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Bacongco Gapasin Lim Vitales
Science Environment & Society
• The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. • Most of the world’s industrialized nations support the Kyoto Protocol. One notable exception is the United States, which releases more greenhouse gases than any other nation and accounts for more than 25 percent of those generated by humans worldwide.
Terminologies (Definition of Terms)
• The United Nations or UN - an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. Convention - is a selection from among two or more alternatives, where the rule or alternative is agreed upon among participants. Ratification (to ‘ratify’) - to approve and sanction formally Protocol - a preliminary memorandum often formulated and signed by diplomatic negotiators as a basis for a final convention or treaty. • • •
Greenhouse Effect - a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) - is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation. Infrared Radiation – the specific name of an electromagnetic radiation which has a critical effect on the Earth's climate.
History of the Kyoto Protocol
• The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC) is an international environmental treaty negotiated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) from June 3 to
14, 1992. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas
concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system.
How and why did the Kyoto Protocol come about? • In 1997. to agree upon a means of controlling that increase. the problem of the rising of earth's average temperature was a strong enough political topic that eighty world leaders met in Kyoto. . Japan.
• Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty intended to bring countries together to reduce global warming and to cope with the effects of temperature increases that are unavoidable after 150 years of industrialization since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. but are in addition to the industrial gases. • Emission limits do not include emissions by international aviation and shipping. the Protocol commits them to do so. which are dealt with under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer . or CFCs.The Convention (body) • The Convention encouraged industrialized countries to stabilize GHG emissions. chlorofluorocarbons.
Factories. and other electrical equipment) and as an inert filling for insulated glazing windows. Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI).substitutes for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for use in refrigeration and a wide variety of manufacturing processes. Vehicles. switchgear.The targets cover emissions of the six main greenhouse gases. . • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) .oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. Coal • Methane (CH4) . • Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) .produced in damp sites and landfill sites • Nitrous oxide (N2O) . Cosmetics (anti-aging cream) Etc. • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) – Medical purposes (eye surgery.electrical industry (high-voltage circuit breakers. namely: • Carbon dioxide (CO2) .
Kyoto Protocol participation map as of February. • Grey = no position taken or position unknown . 2012 • Green indicates countries that have ratified the treaty (Annex I & II countries in dark green) • Brown = No intention to ratify • Red = Countries which have withdrawn from the Protocol.
Liechtenstein. Belgium. Russian. Czech Republic. Monaco. Spain. Greece.Annex I countries: industrialized countries and economies in transition Australia. Lithuania. Poland. Slovenia. Portugal. Romania. Switzerland. Canada. Italy. Ukraine. New Zealand. Federation. Iceland. Luxembourg. Bulgaria. Belarus. Slovakia. Sweden. Malta. Denmark. Turkey. Estonia. Germany. Austria. Croatia. Japan. Hungary. Ireland. United Kingdom and United States of America . Finland. Latvia. Norway. France. Netherlands.
Ukraine. Sweden. Japan. Spain. New Zealand. Netherlands. Italy.Annex II countries: developed countries which pay for costs of developing countries Austria. Portugal. United Kingdom and United States of America . Finland. Belgium. Norway. Denmark. Greece. Ireland. Luxembourg. Canada. Germany. France. Iceland. Switzerland.
The Kyoto Primary Mechanisms • Under the Treaty. the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms. countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However. • Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market" • Clean development mechanism (CDM) • Joint implementation (JI) Projects. .
to sell this excess capacity to countries that are over their targets. the buyer is paying a charge for polluting.Emission Trading • The transfer of permits is referred to as a trade. while the seller is being rewarded for having reduced emissions. . • Emissions trading. allows countries that have emission units to spare emissions permitted them but not "used" . • In effect. as set out in Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol.
represents a reduction of greenhouse gases.Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) • is one of the flexibility mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol (IPCC. one ton of CO2 equivalent reduced • . 2007) that provides for emissions reduction projects which generate Certified Emission Reduction units which may be traded in emissions trading schemes What is certified Emission Reduction Units or ERU .
has 25 times the greenhouse potency). • Another example of a Joint Implementation project resulting in an emission reduction unit. These gases consist of mainly methane which escapes to the atmosphere if it is not collected • Methane has a 100-year global warming potential multiplier of 25 compared to carbon dioxide (i. replacing a coal-fired power plant with a more efficient combined heat and power plant. for example.Joint Implementation Projects • A JI project might involve. . Collection of methane is usually accompanied by its combustion.e. thus reducing its greenhouse effect by (25-3=22) ERU. Burning one ton of methane produces nearly 3 tons of CO2. is the production of biogases by landfill sites.
. countries actual emissions have to be monitored and precise records have to be kept of the trades carried out.Monitoring emission targets • Under the Protocol.
keeps an international transaction log to verify that transactions are consistent with the rules of the Protocol. Germany. . The UN Climate Change Secretariat.track and record transactions by Parties under the mechanisms. based in Bonn.
.done by Parties by way of submitting annual emission inventories and national reports under the Protocol at regular intervals.
ystem ensures that Parties are meeting their commitments and helps them to meet their commitments if they have problems doing so. .
is also designed to assist countries in adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. . like the Convention. It facilitates the development and deployment of techniques that can help increase resilience to the impacts of climate change.The Kyoto Protocol.
.The Road Ahead • The Kyoto Protocol is generally seen as an important first step towards a truly global emission reduction regime that will stabilize GHG emissions. and provides the essential architecture for any future international agreement on climate change.
.Rationale (A set of reasons or a logical basis for a course of action or a particular belief) • The primary argument among scientists is not whether or not global temperatures are increasing. • The disagreement is over two points: how much will temperatures rise and what are the causes of the increase (man-made or nature).
and changes in the arrival and departure dates of migratory birds. .• Evidence that temperatures are rising include melting of mountain glaciers and Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice. reduced ice cover on lakes and rivers.
. • Despite more recent attempts at international greenhouse gas regulation.Significance • The Kyoto Protocol was drafted in response to strong scientific evidence that supported anthropogenic climate change. the Kyoto Protocol remains the world’s only encompassing climate change legislation.
• All countries have to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5% from the levels of the reference year 1990 in their respective countries.Importance of the KP • Since global warming was a cause of concern to all the countries of the world. . they began negotiations to find a solution to the problem.
allegiance. • Wigley used computer modeling to test several emissions scenarios for the "Annex B" countries—the industrialized and nearly industrialized countries called upon to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the protocol. Each scenario was played out through 2010 (the midpoint of the Kyoto commitment period of 2008–2012) and then extended to the end of the century. would have a minimal impact on global warming. support. .Cause and Effect • Tom Wigley in 1998 reported research showing that steady devotion. without subsequent action. or attachment to the Kyoto Protocol alone.
06 to 0.5°C (4.11 to 0.21 degrees Celsius (0.11°C (0. Stated another way. would be a scant 0.20°F) shaved off the total warming. with all countries doing only what is required under Kyoto and then continuing with business as usual.5°F).20–0.38 degrees Fahrenheit) off global average temperatures by 2100. instead of heating up by 2. Earth would warm approximately 6% less! • Wigley concluded that the impact on projected temperature increases.• His computation: This "constant compliance" scenario would shave 0. a midpoint in the range of projections of global warming. roughly a 3% reduction! .11 to 0.
that’s almost 3 times the amount of the Greenhouse gas to be reduced under the Kyoto Protocol.” • Imagine. The report states that “the right mix of appropriate government regulation. .United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)’s Sustainable Construction and Building Initiative (SBCI). greater use of energy saving technologies and behavioral change can substantially reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the building sector which accounts for 30-40 % of global energy use. over two billion ton of C02 emission can be reduced if we set a more aggressive energy efficiency policy in the building sector world-wide.Relationship of Topic to Architecture .
the home’s gardens and exterior walls produce food for people and animals. The seasonal cycles help the tree structure provide for itself through composting of fallen leaves in autumn.Relationship of Topic to Architecture - Or maybe another solution we can consider is to “grow” our own home? Architect Mitchell Joachim‘s Fab Tree Hab is a living structure that “is designed to be nearly entirely edible so as to provide food to some organism at each stage of its life. While inhabited. .
Relationship of Topic to Architecture - The envisioned bioplastic windows.” This means we don’t even have to use the terms biodegradable to describe the home since none of the materials is processed. . which would flex with the home as it grows. would also degrade and return to the earth upon life’s end. as would the walls.
no ovens to produce. - But a ‘game-changer’ is on the horizon: EcoRock. and immense amounts of energy are required to fire the 500 degree kilns in which it is produced. a host of gypsum mines. This innovative material requires no gypsum. Its production generates 200 million tons of carbon dioxide gas. is made from 85 percent industrial by-products and is fully recyclable! .Relationship of Topic to Architecture Drywall is the number three producer of greenhouse gasses among building materials. trailing just behind cement and steel.
educator and facilitator to promote the wise use and sustainable development of the global environment. UNEP is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. advocate. UNEP acts as a catalyst.GLOBAL EFFORTS ON ENVIRONMENT PROTECTIONS AND PRESERVATIONS • United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) .Established in 1972. .
. which ended 20 October 2012.The world's governments have agreed to increase funding in support of actions to halt the rate of loss of biodiversity at the eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.• United Nations Biodiversity Conference. Countries Agree to Double Resources for Biodiversity Protection by 2015 .
Protected Planet is a new initiative to showcase the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) that uses the 'citizen science' approach to engage the public in gathering and improving information on protected areas. . By making this information openly available. thereby assisting in the conservation of biodiversity and helping to boost global interest in protected areas.• Protected Planet (Date Published: October 2010) . the global community can help to improve it.
• UN-REDD PROGRAMME . .Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) attempts to create financial value for the carbon stored in forests. offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development and includes the role of conservation.It is predicted greenhouse gas emission reductions from REDD+ could reach up to US$30 billion a year. sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. .
monitoring. 1970 to consolidate in one agency a variety of federal research.Established on December 2. standard-setting and enforcement activities to ensure environmental protection. Since its inception.• United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA or EPA) . EPA has been working for a cleaner. healthier environment for the American people. .
and the U.S.• AgSTAR Program .jointly sponsored by EPA. including methane emission reductions in 2007 alone of approximately 80.has produced significant environmental and energy benefits. Department of Agriculture. . . Department of Energy.000 metric tons and energy generation of about 275 million kWh.The program encourages the use of methane recovery (biogas) technologies at the confined animal feeding operations that manage manure as liquids or slurries. the U. .S.
CMOP helps to identify and implement methods to use CMM (Coal Mine Methane) instead of emitting it to the atmosphere.these actions mitigate climate change. . improve mine safety and productivity.• Coalbed Methane Outreach Program (CMOP) . . and generate revenues and cost savings.Additionally. these projects greatly reduced mine ventilation costs and improved safety conditions for miners. by working to maximize the amount of gas recovered from their drainage systems.is an EPA-sponsored voluntary program whose goal is to reduce methane emissions from coal mining activities. . .
the parties have been meeting annually in Conferences of the Parties (COP) to assess progress in dealing with climate change.Conferences of the Parties • Since the UNFCCC entered into force. and beginning in the mid-1990s .
India 2003: COP 9. Indonesia 2008: COP 14/MOP 4. South Africa 2012: COP 18/MOP 8. Switzerland 2006: COP 12/MOP 2. Netherlands (Strong • disagreement in USA’s compromise) 2001: COP 6. Bonn.will be the host of COP 18 which will take place in Doha. Poznań. Geneva. Mexico 2011: COP 17/MOP 7. Canada 1995: COP 1. from 26 November to 7 December 2012. Cancún. New Delhi. Marrakech. Italy 2004: COP 10. Montreal. Qatar . Denmark 2010: COP 16/MOP 6. Germany (resumption) 2001: COP 7.Annual “Conference of the Parties (COP)” and “Meeting of Parties of the Kyoto Protocol (MOP)” • • • • 1997: COP 3. Buenos Aires. Argentina • 1999: COP 5. Germany 1996: COP 2. Nairobi. Buenos Aires. Bonn. • • • • • • • • • • . The Hague. Germany 2000: COP 6. Argentina 2005: COP 11/MOP 1. Milan. Durban. Qatar. Kyoto Japan (The Kyoto • • Protocol on Climate Change) • 1998: COP 4. Bali. The Berlin . Copenhagen. Poland 2009: COP 15/MOP 5. Kenya 2007: COP 13/MOP 3. Doha. Morocco 2002: COP 8.
• acknowledging that short term emissions targets are inadequate for addressing the long-term problem of climate change and are unreasonable for countries that enjoyed significant economic growth after 1990. Key findings and recommendations include: • engaging a broad set of participants in greenhouse gas reduction efforts. they began negotiations to find a solution to the problem. Recommendations .Since global warming was a cause of concern to all the countries of the world.
and we should hope to see more action in the future. • and. and diminished potential for market power and carbon leakage. . linking domestic programs to allow for international trading and resulting in reduced costs. greater market liquidity. The Kyoto Protocol was a crucial plus to our environment. reduced price volatility.• embracing market-based instruments as the chief means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in order to keep costs down in the short term and bring them down more so in the long term.
.Conclusion • Architecture should aim not only for humanity’s sake but also must be paired with the environment’s sake in which considering both factors will have a product that will serve for a better purpose for both the humanity and environment that is a goal of the world organization .
Any effort is better than none. and so on. wearing a jumper rather than turning up the heater. Some local governments are not waiting for their national governments to come to the party and introduce their own individual carbon trading schemes or offer incentives for solar heating. green power.• If the government/s are slow. Kyoto Protocol’s symbolic value may be its greatest asset. people everywhere are doing what they can do: Recycling. .
unep.org/climatechange/reddplus/Introduction/tabid/29525/Default.org/newscentre/Default.htm http://www.gaszappers.wikipedia.html http://www.com/blog/page/7/ http://unfccc.gov/aboutepa/history/index.epa.epa.unep.Sources: • • • • • • • • http://www.aspx?DocumentID=2697&ArticleID=9309&l= en http://www. Green Building .int/kyoto_protocol/items/3145. Eco Architecture.gov/globalmethane/initiative.aspx http://www.php (United Nations Framework Convention in Climate Change) http://en.org/wiki/List_of_parties_to_the_Kyoto_Protocol Read more: EcoRock: Sustainable Drywall will Rock your Green World | Inhabitat Sustainable Design Innovation.
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