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Newton’s Second Law: F = ma

• Define streamlines

• Select coordinate systems based on streamlines

• Define acceleration

• Define forces

• Apply Newton’s second law of motion along and across streamline

Newton’s Second Law: F = ma

• Consider motion of an inviscid fluid

• Assume that fluid motion is governed by pressure and gravity forces

• Select an appropriate coordinate system. Consider two dimensional motion (x-z

plane)

Coordinate System

• Consider motion of an inviscid fluid

• Assume that fluid motion is governed by pressure and gravity forces

• Select an appropriate coordinate system. Consider two dimensional motion (x-z

plane)

Coordinate System

Coordinate System

• As the particle moves, it follows a particular path, the shape of which is governed by

velocity vector

Coordinate System

• As the particle moves, it follows a particular path, the shape of which is governed by

velocity vector

• If flow is steady, each successive particle that passes through given point (1) will

follow the same path. For such cases the path is a fixed line in the x-z plane. The

entire x-z plane is filled with such paths.

Coordinate System

• For steady flow each particle slides along its path and its velocity vector is

everywhere tangent to the path

Streamlines

• For steady flow each particle slides along its path and its velocity vector is

everywhere tangent to the path

• The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called

streamlines.

Streamlines

• For steady flow each particle slides along its path and its velocity vector is

everywhere tangent to the path

• The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called

streamlines.

• We will use coordinates based on streamlines

Particle Motion

• Particle motion is described in terms of its distance, s = s(t), along streamline, and

local radius of curvature

Particle Motion

• Particle motion is described in terms of its distance, s = s(t), along streamline, and

local radius of curvature

• Distance s is related to particle’s speed V = ds/dt, and radius of curvature is related

to the shape of streamline

Particle Acceleration

• Acceleration: a d V dt

Particle Acceleration

• Acceleration: a d V dt

V V2

as V , an

s

Forces

F = ma along a Streamline

Free-body diagram

of a fluid particle

F = ma along a Streamline

p V

Equation of motion along streamline (details sin V as

) s s

Change in fluid particle speed is accomplished

by combination of pressure gradient and particle

weight along streamline

Free-body diagram

of a fluid particle

Example 3.1 Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the horizontal

streamline A–B in front of the sphere of radius a. From a more advanced theory of flow

past a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is

a3

V V0 1 3

x

Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A far in front of the

sphere (xA = – ∞ and VA = V0) to point B on the sphere (xB = – a and VB = 0).

Example 3.1 Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the horizontal

streamline A–B in front of the sphere of radius a. From a more advanced theory of flow

past a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is

a3

V V0 1 3

x

Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A far in front of the

sphere (xA = – ∞ and VA = V0) to point B on the sphere (xB = – a and VB = 0).

p V

V

s s

Acceleration

V V 2 a3 a3

V V 3V0 1 3 4

s x x x

Example 3.1 Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the horizontal

streamline A–B in front of the sphere of radius a. From a more advanced theory of flow

past a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is

a3

V V0 1 3

x

Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A far in front of the

sphere (xA = – ∞ and VA = V0) to point B on the sphere (xB = – a and VB = 0).

3 2

p 3 a V0 1 a x

3 3

x x4

Pressure distribution

a 3 a x6

p V02

x 2

V02

pB

2

Bernoulli Equation

For incompressible fluid equation of motion along streamline reduces to Bernoulli equation

(details)

1

p V 2 z constant along streamline

2

Restricted to:

- inviscid flow

- steady flow

- incompressible flow

- along streamline

Example 3.2 Consider the flow of air around a bicyclist moving through still air with

velocity V0. Determine the difference in the pressure between points (1) and (2).

Example 3.2 Consider the flow of air around a bicyclist moving through still air with

velocity V0. Determine the difference in the pressure between points (1) and (2).

1 1

p1 V12 z1 p2 V22 z2

2 2

Pressure difference

1 1

p2 p1 V12 V02

2 2

F = ma Normal to a Streamline

dz p V 2

Equation of motion along the normal direction (details)

dn n

particle is accomplished by combination of

pressure gradient and particle weight normal to

streamline

Free-body diagram

of a fluid particle

Example 3.3 Shown in Fig. a, b are two flow fields with circular streamlines. The

velocity distributions are

V r C1r for case (a)

C2

V r for case (b)

r

where C1 and C2 are constant. Determine the pressure distributions, p = p(r), for each,

given that p = p0 at r = r0.

Example 3.3 Shown in Fig. a, b are two flow fields with circular streamlines. The

velocity distributions are

V r C1r for case (a)

C2

V r for case (b)

r

where C1 and C2 are constant. Determine the pressure distributions, p = p(r), for each,

given that p = p0 at r = r0.

with streamlines in horizontal plane (dz/dn = 0)

Since streamlines are circles, ∂/∂n = - ∂/∂r and = r

Then equation of motion along the normal

dz p V 2

dn n

becomes

p V 2

r r

Example 3.3 Shown in Fig. a, b are two flow fields with circular streamlines. The

velocity distributions are

V r C1r for case (a)

C2

V r for case (b)

r

where C1 and C2 are constant. Determine the pressure distributions, p = p(r), for each,

given that p = p0 at r = r0.

Solution

p 1

r

C12 r and p

2

C12 r 2 r02 p0

p C22 1 2 1 1

3 and p C2 2 2 p0

r r 2 r0 r

F = ma Normal to a Streamline

V2

p dn z constant across streamline

Restricted to:

- inviscid flow

- steady flow

- incompressible flow

- across streamline

Physical Interpretation

1

p V 2 z constant along streamline

2

Work done on a particle by all forces acting on the particle is equal to the change of the

kinetic energy of the particle

Each term of Bernoulli equation can be interpreted as:

- head (elevation, pressure, velocity)

- form of pressure (static, hydrostatic, dynamic)

Example 3.4

Pressure variation across straight streamlines is hydrostatic

Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

Useful concept associated with the Bernoulli equation deals with the stagnation and

dynamic pressures.

As fluid is brought to rest its kinetic energy is converted to a pressure rise

Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

hydrostatic, γ z, and dynamic, ρV 2/2 ,

1

p V 2 z constant along streamline

2

1

p2 p1 V12

2

is greater than static pressure

by dynamic pressure

Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

• There is a stagnation point on any stationary body that is placed onto a flowing

fluid

• Some of the fluid flows “over” and some “under” the object. Dividing line is

termed the stagnation streamline and terminates at the stagnation point on the body

Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

pressure obtainable along a given streamline. It represents the conversion of all of

the kinetic energy into a pressure rise.

• Sum of the static pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and dynamic pressure is termed the

total pressure, pT

streamline.

1

p V 2 z pT constant along streamline

2

Fluid Velocity Measurement

2 p3 p4

V

Pitot-static tube

Typical Pitot-Static Tube Designs

Measurement of Static Pressure

Measurement of Static Pressure

Fluid Velocity Measurement

If 0 and 29.5o

p1 p3 p

V 2

p2 p

2

2 p2 p1

V

Pitot-static tube

Examples of Use of Bernoulli Equation

Free Jets

Exit pressure for an incompressible fluid jet is equal to the surrounding pressure

Velocity: V 2 gh

Free Jets

If d « h centerline velocity can be used as an “average velocity”

Free Jets

If exit is not smooth, diameter of the jet will be less than diameter of the hole.

This phenomena, called a vena contracta effect, is a result of the inability of the fluid to

turn the sharp 90º corner indicated by dotted lines in the figure

Free Jets

Since streamlines in the exit plane are curved, the pressure across them is not constant.

The highest pressure occurs along the centerline at (2), and lowest pressure, p1 = p3 = 0

Free Jets

Assumption of uniform velocity with straight streamlines and constant pressure is not

valid at the exit plane

It is valid in the plane of vena contracta, sectшon a-a, provided dj « h

Free Jets

Contraction coefficient:

Cc Aj Ah

contraction coefficients for

various round exit configurations

Confined Flows

In nozzles and pipes of variable diameter velocity changes from one section to another

For such cases continuity equation must be used along with Bernoulli equation

Continuity equation states that mass cannot be created or destroyed

For incompressible fluid (details)

1 1 A2V2

AV or Q1 Q2

Example 3.7 A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1 m

flows steadily from a tank of diameter D = 1.0 m.

Determine the flowrate, Q , needed from the inflow pipe

if the water depth remains constant, h = 2.0 m

Example 3.7 A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1 m

flows steadily from a tank of diameter D = 1.0 m.

Determine the flowrate, Q , needed from the inflow pipe

if the water depth remains constant, h = 2.0 m

Solution

Assume steady, inviscid, incompressible flow.

Apply Bernoulli equation between points (1) and (2)

1 1

p1 V12 z1 p2 V22 z2

2 2

1 2 1

With p1 = p2 = 0, z1 = h and z2 = 0 V1 gh V22

2 2

2

d

From continuity equation V1 V2

D

2 gh

Exit velocity V2 6.26 m/s

1 d D

4

1 1 A2V2 0.0492 m /s

3

Example 3.7 A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1 m

flows steadily from a tank of diameter D = 1.0 m.

Determine the flowrate, Q , needed from the inflow pipe

if the water depth remains constant, h = 2.0 m

Solution

If D » d, then we can assume V1 ≈ 0. Error associated

with this assumption:

2 gh 1 d D

4

Q V2 1

Q0 V2 D 2 gh 1 d D

4

Example 3.8

Example 3.8

2 p1

Answers: V3 69.0 m/s V2 =7.67 m/s

Q 0.00542 m3 / s p2 2963 N/m 2

In absence of viscous effect pressure throughout the hose is constant and equals to p2

Decrease in pressure from p1 to p3 accelerate the air and increase its kinetic energy

Pressure change (density change) is within 3%. Hence, incompressibility assumption is

reasonable

Example 3.9

Q 1 A2 A1

2 2

Answer: h

2 2 g 1 SG

A

Comments:

For a given flowrate h does not depend

on θ, but pressure difference, p1 – p2, as

measured by pressure gage, does

Cavitation

pressure is reduced to the

vapor pressure

to equipment

Cavitation

Example 3.10

Answer: H 28.2 ft

Comments: Results are independent of diameter and length of the hose (provided viscous

effects are not important

Proper design of hose is needed to ensure that it will not collapse due to the large pressure

difference (vacuum) between the inside and outsides of the hose

Flowrate Measurement

by the Bernoulli and continuity

equations

those devoid of viscous,

compressibility, and other effects.

pressure difference across the flow

meter

2 p1 p2

Q A2

1 A2 A1

2

Example 3.11

Comments:

These values represent “ideal” results, and these results are independent of flow meter

geometry – an orifice, nozzle, or Venturi meter.

nonlinear relationship can cause difficulties when measuring flowrates over a wide range

of values. An alternative is to use two flow meters in parallel

Flowrate Measurement. Sluice Gate

The flowrate under a sluice gate depends on the water depths on either side of the gate

2 g z1 z2

Q z2b

1 z2 z1

2

Q z2b 2 gz1

flows under a sluice gate

Flowrate Measurement. Sharp-crested Weir

Flowrate over a weir is a function of the head on the weir

Q C1 Hb 2 gH C1b 2 g H 3 2

Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

Hydraulic grade line and energy line are graphical forms of the Bernoulli equation

Energy line represents the total head available to the fluid

Locus provided by a series of piezometric taps is termed the hydraulic grade line

Representation of the

energy line and the

hydraulic grade line

Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

If the flow is steady, incompressible, and inviscid, the energy line is horizontal and at the

elevation of the liquid in the tank.

Hydraulic grade line lies a distance of one velocity head below the energy line

At the pipe outlet the pressure head is zero (gage) so the pipe elevation and hydraulic

grade line coincide

grade line for flow from a tank

Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

The distance from pipe to hydraulic grade line indicates the pressure within the pipe

For flow below the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is positive

For flow above the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is negative

and hydraulic grade line

Restriction on Use of the Bernoulli Equation

Restrictions on use for the Bernoulli equation are imposed by the assumptions used in its

derivation.

To avoid incorrect use of Bernoulli equation one must take into account:

- Compressibility effects;

- Unsteady effects;

- Rotational effects;

- Viscosity effects;

- Presence of mechanical devices (pumps, turbines)

“Change of scene, and absence of the necessity for thought,

will restore the mental equilibrium”

(Jerom K. Jerom, “Three Men In a Boat”)

END OF CHAPTER

Supplementary slides

F = ma along a Streamline

V V

Newton’s second law along streamline Fs mas mV s

V V

s

F = ma along a Streamline

F = ma along a Streamline

p

Pressure force Fps p ps n y p ps n y V

s

F = ma along a Streamline

p

Net force s

F Ws Fps

sin

s

V

back

Bernoulli Equation

p V

Consider equation sin V (a)

s s

dz

Along streamline sin

ds

V

V 1 d V

2

Also

s 2 ds

p p p

dp ds dn ds

s n s

1

2

dp d V 2 dz 0 (along streamline)

F = ma Normal to a Streamline

mV 2 V V 2

Newton second law in normal direction Fn

F = ma Normal to a Streamline

F = ma Normal to a Streamline

p

Pressure force Fpn p pn s y p pn s y V

n

F = ma Normal to a Streamline

p

Net force Fn Wn Fpn cos V

n

back

Continuity Equation

Consider a fluid flowing through a fixed volume. If the flow is steady, rate at which fluid

flows into the volume must equal the rate at which it flows out of the volume (mass is

conserved)

Mass flow rate is given by m& Q

Volume flow rate Q VA

1 1 2 A2V2

AV

back

Compressibility Effects

For compressible, inviscid, isothermal, steady flows:

V12 RT p1 V22

z1 ln z2

2g g p2 2 g

Use of above equation is restricted by inviscid flow assumptions, since most isothermal

flows are accompanied by viscous effects.

For compressible, isentropic (no friction or heat transfer), steady flow of a perfect gas:

k p1 V12 k p2 V2

2

gz1 gz2

k 1

1 2 k 1

2 2

Compressibility Effects

Bernoulli equation for compressible flow can be written for pressure ratio as

k

p2 p1 k 1 k 1

1 Ma12 1

p1 2

a perfect gas may be considered as

incompressible provided the Mach

number is less than about 0.3

Mach number for incompressible

and compressible (isentropic) flow

back

Unsteady Effects

For incompressible, inviscid, unsteady flows:

V12 s2 V V22

p1 z1 ds p2 z2

2 s1 t 2

Use of this equation requires knowledge of variation of ∂V/∂t along the streamline

back

Example 3.12

Q

Answers: 4.83 m 2 /s

b

Comments: ?

Example 3.13

Answers: Q AV H 2 tan

2

C2 2 gh C2 tan

2

2 ghH 5 2

C2 tan 2 2 g 3H 0

52

Q3 H 0

C2 tan 2 2 g H 0

52

QH 0

Comments: ?

Example 3.14

Answers:

Comments: ?

Example 3.16

2g

Answers:

l

Comments: ?

Example 3.17

V12

Answers: p2 h 518 kPa

2

Comments: ?

Example 3.18

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