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PERSONALITY
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MEANING OF PERSONALITY
Personality Traits:
   Personality can be defined as: The sum total of ways in which an individual interacts with people and reacts to situations. The traits exhibited by a person during these interactions.

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WHAT IS PERSONALITY?
Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. Personality Determinants
• Heredity • Environment • Situation
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DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY

Heredity

Environment

Family

Personality

Social

Situational

Determinants of Personality

Heredity

Environment

Nature: It advocates that Nurture: It advocates argue that Part of personality finds its personality finds its basis in Origins in biology (heredity) Life experiences (early life mostly Situation It can be described as how we react and act in different situation

PERSONNALITY DETERMINANTS
1. Heredity
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 The biological, physiological or psychological characteristics that an individual is born with constitute heredity.

2. Situation  Different situations bring out different aspects of an individual’s personality.
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Person-Situation Interaction

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 People do not act in a similar manner in all situations, but exhibit different behavioral responses in different situations.  Two different people may exhibit different behaviors, in similar situations.

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3. Environment  Environmental factors include the culture of the society in which an individual is brought up, the norms set by the parents, teachers and other social groups with which the individual interacts, and other situations and experiences he undergoes in his life.  Norms, attitudes and values are specific to a culture, remain consistent over time and pass on from one generation to another.
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SIXTEEN PRIMARY TRAITS

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THE MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR

A personality test that taps three characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
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Personality Types
• Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) • Type A vs. Type B (A or B) • Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) • Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) • Thinking or Feeling (T or F)

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INTROVERT PERSONALITIES

Introvert is one of the two basic orientation of people have. Persons with introvert orientation are primarily oriented to subjective world . They also avoid social contacts and initiating interaction with other groups , mates, quite and enjoy solitude.

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EXTROVERT

PERSONALITIES

Extroverts are contrary to introvert. Extrovert are friendly, sociable, lively, aggressive and expressing their feelings and ideas openly

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INTROVERT
Introverts
 Like

VS

EXTROVERT
Extrovert
 Like

quite for concentration  Trend to be careful with details , dislike sweeping statement  Have trouble remembering names and faces  Like to think a lot before they act  Have some problem communicating

variety and action  Trend to work faster, dislike complicated procedure.  Are often good at greeting people  Often act quickly, sometimes without thinking. 13  Usually communicate freely.

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Type A Personality
 Individuals who strive continuously to achieve more things in less time, even in the face of opposition.  Are believed to be ambitions and achievementoriented.  Type A individuals set ambitious deadlines for themselves and work under continuous time pressure. Thus, these individuals constantly experience moderate to high levels of stress.
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 They tend to rely on past experience to solve problems and do not feel the need to be innovative in developing solutions to new problems.

 Their emphasis on speed prevents them from spending too much time on any problem.  Type A individuals are hardworking by nature, they are suitable for jobs that call for continuous hard work and struggle such as the job of a salesperson or a business development executive.
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Type B Personality
 Type B personalities are not obsessed with the desire to achieve too many things within a short span of time.  Type B individuals, however, are suitable for the top management position in an organization since they tend to be wise, tactful and creative in making decisions.

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JUDGING

PERSONALITY

People with judging personality types like to follow a plan, make decision and need only that what is essential for their work.

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PERCEPTIVE PERSONALITIES

These are people who adapt well to change, want to know all about a job and at times may get overcommitted.

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MAJOR PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB

Authoritative

Self Esteem

Locus of Control Machiavellianism

Personality Traits

Risk taking Self-Monitoring

MAJOR PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
     

Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Risk taking Type A personality
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LOCUS OF CONTROL
Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals
Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.

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Externals

Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
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MACHIAVELLIANISM
Machiavellianism (Mach) Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
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Conditions Favoring High Machs • Direct interaction • Minimal rules and regulations • Emotions distract for others
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SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-MONITORING
Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
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RISK-TAKING

High Risk-taking Managers
 Make

quicker decisions  Use less information to make decisions  Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations

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Low Risk-taking Managers
 Are

slower to make decisions  Require more information before making decisions  Exist in larger organizations with stable environments

Risk Propensity
 Aligning

managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

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Locus of Control  It refers to the degree to which people believe that they can control their fate or any situation.  Some people believe that they are masters of their own fate while some believe that fate is controlled by luck, chance or external forces.  The former, known as internals, attribute an internal locus of control to organizational outcomes. The latter, known as externals, attribute an external locus of control to organizational outcomes.
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 Externals were dissatisfied with their jobs, showed little commitment to work and were frequently absent from work.  Internals, however, were committed to their work, had a low rate of absenteeism, and were highly satisfied with their job.  Internals perceive themselves to be responsible for their health and take good care of their health.  Incidences of sickness or absenteeism are less among internals.

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 Externals do not consider themselves responsible for their health and attribute ill-health to external forces. They fail to take steps to avoid ill-health.  Incidences of sickness and absenteeism are higher among externals.  Internals are highly achievement-oriented and search extensively for the required information before making a decision or taking any action.  They make considerable efforts to control the environment in which they work and turn situations in their favor.

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Machiavellianism  Machiavellianism refers to the degree to which an individual is practical in his approach, maintains an emotional distance from others, and believes that ends justify the means.  Individuals who score high on Mach are good at manipulating others and try to win by any means.  People having a high Mach perform well in situations that involve face-to-face meetings. They are especially productive in jobs that require the use of bargaining (persuasion) skills and in jobs that offer substantial rewards for the achievement of goals. 28

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Self-esteem

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 The degree of liking an individual has for himself is referred to as self-esteem.  People with high self-esteem are generally confident.  Individuals with low self-esteem lack confidence, look for approval from others, and are not likely to take a stand which opposes others’ views.

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 People who have high self-esteem do not care about pleasing others and fail to be influenced by external factors.  People with high self-esteem derive more satisfaction from their jobs than people with low-esteem.

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Self-monitoring  Self-monitoring refers to the ability of an individual to adapt his behavior to the demands of the situation.  They make successful managers and tend to get promoted faster than others.  Low self-monitors find it difficult to disguise their true feeling, emotions and reactions and cannot adapt quickly to situations. Their behavior is consistent with the way they feel. Low self-monitors do not advance as far in their careers as high self-monitors.
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Risk taking  People who are highly risk-taking in their behavior make decisions quickly without searching for much information.  Risk-averse people do not make decisions in a hurry and gather a lot of information before making any decision.  In organizations, the suitability of a person’s risktaking or risk-averse behavior depends on the duties and responsibilities of his job.
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