. phosphate. sugar. lactate. ammonia. • Skin that cannot produce NMF is dry and cracked. glucosamine. organic acids and peptides. • 10% of the dry weight of the stratum corneum cells is composed of NMF. citrate. chlorine.Natural Moisturising Factor (NMF) • Contains amino acids. magnesium. potassium.

• Diffuses into the outer layer of the stratum corneum. Sales Training . • Disrupts hydrogen bonding which exposes the water-binding sites on the corneocytes.Natural Moisturising Factor (NMF) Urea : • A penetrating moisturizer with high osmotic effect.

Sales Training .Natural Moisturising Factor (NMF) Lactic acid : • It enhances water uptake better than glycerine. • It can increase the water binding capacity of the stratum corneum.

Sales Training .UV Light Sunscreen : • Excessive and prolonged exposure to intense sunlight will lead to premature aging of skin and at times to skin cancer.

UV Light Cosmic Rays Gamma Rays XRays Ultraviolet Infrared Radiowaves Vaccum UV Short Wave UV UVC 290 Middle Wave UV UVB 320 Long Wave UV UVA 400 Visible Light Wavelength (nm) 100 700 UVA enhances UVB = Erythema + risk of UVB induced carcinogenesis Sales Training .

suntan. Sales Training . • UVB erythrogenic and melanogenic type of radiation. skin cancer and photo-aging. causes sunburns.UV Light • UVC absorbed by the ozone layer.

but penetrate more deeply and contribute to photoaging and photosensitivity disease. Sales Training .UV Light • UVA are 1000 times less erythrogenic than UVB. • UVA enhances UVB induced erythema and increase the risk of UVB induced carcinogenesis.

Effectiveness depends on the thickness of the film.Sunscreen Agents Classified as Physical & Chemical 1. Sales Training . Physical Barriers (Reflectors)  Acts by reflecting and scattering UV and visible radiation due to size of particles.   Cosmetically unattractive.

kaolin.Sunscreen Agents Physical Barriers (Reflectors) Commonly used . Sales Training . calcium carbonate. talc (magnesium silicate). They are not easily washed off. zinc oxide.Titanium dioxide (520%). magnesium oxide.

Chemical Barriers (Absorbers)  These are colourless and easily washable  Cosmetically more acceptable chemicals.Sunscreen Agents 2. Sales Training .

benophenones and anthranilates.Paraamino Benzoic Acid (PBA) and its esters. cinnamates. Absorb both UVA & UVB . salicylates and camphor.Sunscreen Agents Chemical Barriers (Absorbers) Two types : a. Absorb only UVB . Sales Training . b. These are easily washable.

• SPF15 provides maximal protection. • The scale in available agents varies from SPF2 to SPF15. Sales Training .Sunscreen Agents Sun Protection Factor (SPF) : • The ratio of time required for irradiation to produce Minimal Erythema Dose (MED) with the sunscreen to that without the sunscreen.