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Women’s Cancer Screening

Dr Rohit Malde

• Cervical cancer kills 1 Indian woman every 7 minutes • 73,000 women die of cervical cancer every year in India • India represents 26.4% of all women dying of cervical cancer globally.

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Where is the cervix? .

What is a Pap’s smear/ test? The Pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer that involves The collection and examination of exfoliated cervical cells during a speculum exam • Examination of the cells for preinvasive cervical neoplasia or frankly invasive cancer • .

When the virus persists (10-20%) these cause changes in cervix over 5-10 years .What causes abnormal changes on the cervix? • • • HPV (Human Papillomavirus) & Smoking HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) HPV is spread by direct skin to skin contact including sexual intercourse. anal sex. • • • HPV infection does not cause any signs / symptoms Most infections are temporary and resolve within 2 years. It does not spread via contact on toilet seat. oral sex. or any other contact inv genital area (eg hand to genital).

DES .Who else is at risk of cervical cancer • Women with immune problems • HIV • Transplanted organs • Steroid medications • Chemotherapy • Women whose mothers took the drug.

HPV • HPV can cause abnormal changes on a woman’s cervix • Sometimes abnormal changes can become cancerous. • A Pap test can find these abnormal changes before they turn into cancer. .

Pap test… .

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should have regular Pap tests. .Do I need a Pap test? • All women who have ever been sexually active (sexual intercourse and intimate touching). regardless of sexual orientation.

or if your partner has other partners . • The test is not perfect and not a one time test. even if you have not had new partners • It could take many years for changes to develop or to be noticed • Your risk changes if you have new partners. • New changes (abnormalities) can occur after you get tested.When should I have a Pap test? • Pap testing should begin 3 years after first sexual activity • Most women need a Pap test every 2-3 years.

creams and/or foams for 48 hours before your Pap test. – Two weeks after treatment for any cervical or vaginal infection. . douches.What should I do before a Pap test? • Schedule your Pap test – after your period has stopped completely. • Do not use tampons.

• If you need a repeat Pap test. . you should wait at least 3 months in order to allow cells on the cervix to grow back.What should I do before a Pap test? • Try not to have sexual intercourse for 24 hours before the test.

Remember… • Most cervical cancers can be prevented if women have regular Pap tests with follow-up for abnormal changes. .

If you receive the vaccine.What is the HPV vaccine? • The HPV vaccines protect against certain • • • • types of HPV which cause cervical cancer. Vaccinating men ? ? . you still need regular Pap tests. Indicated in girls / women between 9-26 years before sexually active. The vaccines do not treat existing HPV infections.

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Any questions? .