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Elementary Fluid Dynamics –

The Bernoulli Equation


Newton’s Second Law: F = ma

• Consider inviscid, steady, two-dimensional flow in x-z plane


• Define streamlines
• Select coordinate systems based on streamlines
• Define acceleration
• Define forces
• Apply Newton’s second law of motion along and across streamline
Newton’s Second Law: F = ma

• Prior to apply Newton’s second law of motion to fluid particle:


• Consider motion of an inviscid fluid
• Assume that fluid motion is governed by pressure and gravity forces
• Select an appropriate coordinate system. Consider two dimensional motion (x-z
plane)
Coordinate System

• Prior to apply Newton’s second law of motion to fluid particle:


• Consider motion of an inviscid fluid
• Assume that fluid motion is governed by pressure and gravity forces
• Select an appropriate coordinate system. Consider two dimensional motion (x-z
plane)
Coordinate System

• Motion of a fluid particle is described by its velocity vector


Coordinate System

• Motion of a fluid particle is described by its velocity vector


• As the particle moves, it follows a particular path, the shape of which is governed by
velocity vector
Coordinate System

• Motion of a fluid particle is described by its velocity vector


• As the particle moves, it follows a particular path, the shape of which is governed by
velocity vector
• If flow is steady, each successive particle that passes through given point (1) will
follow the same path. For such cases the path is a fixed line in the x-z plane. The
entire x-z plane is filled with such paths.
Coordinate System

• For steady flow each particle slides along its path and its velocity vector is
everywhere tangent to the path
Streamlines

• For steady flow each particle slides along its path and its velocity vector is
everywhere tangent to the path
• The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called
streamlines.
Streamlines

• For steady flow each particle slides along its path and its velocity vector is
everywhere tangent to the path
• The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field are called
streamlines.
• We will use coordinates based on streamlines
Particle Motion

• Particle motion is described in terms of its distance, s = s(t), along streamline, and
local radius of curvature
Particle Motion

• Particle motion is described in terms of its distance, s = s(t), along streamline, and
local radius of curvature
• Distance s is related to particle’s speed V = ds/dt, and radius of curvature is related
to the shape of streamline
Particle Acceleration

• Acceleration: a  d V dt
Particle Acceleration

• Acceleration: a  d V dt

• Components of acceleration in s and n directions:

V V2
as  V , an 
s 
Forces

• To determine forces consider free-body diagram of small fluid particle


F = ma along a Streamline

Free-body diagram
of a fluid particle
F = ma along a Streamline
p V
Equation of motion along streamline (details  sin    V   as
) s s
Change in fluid particle speed is accomplished
by combination of pressure gradient and particle
weight along streamline

Free-body diagram
of a fluid particle
Example 3.1 Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the horizontal
streamline A–B in front of the sphere of radius a. From a more advanced theory of flow
past a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is
 a3 
V  V0  1  3 
 x 
Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A far in front of the
sphere (xA = – ∞ and VA = V0) to point B on the sphere (xB = – a and VB = 0).
Example 3.1 Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the horizontal
streamline A–B in front of the sphere of radius a. From a more advanced theory of flow
past a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is
 a3 
V  V0  1  3 
 x 
Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A far in front of the
sphere (xA = – ∞ and VA = V0) to point B on the sphere (xB = – a and VB = 0).

Solution Streamline is horizontal, then


p V
  V
s s

Acceleration

V V 2 a3  a3
V V  3V0  1  3  4
s x  x  x
Example 3.1 Consider the inviscid, incompressible, steady flow along the horizontal
streamline A–B in front of the sphere of radius a. From a more advanced theory of flow
past a sphere, the fluid velocity along this streamline is
a3 
V  V0  1  3 
 x 
Determine the pressure variation along the streamline from point A far in front of the
sphere (xA = – ∞ and VA = V0) to point B on the sphere (xB = – a and VB = 0).

Solution Pressure gradient


3 2

p 3 a V0 1  a x
3 3

x x4

Pressure distribution

  a  3 a x6
p   V02    
 
  x  2 

V02
pB 
2
Bernoulli Equation
For incompressible fluid equation of motion along streamline reduces to Bernoulli equation
(details)

1
p V 2   z  constant along streamline
2

Restricted to:
- inviscid flow
- steady flow
- incompressible flow
- along streamline
Example 3.2 Consider the flow of air around a bicyclist moving through still air with
velocity V0. Determine the difference in the pressure between points (1) and (2).
Example 3.2 Consider the flow of air around a bicyclist moving through still air with
velocity V0. Determine the difference in the pressure between points (1) and (2).

Solution Apply Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

1 1
p1  V12   z1  p2  V22   z2
2 2

Pressure difference

1 1
p2  p1  V12  V02
2 2
F = ma Normal to a Streamline
dz p V 2
Equation of motion along the normal direction (details)   
dn n 

Change in the direction of flow of a fluid


particle is accomplished by combination of
pressure gradient and particle weight normal to
streamline

Free-body diagram
of a fluid particle
Example 3.3 Shown in Fig. a, b are two flow fields with circular streamlines. The
velocity distributions are
V  r   C1r for case (a)
C2
V  r  for case (b)
r
where C1 and C2 are constant. Determine the pressure distributions, p = p(r), for each,
given that p = p0 at r = r0.
Example 3.3 Shown in Fig. a, b are two flow fields with circular streamlines. The
velocity distributions are
V  r   C1r for case (a)
C2
V  r  for case (b)
r
where C1 and C2 are constant. Determine the pressure distributions, p = p(r), for each,
given that p = p0 at r = r0.

Solution Assume steady, inviscid, and incompressible flow


with streamlines in horizontal plane (dz/dn = 0)
Since streamlines are circles, ∂/∂n = - ∂/∂r and = r
Then equation of motion along the normal
dz p V 2
  
dn n 
becomes
p V 2

r r
Example 3.3 Shown in Fig. a, b are two flow fields with circular streamlines. The
velocity distributions are
V  r   C1r for case (a)
C2
V  r  for case (b)
r
where C1 and C2 are constant. Determine the pressure distributions, p = p(r), for each,
given that p = p0 at r = r0.

Solution

For case (a)

p 1
r
  C12 r and p
2
 
 C12 r 2  r02  p0

For case (b)

p  C22 1 2 1 1
 3 and p   C2  2  2  p0
r r 2  r0 r 

Comments: (a) – free vortex, (b) forced vortex


F = ma Normal to a Streamline

For steady, inviscid, incompressible flow (details)

V2
p   dn   z  constant across streamline

Restricted to:
- inviscid flow
- steady flow
- incompressible flow
- across streamline

Pressure variation across straight streamlines is hydrostatic


Physical Interpretation

1
p V 2   z  constant along streamline
2

Work done on a particle by all forces acting on the particle is equal to the change of the
kinetic energy of the particle
Each term of Bernoulli equation can be interpreted as:
- head (elevation, pressure, velocity)
- form of pressure (static, hydrostatic, dynamic)
Example 3.4
Pressure variation across straight streamlines is hydrostatic
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

Useful concept associated with the Bernoulli equation deals with the stagnation and
dynamic pressures.
As fluid is brought to rest its kinetic energy is converted to a pressure rise
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

Each term in Bernoulli equation can be interpreted as a form of pressure; static, p,


hydrostatic, γ z, and dynamic, ρV 2/2 ,
1
p V 2   z  constant along streamline
2

Point (2) is a stagnation point

1
p2  p1  V12
2

Pressure at the stagnation point


is greater than static pressure
by dynamic pressure
Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

• There is a stagnation point on any stationary body that is placed onto a flowing
fluid

• Some of the fluid flows “over” and some “under” the object. Dividing line is
termed the stagnation streamline and terminates at the stagnation point on the body

• Location of the stagnation point is function of body shape.


Static, Stagnation, Dynamic, and Total Pressure

• If elevation effect are neglected, stagnation pressure, p + ρV2/2, is the largest


pressure obtainable along a given streamline. It represents the conversion of all of
the kinetic energy into a pressure rise.

• Sum of the static pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and dynamic pressure is termed the
total pressure, pT

• Bernoulli equation is a statement that total pressure remains constant along a


streamline.

1
p V 2   z  pT  constant along streamline
2
Fluid Velocity Measurement

Pitot-static tubes measure fluid velocity by converting velocity into pressure

2  p3  p4 
V

Pitot-static tube
Typical Pitot-Static Tube Designs
Measurement of Static Pressure

Incorrect and correct design of static pressure taps


Measurement of Static Pressure

Typical pressure distribution along a Pitot-static tube


Fluid Velocity Measurement

Many velocity measurement devices use Pitot-static tube principle

If   0 and   29.5o
p1  p3  p
V 2
p2  p 
2

2  p2  p1 
V

Cross section of a directional-finding


Pitot-static tube
Examples of Use of Bernoulli Equation
Free Jets

Exit pressure for an incompressible fluid jet is equal to the surrounding pressure

Velocity: V  2 gh

Vertical flow from a tank


Free Jets

For horizontal nozzle velocity is not uniform


If d « h centerline velocity can be used as an “average velocity”

Horizontal flow from a tank


Free Jets

If exit is not smooth, diameter of the jet will be less than diameter of the hole.
This phenomena, called a vena contracta effect, is a result of the inability of the fluid to
turn the sharp 90º corner indicated by dotted lines in the figure

Vena contracta effect for a sharp-edged orifice


Free Jets

Since streamlines in the exit plane are curved, the pressure across them is not constant.
The highest pressure occurs along the centerline at (2), and lowest pressure, p1 = p3 = 0

Vena contracta effect for a sharp-edged orifice


Free Jets

Assumption of uniform velocity with straight streamlines and constant pressure is not
valid at the exit plane
It is valid in the plane of vena contracta, sectшon a-a, provided dj « h

Vena contracta effect for a sharp-edged orifice


Free Jets

Vena contracta effect is a function of the geometry of the ounlet.


Contraction coefficient:

Cc  Aj Ah

Typical flow patterns and


contraction coefficients for
various round exit configurations
Confined Flows

In nozzles and pipes of variable diameter velocity changes from one section to another
For such cases continuity equation must be used along with Bernoulli equation
Continuity equation states that mass cannot be created or destroyed
For incompressible fluid (details)

1 1  A2V2
AV or Q1  Q2
Example 3.7 A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1 m
flows steadily from a tank of diameter D = 1.0 m.
Determine the flowrate, Q , needed from the inflow pipe
if the water depth remains constant, h = 2.0 m
Example 3.7 A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1 m
flows steadily from a tank of diameter D = 1.0 m.
Determine the flowrate, Q , needed from the inflow pipe
if the water depth remains constant, h = 2.0 m

Solution
Assume steady, inviscid, incompressible flow.
Apply Bernoulli equation between points (1) and (2)
1 1
p1  V12   z1  p2  V22   z2
2 2
1 2 1
With p1 = p2 = 0, z1 = h and z2 = 0 V1  gh  V22
2 2
2
 d
From continuity equation V1    V2
 D
2 gh
Exit velocity V2   6.26 m/s
1  d D
4

and volume flowrate Q  AV


1 1  A2V2  0.0492 m /s
3
Example 3.7 A stream of water of diameter d = 0.1 m
flows steadily from a tank of diameter D = 1.0 m.
Determine the flowrate, Q , needed from the inflow pipe
if the water depth remains constant, h = 2.0 m

Solution
If D » d, then we can assume V1 ≈ 0. Error associated
with this assumption:

2 gh  1   d D  
4
Q V2   1
  
Q0 V2 D  2 gh 1  d D
4
Example 3.8
Example 3.8

2 p1
Answers: V3   69.0 m/s V2 =7.67 m/s

Q  0.00542 m3 / s p2  2963 N/m 2

Comments: V3 is determined strictly by the value of p1


In absence of viscous effect pressure throughout the hose is constant and equals to p2
Decrease in pressure from p1 to p3 accelerate the air and increase its kinetic energy
Pressure change (density change) is within 3%. Hence, incompressibility assumption is
reasonable
Example 3.9

 Q  1   A2 A1 
2 2

Answer: h 
 2  2 g  1  SG 
A

Comments:
For a given flowrate h does not depend
on θ, but pressure difference, p1 – p2, as
measured by pressure gage, does
Cavitation

Cavitation occurs when the


pressure is reduced to the
vapor pressure

Cavitation can cause damage


to equipment

Pressure variation and cavitation in a variable area pipe


Cavitation

Tip cavitation from a propeller


Example 3.10

Answer: H  28.2 ft

Comments: Results are independent of diameter and length of the hose (provided viscous
effects are not important
Proper design of hose is needed to ensure that it will not collapse due to the large pressure
difference (vacuum) between the inside and outsides of the hose
Flowrate Measurement

Various flow meters are governed


by the Bernoulli and continuity
equations

We consider “ideal” flow meters –


those devoid of viscous,
compressibility, and other effects.

The flowrate is a function of the


pressure difference across the flow
meter

2  p1  p2 
Q  A2
  1   A2 A1  
2

 

Typical devices for measuring flowrate


Example 3.11

Answer: 1.16 kPa  p1  p2  116 kPa

Comments:
These values represent “ideal” results, and these results are independent of flow meter
geometry – an orifice, nozzle, or Venturi meter.

Tenfold increase in flowrate requires one-hundredfold increase in pressure difference. This


nonlinear relationship can cause difficulties when measuring flowrates over a wide range
of values. An alternative is to use two flow meters in parallel
Flowrate Measurement. Sluice Gate
The flowrate under a sluice gate depends on the water depths on either side of the gate

2 g  z1  z2 
Q  z2b
1   z2 z1 
2

In the limit of z1»z2

Q  z2b 2 gz1

A vena contracta occurs as water


flows under a sluice gate

Sluice gate geometry


Flowrate Measurement. Sharp-crested Weir
Flowrate over a weir is a function of the head on the weir

Q  C1 Hb 2 gH  C1b 2 g H 3 2

Rectangular, sharp-crested weir geometry


Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
Hydraulic grade line and energy line are graphical forms of the Bernoulli equation
Energy line represents the total head available to the fluid
Locus provided by a series of piezometric taps is termed the hydraulic grade line

Representation of the
energy line and the
hydraulic grade line
Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
If the flow is steady, incompressible, and inviscid, the energy line is horizontal and at the
elevation of the liquid in the tank.
Hydraulic grade line lies a distance of one velocity head below the energy line
At the pipe outlet the pressure head is zero (gage) so the pipe elevation and hydraulic
grade line coincide

Energy line and hydraulic


grade line for flow from a tank
Energy Line and Hydraulic Grade Line
The distance from pipe to hydraulic grade line indicates the pressure within the pipe
For flow below the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is positive
For flow above the hydraulic grade line, the pressure is negative

Use of the energy line


and hydraulic grade line
Restriction on Use of the Bernoulli Equation

Restrictions on use for the Bernoulli equation are imposed by the assumptions used in its
derivation.
To avoid incorrect use of Bernoulli equation one must take into account:
- Compressibility effects;
- Unsteady effects;
- Rotational effects;
- Viscosity effects;
- Presence of mechanical devices (pumps, turbines)
“Change of scene, and absence of the necessity for thought,
will restore the mental equilibrium”
(Jerom K. Jerom, “Three Men In a Boat”)
END OF CHAPTER
Supplementary slides
F = ma along a Streamline
V V
Newton’s second law along streamline   Fs   mas   mV s
  V V
s
F = ma along a Streamline

Gravity force  Ws   W sin    V sin 


F = ma along a Streamline
p
Pressure force  Fps   p   ps   n y   p   ps   n y   V
s
F = ma along a Streamline
 p 
Net force  s
 F   Ws   Fps  

 sin  
s 
 V

back
Bernoulli Equation
p V
Consider equation  sin    V (a)
s s

dz
Along streamline sin  
ds

V
V 1 d V

2
 
Also
s 2 ds

Finally, along streamline value of n is constant (dn = 0) so that


p p p
dp  ds  dn  ds
s n s

Hence, along streamline ∂p/∂s = dp/ds . Then equation (a) becomes


1
2
 
dp   d V 2   dz  0 (along streamline)

Integration at constant density gives Bernoulli equation back


F = ma Normal to a Streamline
 mV 2  V V 2
Newton second law in normal direction   Fn    
F = ma Normal to a Streamline

Gravity force  Wn   W cos    V cos 


F = ma Normal to a Streamline
p
Pressure force  Fpn   p   pn   s y   p   pn   s y   V
n
F = ma Normal to a Streamline
 p 
Net force  Fn   Wn   Fpn    cos    V
 n 

back
Continuity Equation
Consider a fluid flowing through a fixed volume. If the flow is steady, rate at which fluid
flows into the volume must equal the rate at which it flows out of the volume (mass is
conserved)
Mass flow rate is given by m&  Q
Volume flow rate Q  VA

Conservation of mass requires 1 AV


1 1   2 A2V2

If density remains constant 1 1  A2V2


AV

back
Compressibility Effects

Bernoulli equation can be modified for compressible flows.


For compressible, inviscid, isothermal, steady flows:

V12 RT  p1  V22
 z1  ln    z2
2g g  p2  2 g

Use of above equation is restricted by inviscid flow assumptions, since most isothermal
flows are accompanied by viscous effects.
For compressible, isentropic (no friction or heat transfer), steady flow of a perfect gas:

 k  p1 V12  k  p2 V2
2

    gz1      gz2
 k  1 
 1 2  k  1 
 2 2
Compressibility Effects
Bernoulli equation for compressible flow can be written for pressure ratio as

 k

p2  p1   k 1  k 1
  1 Ma12   1
p1  2  
 

Where Ma = V/c is the Mach number; c is local speed of sound

A “rule of thumb” is that the flow of


a perfect gas may be considered as
incompressible provided the Mach
number is less than about 0.3

Pressure ratio as a function of


Mach number for incompressible
and compressible (isentropic) flow
back
Unsteady Effects

Bernoulli equation can be modified for unsteady flows.


For incompressible, inviscid, unsteady flows:

V12 s2 V V22
p1    z1    ds  p2    z2
2 s1 t 2

Use of this equation requires knowledge of variation of ∂V/∂t along the streamline

back
Example 3.12

Q
Answers:  4.83 m 2 /s
b

Comments: ?
Example 3.13

 
Answers: Q  AV  H 2 tan
2
 
C2 2 gh  C2 tan
2
2 ghH 5 2

C2 tan   2  2 g  3H 0 
52
Q3 H 0

C2 tan   2  2 g  H 0 
52
QH 0

Comments: ?
Example 3.14

Answers:
Comments: ?
Example 3.16

2g
Answers: 
l

Comments: ?
Example 3.17

V12
Answers: p2    h  518 kPa
2

Comments: ?
Example 3.18