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INTRODUCTION

AIRCRAFT CONSISTS OF:


1. STRUCTURES * FUSELAGE * WING * EMPENNAGE * LANDING GEAR 2. SYSTEMS * POWER PLANT & FUEL SYSTEM * FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM * HYDRAULICS

* ECS & LSS


* ELECTRICAL & AVIONICS PRIMARY FACTORS TO CONSIDER FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES ARE:

STRENGTH
WEIGHT RELIABILITY Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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PARTS OF AN AIRCRAFT

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STRUCTURES

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TYPICAL AIRFRAME-3D
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE MUST BE DESIGNED IN SUCH A WAY THAT IT SHOULD WITHSTAND ALL THE STRESSES IMPOSED UPON IT BY THE FLIGHT AND GROUND LOADS WITHOUT ANY PERMANENT DEFORMATION.

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LOADS ON AN AIRCRAFT
Loads acting on each element of the structure are to be considered for design . FACTORS OF LOADS: AIR LOADS : Pressure, lift, drag during maneour, gust load. LANDING LOADS : On ground, water & arrested landing ( on ships). POWER PLANT LOADS : Thrust, Torque, Gyroscopic TAKE OF LOADS : Assisted, Catapulating.

SPECIAL LOADS: Hoisting, towing, canopy, seat jettisoning, bird strike, cabin pressurization etc. WT. & INERTIA LOADS : component weight & inertia

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FUSELAGE
MAIN STRUCTURE OR BODY OF THE AIRCRAFT PROVIDES SPACE FOR 1. PERSONNEL 2. CARGO 3. CONTROLS & ACCESSORIES PROVIDES ATTACHMENT FOR 1. NOSE CONE 2. WIND SCREEN & CANOPY 3. WING 4. EMPENNAGE 5. NOSE & MAIN LANDING GEAR 6. AIR INTAKE 7. POWER PLANT

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FUSELAGE MAJOR ASSEMBLIES


3 MAJOR ASSEMBLIES: FRONT FUSELAGE CENTRE FUSELAGE REAR FUSELAGE FRONT FUSELAGE: CONSISTS OF: NOSE CONE - Radar Antenna RADAR EQUIPMENT BAY Multi Mode Radar WIND SCREEN & CANOPY NOSE U/C BAY & ATTACHMENT EQUIPMENT BAY AIR INTAKE STUB WING extension of Fuselage in Wing Shape DOORS COVERS AND HATCHES. Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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FRONT FUSELAGE
AVIONICS BAY FRONT COCKPIT REAR COCKPIT

NOSE U/C BAY

EQUIPMENT BAY

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FUSELAGE MAJOR ASSEMBLIES


CENTRE FUSELAGE: CONSISTS OF: AIR DUCT (Trouser Duct & Circular Duct) WING ATTACHMENT FUEL TANK BAY MAIN U/C BAY & ATTACHMENT DOORS & COVERS

REAR FUSELAGE: CONSISTS OF: ENGINE ATTACHMENT FIN & TAIL ATTACHMENT SPINE STRUCTURE(for System Lines & Routings) Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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WIND SCREEN
DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND: TEMP. VARIATION (-50C to +90C)

PURPOSE :
* TO PROVIDE VISIBILITY * WITHSTAND BIRD STRIKE

BIRD IMPACT 4lb upto 500Kmph


DIFFERENTIAL CABIN PRESSURE (5.5PSI) EXTERNAL AERODYNAMIC LOADS

Longeron Fwd Arch Top Frame

Floor Sheet Longeron Fwd Arch-LH Canopy Longeron-RH

MATERIAL: STRETCHED ACRYLIC (Thk: 12 to 16mm)


Canopy Longeron-LH

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CANOPY
DESIGNED TO WITHSTAND: TEMP. VARIATION (-50C to +90C) EXTERNAL AERODYNAMIC LOADS TYPES: 1. Hinge type Canopy: Simple & Commonly used. Only one side is accessible. 2. Clam Shell: windscreen and canopy attached together. Hinged at back. Difficult to remove seat due to obstruction 3. Sliding type Canopy: Canopy slides along the grooves. Occupies more space Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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PURPOSE :
* TO PROVIDE VISIBILITY

DIFFERENTIAL CABIN PRESSURE (5.5PSI) * TO PROVIDE SEAT EJECTION

CANOPY
Canopy Systems: Locking system Counter poise system (To open & close canopy easily) 4Stay rod (Supports the canopy in fully opened position) Taxiing stay rod(Partial opening of Canopy for Ventilation) Canopy Severance System (In flight & Ground)
Front Arch Mid Arch Splice channel Side frame R.H Side frame L.H

Cross beam assy.

Rear Arch

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INTERFACE
FUSELAGE ASSEMBLIES ARE JOINED BY DETACHABLE TRANSPORT JOINTS.

INTERFACES: FRONT FUS. TO CENTER FUS.


CENTER FUS. TO REAR FUS.

WING TO FUSELAGE
FIN TO FUSELAGE H.STABILIZER TO FUSELAGE

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FUSELAGE CONSTRUCTION
TRUSS TYPE: * Consists of two force members(Tension & riveted / welded in joints. * Generally, Steel tubes with welded joints. * Smaller Navy Aircrafts and Helicopters MONOCOQUE TYPE: Shell with skin only to resist all loads without any stiffening members E.g. AIR SHIP, Egg SEMI-MONOCOQUE TYPE: Shell with skin stiffened by Longitudinal members (longerons / stringers) and Transverse members (frames / bulk heads ). Generally all aircraft structures are designed by this concept. Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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Compression) are bolted /

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


FRAMES / BULK HEADS SKINS LONGERONS /STRINGERS FLOORS WALLS AIR DUCT DOORS & COVERS Bulkhead: * Heavier Transverse members located at intervals * Transfers concentrated loads to the shell of the A/C. * Machined / Sheet metal built-up / Truss type * Bulkheads which resist pressure loads due to fuel and air pressurization will have full webs.
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Frame: Maintains shape of fuselage Reduces column length of the stringer to prevent in-stability of the structure and for panel breaking.

* Light in construction

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


FRAME TYPES: PRIMARY FRAMES : Transfer Concentrated / Inclined Load (Machined Or Built-up ) Eg: WING FUS, FIN FUS , U/C SEAT. SECONDARY FRAMES: To transfer air loads (sheet metals)

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


BULKHEAD TYPES:

Open ring type

Close ring type

Full web type

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


Skin: Fabric Skin: * Truss Type

* Slow speed A/C


* Takes only Air Loads & cannot resist shear / bending load. Stressed skins: * Sheet metal/composites * Riveted or bonded to the Frames & Stringers. * Takes Air Loads, Shear, Bending Loads and Torsional Loads

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


Composites: * Suitable for High Performance A/C which require extra high strength to wt. Ratio * Constructed by 1) several layers of bonding materials (graphite epoxy or boron epoxy) 2) low density core sand-witched between two faces of graphite epoxy skins. (Face sheets: Bending & in-plane shear Core: Shear Load) Core Shell: Flex, Hexagon, Corrugated Advantages: High strength / wt. Ratio Tailor make Versatile in design Smooth surface High resistance to Fatigue Good vibration damping

Problem Area:

Quality control difficult to Repair Cannot take concentrated loads


A/C shell Tail plane & fin structure Helicopter blades Doors & hatches, partition walls
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Application:

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


Composites:
TOP SHEET CORE

BOTTOM SHEET

Composite Density(gm/cc) 1.8 Strength(Mpa) 1200

Al. 2.4 400

Engine Cowling Aircraft Research & Design Centre


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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


Stringer / Longeron: * A longitudinal stiffener attached to skin * Increases effectiveness of skin * Increases Compressive and shear critical stress. * Helps in redistribution of shear flow in skin by panel breaking (length to width ratio). * Together with skin it resists B.M. by developing axial stress tension and compression on either side of N.A. * Bigger cross sectional area used to carry concentrated loads to stiffen/ reinforce cutouts and act as edge members are called Longerons.
TYPICAL SKIN & STRINGER ASSEMBLY

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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


TYPICAL FLOOR ASSEMBLY FLOOR

WALL STRINGERS

LONGERON

WALLS & FLOORS: Transfer the shear load Side walls for fuel tanks

TYPICAL WALL ASSEMBLY

Side walls for landing gear bay.


Tank floors and ceilings Equipment bay floors Cockpit floors
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STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


DOORS & COVERS: Facilitates

* Good Accessibility
* Maintainability * Inspectability

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WING
Most important lift-producing part of the aircraft.

Wings vary in design depending upon the aircraft type and its purpose.
The shape of a wing greatly influences the performance of an airplane, Speed of an airplane, its maneuverability & its handling qualities Most airplanes are designed so that the outer tips of the wings are higher than where the wings are attached to the fuselage. This upward angle is called the dihedral and helps to keep the airplane from rolling unexpectedly during flight. Wings also carry the fuel for the airplane.

Types: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Straight Sweep (forward and back) Delta Swing-wing.

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WING
Straight Wing: * for small, low-speed airplanes * General Aviation airplanes often of this type * Provides good lift at low speeds & Stable flight * Cheaper and can be made lighter * Not suitable for high speeds. * Creates appreciable drag since the wing is perpendicular to the airflow
Simple Delta

Delta Wing: * Looks like a large triangle from top.

Complex Delta

* Can reach high speeds (supersonic a airplanes LCA, Concorde) * Landing speeds are very fast.

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WING
Sweep-back Wing: * for most high-speed airplanes. * Creates less drag * More unstable at low speeds. * Take off and Landing at a high rate of speed. Forward-sweep wing: * Yet to make it into mass production. * Highly maneuverable & highly unstable (X-29). * Computer-based control system is a must to help the pilot fly. Swing Wing: * Has high lift characteristics of a primarily straight wing with the ability of the sweepback wing to enable high speeds. During landing and takeoff, the wing swings into an almost straight position. During cruise, the wing swings into a sweepback position. Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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ELEMENTS OF WING

Spar: It is a primary beam, which extends to the full length of the wing. Rib: a light structure conforming to the shape of the airfoil over which the skin is attached and transfers the air load to the spars.
Inter spar Rib Nose Rib

Lightening Holes

Nose rib: Rib between front spar and the leading edge of the airfoil.
Inter-Spar rib: Rib between the adjacent spars. Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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ELEMENTS OF WING
Spoilers: Located on top of the wings. Opposite effect of flaps and slats. Reduces lift and increases the drag. Helps the airplane to slow down sooner. Slats: Located on the leading edge of the wings. Flaps: Located on the trailing edge of the wings. Flaps and slats: Used during takeoff and landing enabling the airplane to get off the ground more quickly and to land more slowly. Aileron: Hinged on the trailing edge of the wing. Helps in rolling motion of the airplane.

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EMPENNAGE
Commonly called as Tail of A/c. Consists of Vertical stabilizer(Fin) and horizontal stabilizer(Tail Plane). Stabilizers help the aircraft maintain a straight path through the air as it flies. Stabilizers act like the feathers on an arrow.

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EFFECTS OF CONTROL SURFACES


Rudder Elevator Elevator Flap Aileron

Slats

Spoilers

Aileron

Rudder

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LANDING GEAR
Absorbs the forces imposed on the A/c by take-offs & landings.

NLG can be steered from the cockpit.

MLG is equipped with brakes for stopping the A/c & steering the A/c on the ground.

Actuated by
Hydraulic System
NOSE LANDING GEAR MAIN LANDING GEAR

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


JOINTS: Structural Elements are joined together to form sub-assembly Sub-assemblies are joined together to form major assemblies (Fuselage, Wing, Empennage, Canopy & Wind Shield etc.)

TYPES OF JOINTS: Temporary / Removable joints : Bolted (shear / tension). Permanent Joints : Riveted, Adhesive bonded, Diffusion bonded and Welded joints. : Engine mount Landing gear attachment

IMPORTANT JOINTS

Fin attachment
Canopy & wind shield Wing attachment Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


Landing Gear attachment

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


SPLICING: * Connecting two parts to form a larger member. * Done due to the nonavailability of stock * Easy to Manufacture Connecting different Materials Severe changes in contour and repair schemes. Generally done where the stress is low.

Splicing Member

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


FASTENERS: 1. Permanent Fasteners(Standard): Rivets : HS 1005, HS 1006, HS 1014, HUCK MLGPL Blind Rivets: NAS 1919B, NAS 1921B (Used where there is no access on the other side) Removable Fasteners (Standard): Bolts : HS 1001, HS 1002 Nuts : 3373A Anchor Nuts: 3381A, 155H940, 155H942

2.

3. Special Fasteners: Wing Fuselage Attachment Bolts

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


SEALING: Various Air Frame structural areas are sealed compartments where Fuel or Air tight to be confined. Types of seals : 1.Rubber seal - used for doors, panels and canopy(inflatable seal) 2. Sealing compound used in fuel & air tight areas. Sealing Compounds: 1. PR Compounds 2. BOSTIC Compounds Solvent Surface Cleaner: Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Aircraft Research & Design Centre
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SKIN

MATERIALS
Aircraft Materials should have: * Good strength * Good Stiffness * Less Weight * High Reliability Material consideration for selection: Strength to weight ratio (Ultimate tensile strength to Density ) higher the ratio is better. Stiffness to Weight ratio ( Young's modulus to Density ) Availability Ease of manufacturing Cost Effective

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TYPES OF MATERIAL
Metallic: Al-Cu Alloys Al-Zn Alloys Al-Li Alloys AlMg Alloys Alloy Steels Ti Alloys

Non Metallic:

Transparencies (Acrylic, Stretched acrylic)

Advanced materials : CFC (Glass Fibre, Carbon Fibre & Kevlar Fibre) Al. Alloy materials widely used for the Aircraft application because of its Low cost Ease of Machining High Strength Good Corrosion Resistance High Stiffness Easy Availability Light Weight

Composite Materials are used due to its Light Weight High Specific Strength High Stiffness

Good Fatigue Resistance Good Corrosion Resistance Tailoring to Complex Shapes


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THANK YOU

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