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# ISPS:

EXPERIMENTING

## KDPM & KPLI LECTURE NOTES

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION
• EXPERIMENTING IS THE SCIENCE PROCESS
SKILL THAT ENCOMPASSES ALL THE BASIC
AND INTEGRATED PROCESSES.

## SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 2

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SKILLS

## SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 3

STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT
• Determining ‘what I want to find out’ (identifying the problem),
• Identify the variables
• Define variables operationally
• Making a smart guess (forming a hypothesis),
• Planning how to test the hypothesis (planning the experiment)
• determine the apparatus and materials required,
• determine the procedure to carry out the experiment, method to
collect and analyse data.
• Carrying out the experiment,
• Writing down what has been observed (collecting data),
• Finding a meaning for what has been observed (analysing and
interpreting data),
• Deciding whether the hypothesis is true (making conclusions),
• Writing a report on the investigation (reporting).

## SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 4

A SIMPLE WHOLE INVESTIGATION
PLAN, DESIGN, CARRY OUT
INVESTIGATION
The blue ball will
bounce more than If I drop both
the red ball, balls at the same
because it is softer time, I can see
how high they
HYPOTHESISING bounce

## I must tell The red ball bounces

the teacher up to my tummy but
the blue ball only
COMMUNICATING comes up to my knee

RECORD &
INTERPRET RESULTS

That’s funny, I
Well, the red ball didn’t think it
bounces better than would do that
the blue one – that
must be because it’s
harder INFERRING EVALUATING

## SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 5

FACTORS AFFECTING COMPLEXITY OF INVESTIGATION

## • NUMBER OF VARIABLES INVOLVED

• TYPES OF VARIABLES INVOLVED
• THE EASE VARIABLES CAN BE CONTROLLED
• CONTEXT (FAMILIAR/EVERYDAY TO NOVEL/SCIENTIFIC)
• KNOWLEDGE / CONCEPT BASE (SIMPLE GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
TO SCIENTIFIC THEORY)
• ACCURACY OF OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT REQUIRED
• COMPLEXITY OF EQUIPMENT USED
• DURATION OF INVESTIGATION (RANGE: MINUTES TO MONTHS)
• NUMBER OF LOOPS ROUND THE INVESTIGATION CYCLE
INVOLVED
• DEGREE OF CERTAINITY IN THE EVIDENCE OBTAINED
• INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION OF
EVIDENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY / MODEL INVOLVED

## SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 6

PLANNING SHEETS
• Help children
– plan
– managing work
– structure investigation
– record evidence
• Help teachers identify
– apparatus likely to be needed
– suggested apparatus likely to be inappropriate
– safety considerations
– Children who need guidance
– Possible regrouping of children for more effective learning
– Evidence of achievement of learning objectives
• Not used as formal exercise for assessment purposes only
• Adapted to make more appropriate to particular class/students
• EXAMPLE
• EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED PLANNING SHEET
• EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED PLANNING SHEET

## SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 7

ENABLING QUESTIONS PLANNER
• If answers are supplied to children at inappropriate
points in an investigation or if teachers ask questions
that close down options, achievement at a higher level
may be prevented and hinder investigative attitude.
• Questions that teachers ask during an investigation
has to be planned.
• Purpose of questions:
– Promote investigative attitude
– Encourage and support learning
– Help initiate investigations
– Encourage and assist children with procedural difficulties such
as assembly of equipment or measuring
• EXAMPLE