Fluid Kinematics

• Continuum hypothesis:
– fluid is made up of fluid particles;
– each particle contains numerous molecules;
– infinitesimal particles of a fluid are tightly packed together
• Thus, motion of a fluid is described in terms of fluid particles rather than individual
molecules.
• This motion can be described in terms of the velocity and acceleration of the fluid
particles
• At a given instant of time, description of any fluid property may be given as a function
of fluid location
• Representation of fluid parameters as function of spatial coordinates is termed a field
representation of the flow
• Fluid parameters are functions of position ant time. For example, temperature in the
room is completely specified by temperature field
Velocity Field
( )
, , , T T x y z t ·

Velocity Field
Velocity of a particle
Velocity magnitude
Velocity field
A
A
d
dt
·
r
V
2 2 2
V u v w · · + + V
( ) ( ) ( )
u x y z t v x y z t w x y z t · + +
ˆ ˆ ˆ
V , , , i , , , j , , , k
Particle location in terms of its position vector
( )
x y z t · V V , , ,

Eulerian and Lagrangian Flow Description
There are two approaches in analyzing fluid mechanics problem
Eulerian method uses field concept
Lagrangian method involves following individual particle moving through the flow
Lagrangian information can be derived from the Eulerian data – and vice versa
Most fluid mechanics considerations involve the Eulerian method.
Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions
of temperature of a flowing fluid

One-, Two, and Three-Dimensional Flows.
Steady and Unsteady Flows

Steady flow – the velocity at a given point in space does not vary with time,
otherwise, flow is unsteady

In general, fluid flow is three-dimensional and unsteady

In many situations, flow can be simplified to steady, two- or one-dimensional flow
in order to make solution easier without loss of accuracy
Flow visualization of the complex three-
dimensional flow past a model airfoil

Streamlines, Srteaklines and Pathlines
• Streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines are used for flow visualization
• Streamline is used in analytical work while the streakline and pathline are used in
experimental work
• Streamline is a line, that is everywhere tangent to the velocity field
• Streamlines are obtained by integrating differential equation of streamline. For two-
dimensional flow dy/dx = v/u
• If flow is steady, streamlines are fixed lines in space
• Streakline consist of all particles in a flow that have previously passed through the
common point.
• Pathline is the line traced out by a given particle as it flows from one point to
another
• For steady flow streamlines, streaklines, and pathlines are the same

Example 4.3

Solution
(a) Streamline is given by solution of
Integration gives
At t = 0, C = u
0
v
0
/ω , and equation of streamline is
At t = π/2ω , C = 0, and equation of streamline is
These two streamlines are not the same because flow is unsteady
At the origin
( )
0
0 0
sin
v dy v
dx u u t y v u
· ·
]
]
( ) ( )
0 0 0 0
cos u v t y v v x C u u ] · +
]
0
0
cos 1
u y
x
v
u
u
]
| `
·
] ÷
. ,
]
0
0
sin
u y
x
v
u
u
| `
·
÷
. ,
0
0 0
at 0
at 2
v t
u v t r u
· ·
· + ·
V j
V i j

0 0
0
0 1 0
(b) Pathline is obtained from velocity field
sin and
Integration gives
and s
dx y dy
u t v
dt v dt
y v t C x u
u
]
| `
· ·
] ÷
. ,
]
· + ·
1
2
0
0
in
For the particle that was at the origin
at time 0, the pathline is
0 and
For the particle that was at the origin
at time 2 , the pathli
C
t C
v
t
x y v t
t
u
r u
]
| `
+
] ÷
. ,
]
·
· ·
·
0 0
ne is
and
2 2
x u t y v t
r r
u u
| ` | `
· ·
÷ ÷
. , . ,

(c) Discuss the shape of the streakline that passes through the origin

Acceleration Field

For Eulerian description one describes the acceleration field as a function of
position and time

Acceleration is the time rate of change of velocity of a given particle

For unsteady flow the velocity at a given point in space (occupied by different
particles) may vary with time, giving rise to a portion of the fluid acceleration
• In addition, a fluid particle may experience an acceleration because its velocity
changes as it flows from one point to another in space

Acceleration Field
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
A A A A A A A
t x t y t z t ] · ·
]
V V r , V , ,
or
D
u v w
t x y z Dt
o o o o
· + + + ·
o o o o
V V V V V
a a
Velocity and position
of particle A at time t

Material Derivative
Operator
is termed the material derivative or substantial derivative
In vector notation:
Material derivative of any variable is the rate at which that variable changes with time for a
given particle (as seen by one moving along with the fluid – Lagrangian description.
Material derivative is also called comoving derivative)
For example, the time rate of change of temperature of a fluid particle (particle A) as it
moves through the temperature field T = T(x,y,z,t) is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
D
u v w
Dt t x y z
o o o o
· + + +
o o o o
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
D
Dt t
o
· + V
o
Vg
DT T T T T T
u v w T
Dt t x y z t
o o o o o
· + + + · + V
o o o o o
Vg

Material Derivative. Unsteady Effects
Portion of material derivative represented by time derivative is termed the local derivative
Local derivative is the result of the unsteadiness of the flow
Uniform, unsteady flow in
a constant diameter pipe

Material Derivative. Convective Effects
Portion of the material derivative represented by the spatial derivative is termed the
convective derivative
Convective derivative is a result of the spatial variation of the flow
Steady state operation of
a water heater

Material Derivative. Convective Effects
Portion of the material derivative represented by the spatial derivative is termed the
convective derivative
Convective derivative is a result of the spatial variation of the flow
Uniform, steady flow in a variable area pipe

• System is a collection of matter of fixed identity (always the same atoms or fluid
particles), which may move, flow, and interact with its surroundings

Control volume is a volume in space (geometric entity, independent of mass)
through which fluid may flow
Control Volume and System Representation
Typical control volumes: (a) fixed control volume, (b) fixed or moving control volume, (c) deforming control volume

• Both, control volume and system concepts can be used to describe fluid flow
• Governing laws of fluid motion are stated in terms of fluid systems, not control
volume
• To shift from one representation to the other Reynolds transport theorem is used
Control Volume and System Representation

Reynolds Transport Theorem
Physical laws are stated in terms of physical parameters (velocity, acceleration, mass,
temperature, momentum etc.)
Let B represent fluid parameter and b represent amount of that parameter per unit mass.
Then
Parameter B is termed an extensive property, and the parameter b is termed an intensive
property
Amount of extensive property that system possesses at a given instant is
Time rate of change of extensive property of a system
B mb ·
sys
sys
B bdV p ·
l
( )
sys
sys
d bdV
dB
dt dt
p
·
l

Reynolds Transport Theorem. Derivation
Simplified version of the Reynolds transport theorem for fixed control volume with one
inlet and one outlet having uniform properties (density, velocity, and the parameter b)
across the inlet and outlet with the velocity normal to sections (1) and (2) is
Control volume and
system for flow
through a variable
area pipe
sys
cv
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
DB
B
AV b AVb
Dt t
p p
o
· +
o

Reynolds Transport Theorem. General Form
General form for of the Reynolds transport theorem for a fixed, nondeforming control
volume is given by (details)
Control volume and system for flow through
an arbitrary, fixed control volume
sys
cv cs
DB
bdV b dA
Dt t
p p
o
· +
o
l l
ˆ
V n g

Physical Interpretation
Possible velocity configurations on portions of the control surface: (a) inflow,
(b) no flow across the surface, (c) outflow
sys
cv cs
DB
bdV b dA
Dt t
p p
o
· +
o
l l
ˆ
V n g

Reynolds Transport Theorem. Moving CV
Example of a moving control volume

Reynolds Transport Theorem. Moving CV
sys
cv cs
DB
bdV b dA
Dt t
p p
o
· +
o
l l
ˆ
W n g
cv
· + V W V

Selection of a Control Volume

END OF CHAPTER

Supplementary slides

Outflow across a typical portion of the control surface

Outflow across a typical portion of the control surface
( )
cos B b V b V t A ô pô p uô ô · ·
( )
out
0 0
cos
lim lim cos
t t
bV t A
b V
B bV A
t t
ô ô
p uô ô
p ô
ô p uô
ô ô
÷ ÷
· · ·
&
out out
out out
cs cs
cos B dB bV A p uô · ·
l l
& &
out
out
cs
B b dA p ·
l
ˆ
V n
&
g

back
Inflow across a typical portion of the control surface
in in
in
cs cs
B bV dA b dA p u p · ·
l l
ˆ
cos V n
&
g

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