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• A seal is basically a device for closing (sealing) a gap or making a joint fluid tight. • Seals are used to form a barrier between two spaces. • Generally speaking, one of these spaces will communicate with the outside air and there will be pressure in the other space greater than atmospheric pressure.

• However there are cases where spaces with a pressure of less than one bar have to be sealed off. • There are two types of seals: 1. Static Seal. 2. Dynamic seal.

• STATIC SEAL: • In this type of seal, sealing takes place between the surfaces which do not move relative to one another, for example Gaskets in pipe flange connections, Cylinder covers etc. • DYNAMIC SEAL: • In this type of seal sealing takes place between the surfaces which have relative movement, for example packing.

GASKETS • FUNCTION OF GASKETS: • The function of a gasket is to create and maintain a tight seal between separate members of a mechanical assembly. all leakages should stop. • But in practice to make such a joint is very economical. . • Ideally speaking the two joint surfaces should be enough that if tightened evenly.

. • Gaskets eliminated the need to make such precision joints at a reduce cost.• Also if we observe the surfaces with a microscope we will always find some hills and valleys.

whereas for metallic gaskets heat causes the material to flow. • Non metallic gaskets when compressed flow between there spaces.HOW GASKETS SEAL: • Gaskets seal by flowing hills and valleys of the mating surfaces. • Gasket material is therefore required to flow. .

TYPES OF GASKETS 1-ACCORDING TO SHAPE AND DIMENSION: • The two most common types based on shapes and dimensions are: A. . INSIDE BOLT CIRCLE OR RING TYPE: • Here the periphery of the gasket is generally located by the bolts.

FULL FACE TYPE: • In this type the outside diameter is similar to that of the flange and has a series of holes corresponding to the number and the diameter of the bolts. .B.

. 2. Non metallic. Semi metallic and metallic.2-ACCORDING TO MATERIAL: • The two most common types based on material are: 1.

rubber.1. • COMPRESSED SHEET GASKET: • Sheet gaskets are by far the simplest to manufacture. plastics. cork. . NON METALLIC GASKETS: • There are many types of non metallic gaskets like paper. • They are cut to size either with bolt holes or without holes for standard sizes with various thickness and material suitable to media and temperature pressure of pipeline. teflon etc. compressed asbestos.

and graphite as shown in Figure below.• The most common material used for sheet gaskets is synthetic fibers. . synthetic rubber.

• Another sheet-gasket material is composed of flexible graphite. and thus is a more significant factor in determining acceptable applications. .• Many of the sheet gaskets use synthetic fibers along with an elastomeric binder. • The binder is a larger percentage of the sheet material in these synthetic fiber gaskets.

• Sheet gaskets may be used with flat or raised-face flanges. and has provided good performance at elevated temperatures. • This gasket material has exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in most process plant applications. .• The best flexible graphite sheet-gaskettypes also employ a stainless steel sheet insert with the flexible graphite for increased strength.

. may be used for Class 150 flanges in non hazardous services up to 230°C (450°F).• Sheet gasket selection requirements are based on SAES-L-109 as follows: • Compressed synthetic fiber sheet gaskets: • with an oil resistant binder.) thick. 1.6 mm (0.063 in. An example of their use is in lube oil piping.

) thick. shall be used for all acid services except nitric acid and oleum. • For wet chlorine or hypochlorite services. the elastomer shall be ASTM D1418 Class CSM. For nitric acid and oleum. shall be used for full-face gaskets for plastic flanges. . with a Shore A durometer hardness of between 50 and 60. • Elastometric material: • 3 mm (1/8 in.• Synthetic rubber gaskets: • ASTM D1418 Class CSM. ASTM D1418 Class FKM elastomer shall be used for flat-face flanges.

.PTFE (POLY TETRA FLOURO ETHYLENE): • PTFE or teflon as it is generally called is the most common used on different petrochemical plants. • It is a strong highly compressible material which forms a thin creep resistant gasket when flange bolts are torqued.

. TEMPERATURE: Will the gasketing material withstand the temperature.SELECTION OF GASKETS: • • • • • • Selecting a gasket is not so easy as it looks. The following factors should be looked into: BOLT FORCE: Is there enough force to seat the gasket. • FLUID: • Is the gasketing material compatible so that it is not adversely effected by the fluid it is sealing.

.ECONOMY: Is the gasket material best for long term condition.

2. Spiral wound gaskets (semi metallic). including lens gasket.2. Ring joint. . 1. SEMI METALLIC AND METALLIC GASKETS: • There are many types of metallic and semi-metallic gaskets in use but we will discuss the only two most important used in petrochemical plants.

3. . 4. namely: 1. 2. Spiral wound gasket with inner ring.1-SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS: • There are four types of spiral wound gaskets. Spiral wound gasket with outer and inner ring. Basic type spiral wound gasket (without inner and outer ring). Spiral wound gasket with outer ring.

BASIC TYPE SPIRAL WOUND GASKET: Spiral wound gasket without inner and outer ring .a).

4. . Manhole covers assemblies. Boilers. Steam lines & chemicals etc. 3. Processing lines. Valve bonnets. 5. 2. petrochemical plants.APPLICATIONS: 1. Refineries.

SPIRAL WOUND GASKET WITH OUTER RING: • The attached outer ring is designed to serve as a centering aid for installation.b). which contacts the inside of bolts. Spiral wound gasket with outer ring . controlling compression of the spiral wound sealing elements.

.APPLICATIONS: • Mostly used to seal FF and RF flanges. high temperature and a low temperature service. pressure vessels. • These are designed to withstand a high pressure. joint of towers.

. etc. • APPLICATIONS: • Male and female flanges.c). cover of pressure vessels.SPIRAL WOUND GASKET WITH INNER RING: • These gaskets are used on male and female flanges or joints. • The inner ring serves to strengthen a spiral wound sealing element and also prevents the build up of solids between the inside diameter of the gasket and the bore of the pipe. valve bonnets.

reduces turbulence in flow. Spiral wound gasket with inner and outer ring .d) -SPIRAL WOUND GASKET WITH OUTER AND INNER RING: • The use of outer and inner rings minimizes built up process material between a spiral wound sealing element and flange bore. minimize errosion and corrosion of flange facings.

• Most used in flat and raised face flanges. .• APPLICATIONS: • They are extensively used to seal in steam and other processes having coincident high pressure and temperatures.

. hot oil.RING JOINT GASKETS: • Ring joint gasket is a type of pressure energized gasket used on pipe flanges. valve bonnets handling high pressure steam. solvent vapours at high temperatures. pressure vessels. gas.

3. 6. 5.DIFFERENT CROSS-SECTIONS: 1. 2. 4. Bridge man type Delta ring Lens ring Round ring Oval Octagonal .


hot oil. oxygen at high temperature in petrochemical plants and refineries. vapours. .APPLICATIONS: • On pipe flanges and valves bonnets handling high pressure steam. gas.

STORAGE AND HANDLING THE GASKETS: 1. as distortion may develop. 3. Store in a dry cool place. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the type of material handling. Avoid sunlight. 2. Avoid hanging gaskets. . contact with water and oils.

• With its unique design and performance the V—Ring can be used with a wide range of bearing types. . water or combinations of these media while positively retaining grease.DYNAMIC SEALS • V-RING (NOT FOR PRESSURE): • The V-RING is a unique all-rubber seal for rotary shafts. dust. • The V—Ring is the perfect seal to prevent the ingress of dirt. • It can also be used as a secondary seal to protect primary seals that do not perform well in hostile environments.



with or without. . axial support. the counter-face and the shaft should be clean. the V—Ring is normally mounted on the outside of a bearing housing. The shaft should preferably be dry and free from grease or oil. • General rules: 1.INSTALLATION GUIDELINES: • When the V—Ring is used as a grease seal/ contaminant excluder. The V—Ring. 2. particularly when the V— Ring is mounted without axial support.

The lip of the V—Ring should be lubricated with a thin film of grease or silicone oil. 5. coat the counter-face with a low friction agent. . and do not apply grease to the lip. Ensure that the V—Ring is mounted with a uniform stretch around the shaft. 4. In cases when friction must be reduced to a minimum.3.

. • Unless the stretch is uniform this reduction will vary around the periphery.• When the V—Ring is mounted on the shaft the outer diameter of the lip is reduced. • This may lead to partial entry of the lip in the bore of the counter-face when the seal is pushed into position.


• It comprises a solid rubber. • The diameter of the sealing lip is smaller than the nominal shaft diameter. reinforced rubber or metal-cased rubber element. • The outside diameter of the seal is a press fit in the bore of the housing. .LIP TYPE OIL SEAL: • The lip type oil seal is a circular element forming a seal between a stationary machine part and rotation shaft.


LIP TYPE OIL SEAL: • A lip seal must not run dry. • The shaft should also bevelled. . lubrication being necessary. • The bore of the seal housing should have smooth finish. • Bevelling to 15 degree for 2-3 mm long is recommended for easy of assembly.

special tool should be used for this operation.LIP TYPE OIL SEAL: • The seal should be slide on slowly. a seal for a rotating shaft consists of three essential parts: 1. • In outline. The spring. • They can be used for many media and for high temperature by adopting various combinations of casings. spring and materials. . • Preferably by pressing and never be hammering. 3. 2. The outer ring. The elastomer.

LIP TYPE OIL SEAL: • THE OUTER RING: • Usually consists of a metal ring in stamped steel with a right-angled cross-section. The lip . • THE ELASTOMER: • Is itself made up of three parts: 1. The cuff 3. The casing 2.

• The spring is fitted by light pressure into a groove in the beading of the lip. The join is usually effected by screwing into one end the conical spiral parts of the other end. It forms an annular ring. .LIP TYPE OIL SEAL: • • • • THE SPRING: Is a spiral pre stressed spring.


• Good resistance to backing out and accurate positioning in the housing. • Easy assembly for large diameters. • Protects the seal during pulsating pressure.SEAL CROSSECTIONS: • Good resistance to deformation which is important for large diameters. .

• Create a reserve of lubricant and by so doing they make fitting easier. • Greatly reduce the risk of backing out after fitting. • An insertion forces the same as a smooth shape with a much higher extraction force.

• This form combines the qualities of the bare outer ring, that is to say: • No baking out. • Better positioning. • Higher extraction force. • With that of covered outer ring, which is: • Good static sealing.

• An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a disc-shaped cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.

• The O-ring may be used in static applications or in dynamic applications where there is relative motion between the parts and the O-ring. .

and have simple mounting requirements. .• Dynamic examples include rotating pump shafts and hydraulic cylinder pistons. • O-rings are one of the most common seals used in machine design because they are inexpensive. reliable. easy to make.

O-RING SEALING PRINCIPLE: • An O-ring seals through the deformation of the seal material by installation and media pressure to close off the gap b/w matting components. • All sealing applications fall into one of two categories those in which the seal or sealed surface moves and those in which the seal is stationary. .

• A seal does not move except for pulsation caused by cycle pressure is called static seal. • Those seals that are subjected to movement are Dynamic seals. • The rubber O-ring should be considered as an incompressible viscous fluid having a very high surface tension. .

• Whether by a mechanical pressure from the surrounding geometry or by pressure transmitted through the hydraulic fluid or gas. . the o-ring absorbs the stackup of tolerances of the unit and its memory maintains a sealed condition. • This extremely viscous fluid is forced to flow in the gland to produce zero clearance or a positive block to the flow of the media being sealed.


AXIAL: • The O-ring cross section is squeezed axially in the groove similar to a flat gasket. .O-RINGS APPLICATIONS (STATIC): • There are four varieties of static applications: 1.

RADIAL: • The O-ring cross section is squeezed radially in the groove between the inside (ID) and outside (OD).2. .

• The groove design allows the o-ring to be retained in the face seal during assembly and maintenance.g. a lid which open regularly . DOVETAIL: • The O-ring cross section is axially squeezed in the dovetail groove. . • This is beneficial for special application where the O-ring has to be fixed by the groove e.3.


section smooth surface for sealing. . • Straight threads used with an O-ring provide a better seal then tapered threads used alone.4. • A boss is cylindrical projection on a casting or forging. BOSS SEALS: • The O-ring is used for sealing straight thread tube fitting in a boss. • The end of that projection is machined to provide a flat.