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PROBLEM SOLVING AND DESION MAKING

INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING

PROBLEM SOLVING AND DECISION MAKING


Decision Making
How to Make Good

Decisions Problem Solving Building Decision Making Skills

Elements in Managerial Decisions


Decision: A conscious

choice among alternative courses of action. Therefore the 3 elements are:


A conscious choice

among alternatives A specific purpose A course of action

Approaches to Decision Making


Rational (Logical

Approach) Intuitive Approach Unable to decide (Indecisive Approach) Impulsive Approach

Kinds of Decisions a Supervisor Makes


Routine data based

decisions Serious decisions having important consequences Emergency decisions requiring distinctiveness Problem- Solving Decisions beyond your * It is essential to recognize which decisions need to be made now authority and are most important

A Simple Version of Decision Making (The Logical Approach)


Define the problem (conditions

and limitations) and the set of objectives Analyze the problem: fact finding Develop alternative solutions: brainstorming Decide on the best solution Convert the decision into action Follow up

Pattern of Problem Solving


Describe the problem Search out the cause,

get the facts Define the real problem and set objectives Develop alternative solutions Decide on the best solution Implement the decision Follow up

Participative Problem Solving


Argument for Group Decision

Making :
You get more info. And expertise

relevant to the decision You get more good ideas and can generate more and better alternatives People thinking together can arrive at better decisions because of the stimulation and interplay of different points of view Participants are more committed to carrying out Coordination and communication are simpler and better because everyone understands

Participative Problem Solving


Criticism of group decision

making:
It takes longer in a group There is usually a dominator in

a group Group participants get involved in winning arguments and showing off If consensus is required people may conform to get the meeting over Consensus leads to mediocre decisions

Group Decision Making Works Best When:


Members are accustom to

working together as a team and having differing expertise and point of view but common goals The leader is skillful at keeping the meeting on target The group is rewarded for making good decisions

Solving Peoples Problems


Personal problems

are not yours to resolve but LISTENING can help. Keep your own emotions out of it. Try to identify the real problem. If possible eliminate friction (ex. Food Expeditor).

Win-Win Problem Solving


Win-Lose: You win, worker

loses Lose-Win: You lose, worker wins (retreat and appeasement, no stand) Lose-Lose: The compromise Win-Win problem solving means you find a decision that satisfies both of you.
Include worker from the

beginning: From defining the problem to carrying out an agreement

Guidelines for Building Decision Making Skills


Be sure of your authority for

making decisions Accept responsibility fully Distinguish what's important Make the decision at the time it is needed Be alert to signs of problems needing solutions Keep an open mind

Guidelines for Building Decision Making Skills


Dont solicit advise but do

consult your supervisor when a problem is beyond your ability to solve Make sure that you are not part of the problem Learn from your mistakes Evaluate your decisions when carried out

PARAMETERS TABLE
SNO PARAMETERS RANKINGS ST-1 ST-2 ST-3 ST-4 ST-5 1 Problem identification 2 problem solutions

Solutions alternatives

Collection of facts and figures

Analysis of facts and figures

Finding the best alternatives solutions