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TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF

TRANSFORMER OIL

 Delivered by:
 Er. Harkiranjit Kaur
 Asstt. Director /P&D ( TS)
Dated 30.08.2004
TR ANS FOR MER FL UI D IS
PO WE RFUL D IAGNO STIC
TOOL
 Ch ar acte riz ati on : W hich giv es par ameters th at ca n
be u sed to i dentif y th e oi l .
 Ag ei ng stat us : Which gi ves p ar ameters relev an t to
th e agein g pr oce ss.
 Dielectri c Stat us : Which giv es p ar ameters use d to
dete rm in e th e diel ectri c safet y mar gin and
dielectr ic char acte ris tics of th e insul ati on spaces .
 Degr ad ati on status : which g ives par amete rs
relevant faults f ai lu re and we ar.
CH EMI STR Y A ND
CO MPO SI TIO N O F OIL
 Transformer oils are made from a
mixture of Paraffinic (CP), Naphthenic
(CN) and Aromatic (CA) molecules in
varying proportions and all the three
components are essential in certain
proportion for good and long
performance of the transformers .
Difference between Naphthenic
oil and Paraffinic Base oil :
 Pour point of Paraffinic base oil is more
than Naphthenic base oil.
 Naphthenic based oils are more easily
oxidized as compared to paraffinic oils
 the Naphthenic based oil has 25%
reduced viscosity at 70ºCdue to which it
act as a better coolant
AROMATIC MOLECULES:
 It is that component which give the oil
its oxidation and ageing stability.
 It is considered maximum upto 8%.
CH AR AC TER STICS OF
OIL:
S Ch ara cterist ics Req uir emen t as
r.N per ISS- 335
o
1. Appearance Clear & transparent
2. Density at 29.5 deg. C 0.89 g/cm3
(Max.)
3. Kinematic viscosity at 27 27 cSt
°C (Max)
4. Interfacial tension at 27 °C 0.04 N/M
(Min.)
5. Flash Point (Min.) 140 °C
6. Pour Point (Max.) -6 °C
7. Neutralization value 0.03 mg KOH/g
Total acidity (Max.)
8. Corrosive Sulphur Non-corrosive
9. Electric strength (Break down 30KV (rms) (Min.)
voltage) Min. If the above value is not
New Unfiltered oil obtained the oil shall be
filtered.
After filtration 60KV(r.m.s) (Min.)
10. Dielectric dissipation factor 0.002 (Max.)
(Tan-delta) at 90 ° C
11. Water content (Max.) 50ppm

12. Specific resistance (Resistivity)


a) At 90 °C (Min.) 35X1012 ohm-cm
b) At 27 °C (Min.) 1500X1012 ohm-cm
13. Oxidation stability (after oxidation for
164 hours @ 100 °C
Neutralization value after oxidation
(Max.) 0.40 mg KOH/g
Total sludge after oxidation (Max.) 0.10% by weight
14. Ageing characteristics after
accelerated ageing (open beaker
method with copper catalyst) i.e. 96
hours at 115 °C
a. Specific resistance (resistivity)
ii) At 27 °C (min.) 25X1012 ohm-cm
iii) At 90 °C (min.) 0.2X1012 ohm-cm
b. Dielectric dissipation factor (Tan 0.20 Max.
delta) at 90 °C
ii) Total acidity, mg. KOH/g 0.05 Max
iii) Total sludge value percent by 0.05 Max
weight.
15. Presence of oxidation inhibitor Absent
PERMISSIBLE V ALU ES O F O IL
CHA RAC TER IS TICS F OR
IN SER VIC E TRAN SF ORMER OIL A S P ER IS S
1866:20 00

Sr. Name of Equ ipmen t Pe rm is sib le


No. Ch ara cteri stics vo ltag e limit for in
serv ice T/ F Oi l
ISS:1866-2000
1. Electric Strength A)>170KV 50
(Break down voltage B)>72.5KV- 40
(KV) (Minimum) 170KV
C) 72.5KV and 30
below
2. Specific resistance All voltages 0.1X1012
(Resistivity at
90degC) ohm-cm
(Minimum)
3. Neutralization value All voltages 0.3mg
3. Water Content A)>170KV 20
(PPM) (Max) B)>72.5KV-170KV 40
C) 72.5KV and No free moisture at
below Room Temperature
4. Dielectric A)>170KV 0.2
dissipation factor B&C) Upto 170KV 0.1
max (Tan Delta) at
90°C
6. IFT at 27°C (m All voltages 15
N/m) Min
7. Flash Point °C - 15 ° C (Max.)
decrease from initial
value
COND ITION M ONITORING OF
TRANSF ORM ER OIL
ELECT RI CAL PARAME TR S

DIELECTR IC ST RE NGTH

 Popularly known as BDV. BDV of oil is the AC voltage which


causes spark between two electrodes placed in the oil under
test at the standard distance of 2.5mm.
 Indicator of solid impurities and water content present in the
oil
 BDV of the oil within transformer goes down slowly as the
water content and conducting impurities increase as a result of
oxidation of oil
 The minimum value of BDV is (30KVrms) for new unfiltered oil
and 60KV(rms)(min.) after filtration
SP ECI FIC RE SI STAN CE (res istiv ity)

Also called resistivity . It is the DC resistance of volume of oil


of unit cross sectional area and unit length

It should be as high as possible .

An increase in temperature reduces the resistivity .

The value of resistivity is considered as 35x1012 ohm-cm at


90ºC and 1500x1012 ohm-cm at 27ºC. The resistivity of the used
oil at 90ºC may be taken as 0.1x1012 ohm- cm(min.).
DI ELECTR IC DI SS IPATIO N FACTOR

Popularly known as Tan delta or loss factor
 Reveals presence of contaminants picked by oil ,derived due to
oxidation, poor manufacture or bad use of equipment.
 High value of DDF leads to increased
 1. heating leading to thermal runway
 2. corrosion & oxidation
 3. water solubility and emulsifying power.
 Low value of DDF– ensures freedom from moisture, polar
compounds, soluble impurities and minimum energy loss.
 Limits (Max) at 90° C
 new oil 0.002
 oil in service less than 170 KV 0.2
 for upto 170KV class 1.0
SK VAL UE
 SK value prescribes the behavior of insulating oils in the

presence of concentrated Sulfuric acid

 It furnishes the information on the refining degree of mineral


oil.
 SK value % by weight – 4 to 8% (max). Under consideration as
per IS
:
CH EMIC AL PARA MET RS

WATE R CON TE NT
 Presence of water in oil adversely affect the dielectric
properties of the oil.
 Water present in oil is absorbed by the solid insulation of
the transformer.
 The water present in oil is measured in ppm and measured
with sophisticated instruments like Karl/Fischer
 The max. value of water in new transformer oil may be
taken as 50ppm followed by 20ppm in used oil.
 AC ID ITY/ N EUTR AL ISATION N UMB ER :
 Measure of acidity in new & used mineral Insulating oils
 Expressed in number of mg of KOH required to neutralize
1g of oil.
 Limits
 1) New oil -- --- 0.03mg KOH/g (max)
2) Service oil --- 0.3 mg KOH/g
 CO RROSI ON TE ST :
 To detect any traces of free or combined sulphur that may
be present in an oil .
 The presence of sulphur promotes oxidation and also
corrodes the copper and silver metal points of the
equipment.
 Colour of copper after test :
 Orange red , Multi coloured ---New corrosive
 Black, grey or brown--- Corrosive
 New insulating oil is required to be non Corrosive.

OXIDATIO N ST AB ILI TY :
 Another method to determine the quality of New insulating
oil with respect to oxidative Degradation.
 IS consists in ageing 25g of the oil at 100ºC for 164 hours
during which oxygen at the rate of one litre/ hour is
bubbled into the oil.
 The maximum limits fixed for new oils are acidity 0.4mg
KOH/gm and sludge 0.1 percent by weight.
 PR ES EN CE OF O XI DATI ON INHIB ITER :
 The Indian Standards IS:335 (1993) is applicable to only
unhibited oils .
 Oil containing any amine or phenolic type of inhibitors is
not accepted.
PHYSICAL PARAMETERS:
 DENSITY:
 The ratio of the weight of a given volume of the oil to the
weight of the same volume of water.
 TEST METHOD: IS: 1448 (Part 16) – 1997
 Evaluating methods
 -Hydrometer method & Density bottle method
 Density range: 0.85 – 0.89 g/CC (max)

VISCOSI TY :
 Measurement of resistance to gravity flow of a liquid, the
pressure head being proportional to its density
 UNIT : CENTISTOKES (cSt)
 Test method – is : 1448(Part 25) 01976
 VISCOSITY – TEMP. RELATIONSHIP
 Low viscosity at low temp.
 Efficient heat removal from windings
 Prevents localized over heating.

Kinematic viscosity at 27 °C (Max) is 27 cSt.
 POUR POI NT :
 TEST METHOD – IS-1448(P-10)-1970
 The sample oil is cooled and the temperature at which it
does not flow when held horizontally in a tube for 5
seconds is noted.
 High pour point- Increase in viscosity ,When exposed to
weather, hinder convection currents & poor cooling of
windings.
 The limit of pour point (max) as per IS is -6°C.
 FL AS H POINT
 The minimum temp at which oil gives so much vapors that this
vapor when mixed with & forms and ignitable mixture and gives
a momentary f lash on application of small pilot flame.
 TEST METHOD – IS : 1448 (P:21)-1970
 Low Value – Risk of fire in transformer
 Min. Limit as per IS: 335 – 140°C
 Max. reduction for in service oils as per IS 1866– 15 deg C
 INTE RFA CI AL TE NSI ON :
 Measurement of molecular attractive force between their
unlike molecules at the interface
Of oil and water.
 Unit = N/m
 TEST METHOD – IS:6104 – 1971
 It is the force required to lift a planar ring of platinum from
the Oil.
 Limit as per IS: 335- 0.040 N/m (min)
 For oil in service IS: 1866 – 0.015 N/m (min)
 SLU DGE:
 Sludge deposits itself on windings, tank walls and in cooling
ducts.
 The deposition of sludge in the oil ducts blocks the free
circulation of oil thereby/impairing cooling, increased
temperature and more sludge.
 TEST S TO BE PERFO RM ED ON IN SERV ICE
OIL S:
Tests for Electrical properties and DGA of the oil of
the transformer of the age below 10 years should
be done after every two years and of more than 10
years, it should be done every year. These tests
are also required to be carried out after every
dehydration.
 DIAG NOSTIC TEST S:
 Dissolved gas analysis in oil
 Furanic compounds in oil
 Metals in oil
 Water content in oil and relative saturation
 DIS SO LVED GAS AN AL YS IS :
 The causes for the generation of gases are classified as :
 Thermal degradation/Insulation Decomposition
 Arcing
 Partial discharge
 Oxidation
 Vaporization
Major and Minor gase s p rod uced are:

Ma jor Gas Min or Gas Nature of fault

C2H4 CH4 Thermal


decomposition
CH4 H2 Hot spot

H2 , CH4 C2H6, C2H2, C2H4 Electrical discharge

H2 CH4, C2H6 Internal Corona

CO, CO2 - Cellulous insulation


Decomposition
 The sensitivity limits for gases dissolved in oil shall meet the
following requirements :
 Hydrogen : 5ppm
 Hydrocarbons : 1ppm
 (Methane, Ethane, Acetylene, Propane, Ethylene, Propylene)
 CO,C O2 : 25ppm
 O2, N2 : 50ppm
 Before considering that any gas is present in significant
quantity, its concentration shall be at least 10 times these
sensitivity level
 As per Morgan and Morse, the recommended safe gas levels
in oil immersed equipment are:

Gas Dis solv ed Gas


Con ce ntration
H2 <20n+50
CH4 <20n+50
C2H6 <20n+50
C2H4 <20n+50
C2H2 <5n+10
CO <25n+500
CO2 <100n+1500
TCG <105n+710
 Here n = number of years in service of transformer
 TCG= Total Combustible Gas
 GAS GENERATION RATE :
Rate of gas generation is different for every transformer due
to its unique loading condition & design.
 Transformer Rating TCG/ppm/year
 >275KV >10MVA 350
 <10MVA 250
 500KV - 150
 INTERPRETATION SCHEMES;
 IEC 599 Method:
 Cod e of rang e o f Rati os
 C2H2 CH4 C2H4
 C2H4 H2 C2H6
 Rati os of Ch ara cteri stic Gas es

<0.1 0 1 0

0.1-1 1 0 0
1-3 1 2 1
>3 2 2 2
Case No. Diagnosis of Typical examples
faults/Characteristic fault
0 No fault 0 0 0 Normal ageing
1 Partial discharges 0 1 0 Discharge in gas-
filled cavities
of low energy density
2 Partial discharges 1 1 0 As above, but
of high energy density leading to tracking or
per formation of
solid insulation.
3 Discharge of low 1-2 0 1-2 Continuous sparking
energy in oil
4 Discharge of high 1 0 2 Arcing breakdown of
oil between coils to
energy earth
5 Thermal fault of low 0 0 1 General insulated
Temp.150°C conductor
overheating.
6 Thermal fault of 0 2 0 Local overheating of
low temp. 150°C –300°C the core
7 Thermal fault of 0 2 1 -do-
Medium temp. 300°C –700°C
8 Thermal fault of 0 2 2 -do-
High temp. 700°C
 Rogers Method
CH4 C2H6 C2H4 C2H2 Analysis
H2 CH4 C2H6 C2H4
0 0 0 0 If CH4/H2 is =0 or 0.1 P.D.
otherwise normal
deterioration
1 0 0 0 Slight overheating below
150°C
1 1 0 0 Slight overheating 150°C
-200° C
0 1 0 0 Slight overheating 200°C
-300°C
0 1 1 0 General conductor overheating

1 0 1 0 Circulating current overheated


joints
0 0 0 1 Flash over without power flow.
0 1 0 1 Tap changer breaking current
0 0 1 1 Arc with persistent sparking
 TDCG Method:
 ( Total Dissolved Combustible Gas (TDCG) Limits in PPM)
Fault Gases :H2 CH 4 C2H6 C 2H 4, C 2H CO CO
100 120 65 50 35 350
2500
TCG=720(PPM)
TDC G LIMITS AC TION
≤720 Satisfactory operation
721-1920 Normal ageing/ slight decomposition
1921-4630 Significant decomposition

>4630 Substantial decomposition


 SAM PL ING:
Properly retrieving a sample of oil is important to ensure that it
is a true representative of oil in the equipment
 sample should be drawn when the equipment is warm.
 For Forced oil cooled transformers , the oil pumps should be
run for at least 10 minutes before sample is drawn .
 Two samples instead of one drawn at a time .
 Sample containers must be full , wrapped, labeled and sealed.
 CELULO SE DEG RAD AT ION :
For a transformer with healthy cellulose insulation the ratio of
the CO2/CO is expected to be in the range of 3 to11 . CO2 and
CO are also produced due to oil break down, moisture content
and temperature of degradation and some times this ratio may
lead to wrong indications
 FU RAN IC COM PO UN DS:
 Test have been developed which detect oil soluble
breakdown products of the cellulose chain called furanic
compounds.
 The 5 compunds namely are:
 5-Hydroxymethyl-2- furaldehyde
 2-furfural alcohol
 2-furfuralhyde
 2-acetylfuran
 5-methyle-2-furalhyde
Amon g thes e 2-f ur fu ral is the mos t sign ifi ca nt
 Rel ati on shi p betw ee n DP( Deg re e of Pol ymeri zatio n)
value and the amo un t of furan ic co nce ntration in
th e oi l:
Lower DP values indicate increased furfural content when paper
samples were subjected to heating over a long period.
 Filtration of oil removes already existing furan temporarily
and they re-appear in their original concentration levels after
6 months.
 Limits of furan are as prescribed by CPRI are:
TOTAL FURAN (PPB) CONDITION
0-100 Normal
101-250 Questionable
251-1000 Deteriorated
1001-2500 Low reliable
>2500 Replace the windings
 ANALYSIS OF METALS IN OIL:
 Diagnostic or investigative tool when other system indicate
an incipient-fault condition.
 The most common metals dissolved in the oil could be iron
copper or aluminum depending upon the coil construction.
 Since new oil in transformers should not have significant
quantities of any dissolved or particulate metals any
appreciable increase of metals in the oil could be an indicator
of where a problem may exists
 MAIN TEN AN CE PR OCEDU RE FO R THE INSU LA TING
OIL IN TRANSFO RMER S :
 Oil level of the transformer should be checked at frequent
interval and leakage of oil should be investigated.
 All leaks should be repaired as quick as possible .
 The oil for topping up should preferably be from the some
source as the original oil .
 Samples of oil should be taken at regular intervals and
tested
 Don’t rely upon the dielectric strength of the oil.
 Reconditioning by centrifugal separation or filtration doesn’t
remove the acidity from oil but will remove sludge, dust,
dirt etc
 Filter with fullers earth will help the reduce acidity in the oil
and in addition improve the resistivity.
 If BDV is below 40KV and 50KV for HV & EHV respectively
the oil should be reconditioned by passing through filter
machine. If acidity is increasing rapidly or exceeds above
0.5mg, KOH/gm of oil, the oil should be treated for
improvement to 0.5 of less.
 If the Tan delta of oil is increasing rapidly and exceeds
above 0.01 to 0.2, oil should be treated for improvement to
0.01 or less.
 CO NCLUSIONS;
 Al l tes ts have to be carri ed out as per IS:1866
systema tica lly and peri od ical ly , as a p art of
main tenance sched ul e.
 The peri od ic tes tin g wil l h elp O&M pers on nel to
bui ld up data ban k and cas e hi stori es of Pow er
Trans formers .
 Pe riod ic tes ti ng will help to know the o il con diti on
as well to k now grow ing of an y inci pi ent faults b y
Dis solv ed Gas An alys is.