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65480 Ergonomics & Safety Engineering

Electrical Hazards

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Let’s start with a few case histories
“An employee was electrocuted while using a grinder with a frayed cord. The employee was standing in water…”

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“A maintenance employee was electrocuted while attempting to change a light fixture…”
(no Lockout/Tagout)

“An employee was electrocuted when he made contact with a piece of equipment being hoisted from an excavation. The arm of the backhoe hoisting the equipment contacted an overhead power line…”
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Components and Equipment. Safety-Related Work Practices.Top Electrical Citations (2005) Electrical.403 660 Electrical. General Use 1313 1926. Wiring Methods.404 Elec. General Requirements 1157 1926. Wiring Design and Protection 1926. General Requirements 1926.405 Electrical.416 0 200 350 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 4 Source: Citation statistics from Federal OSHA data for OSHA fiscal year 2005 .

Causes of Electrocution Fatalities • • • • • Contact with Overhead Power lines Contact with Live Circuits Not following Lock/Tagout procedures Poorly Maintained Extension Cords Defective Power Tools 5 .

Electrical Injuries There are three direct and two indirect types of electrical injuries: • Direct: Electrocution or death due to electrical shock Electrical shock Burns • Indirect: Falls Fire Harwood Crant #46J6-HT13 Rev. 011507 Southwest Safety Training Alliance Inc 6 .

• LOW VOLTAGE DOES NOT MEAN LOW HAZARD 7 .Shock Severity • Severity of the shock depends on: – Path of current through the body – Amount of current flowing through the body (amps) – Duration of the shocking current through the body.

Overhead Power Lines Hazard • Usually not insulated • Examples of equipment that can contact power lines: – – – – – – – Crane Ladder Scaffold Backhoe Scissors lift Raised dump truck bed Aluminum paint roller 8 .

It’s Your Job to Know!     Know the hazards of electricity Know the equipment Use Safe Work Practices Inspect your Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) before each use  Don’t work on energized circuits without permission 9 .

post hazard warnings and use protective measures – Keep working spaces and walkways clear of cords 10 .Safety-Related Work Practices To protect workers from electrical shock: – Use barriers and guards to prevent passage through areas of exposed energized equipment – Pre-plan work.

“An employee working on a roof made contact with the service entrance riser into the home and was electrocuted…” 11 .

Caution • Special Training is required for work on electrical equipment. Such training is for Authorized Employees and it covers: – Safe Work Practices – Isolation of Electrical Sources – Test Equipment – Tools & PPE • Only Authorized Employees may conduct electrical work 12 .

13 .Control Devices Control circuit devices such as… – push buttons – selector switches – interlocks … may not be used as the sole means for de-energizing circuits or equipment.

15. or have an assured equipment grounding conductor program.Control – Use GFCI (ground-fault circuit interrupter) • Protects you from shock • Detects difference in current between the black and white wires • If ground fault detected. 14 . singlephase. GFCI shuts off electricity in 1/40th of a second • Use GFCI’s on all 120-volt.and 20-ampere receptacles.

lung paralysis.painful shock which cause indirect accidents • 10ma.muscle contraction.possible ventricular fibrillation (heart dysfunction.. fatal • 4 amps..certain ventricular fibrillation.usually temporary • 50ma. severe burns 15 . usually fatal) • 100 ma.”no let go” danger • 30ma.ELECTRICAL SAFETY Effects of Amount of AC Current ma=1/1000th of an amp • 3 ma.heart paralysis.

How it works 16 .

Are these safe practices? 17 .

18 .Lock & Tag • Lock & Tag all Sources – Place Lock & Tag on each disconnecting means used to de-energize circuits – Attach lock to prevent operating the disconnecting means – Place Tag with each lock Note: Only the person who places the lock may remove it.

Lockout Devices 19 .

• Examples: – Removal of an isolating circuit element such as a fuse – Blocking of a controlling switch – Opening of an extra disconnecting device.If a Lock cannot be applied… • A tag used without a lock must be supplemented by at least one additional safety measure that provides a level of safety equal to that of a lock. 20 .

21 .Tagout There many different kinds of tags and Lockout devices.

– Discharge all Capacitors – Short-Circuit & Ground all high capacitance elements 22 .Release Stored Energy • Stored electric energy must be released before starting work.

Use test equipment to test the circuits & electrical parts for voltage & current 23 .Is it “Dead”? • Verify System is Deenergized – Operate the equipment controls to check that equipment cannot be restarted.

Alerting others of hazards  Use barricades to prevent or limit access to work areas with un-insulated energized conductors or circuit parts. safety symbols. or accident prevention tags to warn others about electrical hazards which may endanger them.  If signs and barricades do not provide sufficient warning and protection from electrical hazards. an attendant shall be stationed to warn and protect employees.  Use safety signs. 24 .

Electrical Tools and Cords 25 .

Portable Electric Tools & Cords • Portable equipment must be handled in a manner which will not cause damage. • Flexible electric cords connected to equipment may not be used for raising or lowering the equipment. 26 . • Flexible cords may not be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in such a fashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation.

Tools & Equipment – Use insulated tools or handling equipment when working near exposed energized conductors or circuit parts. – Use fuse handling equipment to remove or install fuses when the fuse terminals are energized. – Ropes and handlines used near exposed energized parts must be nonconductive. 27 .

Power Tool Requirements • Have a three-wire cord with ground plugged into a grounded receptacle. or • Be double insulated. or • Be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer 28 .

Preventing Electrical Hazards Tools • Inspect tools before use • Use the right tool correctly • Protect your tools • Use double insulated tools Double Insulated marking 29 .

Any problems? 30 .

cords. connections. or junction boxes • GFCI that shuts off a circuit • Worn or frayed insulation around wire or connection 31 .Clues that Electrical Hazards Exist • Tripped circuit breakers or blown fuses • Warm tools. wires.

32 . • Old style knob electrical wiring. • Victim contacted frayed wiring.Beware of Old Wiring • Removal of expansion tank (hot water).

• Use lighter-weight tools.Wire Pulling • Avoid manual wire pulling and use a tugger or a handtool whenever possible • Communication between the puller and feeder to coordinate movements will make the job easier and safer. 33 .

or in cramped spaces forces the body into awkward postures. change body positions. and stretch throughout the day. • To relieve muscle tension and improve circulation.Reducing Body Strains • CHANGE BODY POSITIONS. 34 . at floor level. alternate tasks. • Working overhead.

Summary Electrical equipment must be: – Listed and labeled – Free from hazards – Used in the proper manner If you use electrical tools you must: – Be protected from electrical shock – Use them in a comfortable position – Be provided with necessary safety equipment 35 .

“A tree trimmer was electrocuted when he touched an overhead electrical line while descending a palm tree…” Always remember… It’s your life! “An employee was electrocuted while working on an A/C unit…” 36 .