ISPS: EXPERIMENTING

KDPM & KPLI LECTURE NOTES

INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION
• EXPERIMENTING IS THE SCIENCE PROCESS SKILL THAT ENCOMPASSES ALL THE BASIC AND INTEGRATED PROCESSES.

SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS

September 4, 2009

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE SKILLS

SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS

September 4, 2009

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STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT
• • • • • Determining ‘what I want to find out’ (identifying the problem), Identify the variables Define variables operationally Making a smart guess (forming a hypothesis), Planning how to test the hypothesis (planning the experiment)
• • determine the apparatus and materials required, determine the procedure to carry out the experiment, method to collect and analyse data.

• • • • •

Carrying out the experiment, Writing down what has been observed (collecting data), Finding a meaning for what has been observed (analysing and interpreting data), Deciding whether the hypothesis is true (making conclusions), Writing a report on the investigation (reporting).

SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS

September 4, 2009

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A SIMPLE WHOLE INVESTIGATION
PLAN, DESIGN, CARRY OUT INVESTIGATION The blue ball will bounce more than the red ball, because it is softer HYPOTHESISING If I drop both balls at the same time, I can see how high they bounce

I must tell the teacher COMMUNICATING

The red ball bounces up to my tummy but the blue ball only comes up to my knee RECORD & INTERPRET RESULTS That’s funny, I didn’t think it would do that INFERRING
September 4, 2009

Well, the red ball bounces better than the blue one – that must be because it’s harder

EVALUATING
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SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS

FACTORS AFFECTING COMPLEXITY OF INVESTIGATION
• • • • • • • • • • • NUMBER OF VARIABLES INVOLVED TYPES OF VARIABLES INVOLVED THE EASE VARIABLES CAN BE CONTROLLED CONTEXT (FAMILIAR/EVERYDAY TO NOVEL/SCIENTIFIC) KNOWLEDGE / CONCEPT BASE (SIMPLE GENERAL KNOWLEDGE TO SCIENTIFIC THEORY) ACCURACY OF OBSERVATION AND MEASUREMENT REQUIRED COMPLEXITY OF EQUIPMENT USED DURATION OF INVESTIGATION (RANGE: MINUTES TO MONTHS) NUMBER OF LOOPS ROUND THE INVESTIGATION CYCLE INVOLVED DEGREE OF CERTAINITY IN THE EVIDENCE OBTAINED INTERPLAY BETWEEN INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION OF EVIDENCE AND THE SCIENTIFIC THEORY / MODEL INVOLVED

SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS

September 4, 2009

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PLANNING SHEETS
• Help children
– – – – plan managing work structure investigation record evidence apparatus likely to be needed suggested apparatus likely to be inappropriate safety considerations Children who need guidance Possible regrouping of children for more effective learning Evidence of achievement of learning objectives

Help teachers identify
– – – – – –

• • • • •

Not used as formal exercise for assessment purposes only Adapted to make more appropriate to particular class/students EXAMPLE EXAMPLE OF COMPLETED PLANNING SHEET EXAMPLE OF ADVANCED PLANNING SHEET

SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS

September 4, 2009

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ENABLING QUESTIONS PLANNER
• If answers are supplied to children at inappropriate points in an investigation or if teachers ask questions that close down options, achievement at a higher level may be prevented and hinder investigative attitude. • Questions that teachers ask during an investigation has to be planned. • Purpose of questions:
– – – – Promote investigative attitude Encourage and support learning Help initiate investigations Encourage and assist children with procedural difficulties such as assembly of equipment or measuring

• EXAMPLE
SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 8

ACTIVITY: YOUR TURN TO EXPERIMENT
TAKE PART IN A SCIENCE FAIR COMPETITION • INDIVIDUALLY, IN PAIRS OR GROUP OF 3 • FOLLOW PROCEDURE AS BRIEFED BY ORGANIZER • FOLLOW THE STEPS IN A SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENT TO INVESTIGATE YOUR SELECTED PROBLEM USING THE ADVANCED INVESTIGATION PLANNING SHEET • DISPLAY & PRESENT DURING SCIENCE FAIR • SUBMIT EXPERIMENT REPORT
SYLVESTER SAIMON SIMIN, JSM, MPKS September 4, 2009 9