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PNEUMATIC STRUCTURE

SUBMITTED BY, Ashish Umesh Chetan Gaurav Pravin

Contents:
 History  Genera stu!y o" Pneumati# stru#tures$ i$ ii$ iii$ iv$ v$

Intro!u#tion De"inition Chara#teristi#s Prin#i% es Constru#tion te#hni&ues Air su%%orte! stru#ture! Air in" ate! stru#tures Hy'ri! stru#tures

. Ty%es i$ ii$ iii$

. Materia s an! Coatin(s . Merits)Demerits . E*am% es

# ose 2eave! #otton "a'ri# ma!e man)#arryin( hot air 'a oons %ossi' e$ + In %resent times.-. an! the Chinese !eve o%e! the "irst aeria 'a oons "rom %a%er$ In the ./0s 1a ter Bir! 2as the "irst %erson 2ho use! tin su%%orte! mem'ers3Pneumati# stru#tures4 "or #overin( s2immin( %oo s tem%orary 2arehouse e*hi'ition 'ui !in($ + The "irst stru#ture 2ere use! in .History: + In ate . the use o" %neumati# stru#tures "a#es the inherent ris6 o" #ata# ysmi# "ai ure in the event o" a ru%ture in the mem'rane an! a so in some #ases a re&uirement "or a #onstant air su%% y to maintain stru#tura sta'i ity$ . %neumati# stru#tures are %re!ominant y use! in s%a#e e*% oration in the !eve o%ment o" s%a#e stations an! enve o%es that are easi y !e% oya' e$ + In a!!ition %neumati# stru#tures %resent the %ossi'i ities o" #reatin( ne2 " ui! "orms that !i""ers "rom #onventiona (eometries$ Ho2ever.5 'y 1a ter 'ir! "or housin( o" a ra!ar antenna stru#ture USA$ + The Romans are re%ute! to have !eve o%e! %neumati# enve o%es usin( treate! anima s6ins an! intestines "or su%%ort in 2ater.-.7th #entury.

an! e*hi'ition 'ui !in(s . General study of Pneumatic structures8 Introduction 8 +1ith the hi(h #ost o" 'ui !in(s !i""erent ty%es o" #onstru#tion te#hni&ues are use!$ +Po%u ar 2ay to ho ! this hi(h #ost o" #onstru#tion !o2n is to use air$ +Air is use! to ho ! the roo" in % a#e instea! o" stee an! #on#rete$ +Air is #hea%er than many other materia s$ +This air #an su%%ort a "a'ri# #overin( or % asti# that 2i 2ithstan! e ements$ + Air)su%%orte! mem'ranes 2ere "irst !evise! 'y 1a ter Bir! in the ate ./s an! 2ere soon %ut to use as #overs "or s2immin( %oo s. tem%orary 2arehouses.-.i.

ii. (ases et#$ +Severa termino o(ies have 'een %ro%ose! an! a##e%te! aroun! the 2or ! to !e"ine it su#h as <' o2)u%s=. Definition: 1hat is %neumati#s9 3Pressuri:e! #onstru#tion4 + Pneumati#s is a s#ien#e 2hi#h !ea s 2ith the stu!y o" (ases. #hara#teristi#s 2ith res%e#t to #onstru#tion o" stru#ture or o'. <in" ata' es=. <air !omes=. air et#$ their 'ehavior. (ases$ .e#ts 2hi#h !e%en! u%on air. <air houses= et#$ +It #an 'e more a%%ro%riate y !e"ine! as the s#ien#e 2hi#h !ea s 2ith the #ontro an! sta'i i:ation o" a 6in!s o" stru#tures 'y means o" %ressure !i""erentia s a#hieve! 'y the uni"orm oa!in( a#tions o" air.

6e%t taut 'y mus# e tissues an! ' oo! %ressure an! ar(e y su%%orte! in a!!ition 'y a s6e eton resistin( 'en!in( or #om%ression$ +Basi# !e"inition o" %neumati# stru#ture #an 'e. air 'u'' e. stru#tures #onstru#te! or !eve o%e! 2ith air. ' oo! vesse s$ +The most ive e*am% e is o" s6in. (ases as the "un!amenta materia $ +Pneumati# stru#ture or an air su%%orte! stru#ture has a s%a#e en# osin( mem'rane an#hore! to the (roun! an! 6e%t in tension 'y interna air %ressure su#h that it #an su%%ort a%% ie! oa!s$ . soa% 'u'' e.1hat are %neumati# stru#tures? +Pneumati# stru#tures are one o" the "un!amenta stru#tura "orms in nature an! man has 'een in tou#h o" this %henomenon "rom very ear y times 'y o'servin( the natura %neumati# stru#tura "orms in 'oth % ants an! anima i"e$ In "ruits.

it 'e#omes sti""$ The interna air %ressure a#ts a(ainst the 2a o" 'a oon in a the !ire#tions so that its #y in!ri#a sha%e stret#hes an! is tense! 'oth en(th2ise an! #ross2ise$= + < the 'a oon 2i 'e #a%a' e o" a#tin( as a #o umn an! o" su%%ortin( a #ertain amount o" oa!$ This is 'e#ause the oa! ten!s to #om%ress its on(itu!ina 2a s. Characteristics of pneumatic structure: + Pneumati# sha%es are #hara#teri:e! 'y !ou' e #urvature sur"a#e$ + Pneumati# stru#tures are tensi e s6inne!$ + There is no theoreti#a s%an as !etermine 'y stren(th. Principle of pneumatic structures: + < I" u ' o2 a sausa(e sha%e! 'a oon.iii. s%e#i"i# 2ei(ht or any other %ro%erty$ iv. 'ut these thin as they are 2i not 'u#6 e an! #o a%se unti the #om%ression !ue to the oa! #an#e s the tension !ue to the . e asti#ity.

v. Construction techniques: + Mem'rane stru#ture that is sta'i i:e! 'y the %ressure o" #om%resse! air or air su%%orte! stru#ture are su%%orte! 'y interna air %ressure$ + A net2or6 o" #a' es sti""ens the "a'ri# an! the assem' ey is su%%orte! 'y ri(i! rin( at the e!(e$ + The air %ressure 2ithin this 'u'' e is in#rease! s i(ht y a'ove norma atmos%heri# %ressure an! maintaine! 'y #om%ressors or "ans$ + Air o#6s are re&uire! at the entran#e to %revent the oss o" interna air %ressure$ + The enve o% is ti(ht y "astene! to the "oun!ation$ .

TYPES Pneumati# stru#tures Air in" ate! stru#ture Air su%%orte! stru#tures Hy'ri! stru#tures Sin( e storey Dou' e s6in Ar#h 3in" ate! ri' stru#ture4 Beam Co umn Mu ti storey Dou' e s6in Ce u ar annu us Centra #ore #om%artmen te! Sin( e storey Dome Ra!ome S&uare !ome Cy in!ri#a 2ith .th s%heri#a en! Air su%%orte! #a' e stru#ture Mu ti storey Sin( e s6in " e*i' e #a' e net2or6 Sin( e s6in ri(i! Ca' e su%%orte! @enti#u ar #ushions ?rame su%%orte! Air mat ` .>.

this norma y re!u#es to a B>.A)B/6(>mC4 to su%%ort mem'rane over a (iven area an! %rovi!es a sin( e 2a en# osure$  Air must 'e su%% ie! on stant y 'e#ause o" the #ontinuous ea6a(e. Air supported structures:  The air su%%orte! stru#tures uses a o2 %ositive %ressure 3. the natura sha%e o" the air su%%orte! stru#ture is s%here$  In 'ui !in( terms. %rimari y throu(h the 'ui !in( entries$  Sin#e the %ressure is e*erte! norma to the sur"a#e in a !ire#tions$.th .i.

+ Easi y trans%orte!. e*it. im% ies a thro2a2ay %ro!u#t$ ./ yrs4. e*tension #an on y 'e a#hieve! 2ith !e" ation o" entire stru#ture an! a!!ition o" e*tra mo!u es$ + @o2 #ost. &ui#6 y ere#te! vo ume %a#6a(e$ + Constant air in%ut 3vita to stru#tura sta'i ity4 re&uire!$ + Air sea in( is vita ) air o#6s re&uire! 2hi#h may #ause imitations o" entry. 2ith a short i"e s%an 3E). an! #ir#u ation$ + Dn#e ere#te!.

'ut 2as a#tua y &uite s%a#ious 2hen 2e 2ent into it$ It #an she ter 12 .15 people &uite #om"orta' y$ Deployability The in" ation tent #an 'e sai! to 'e hi(h y !e% oya' e$ The "rame an! s6in o" the stru#ture #ome a""i*e! to ea#h other$ There is there"ore no nee! to mount them to(ether on site$ The entire %ro#ess o" settin( u% the tent #an 'e easi y !one 'y an untraine! han!$ .General Descriptions The air)su%%orte! viny tent may oo6 sma "rom the e*terior.

ii.oints. Air-inflated Structure :  Mem'rane #om% ete y en# osin( #om%resse! air an! #om%rises t2o ty%es8 Cushion an! Dou' e) ayere!  A%ertures #an 'e % a#e! more ran!om y  Greater a#ousti# an! therma #ontro %ossi' e  Possi'i ity o" se ")!e% oyment  Does not re&uire air sea to the (roun!  Re ative y sma air in%ut re&uire!F in" ation ra%i!  Se(ments #an 'e a!!e! 2ithout a terin( initia #onstru#tion  Hi(her %ressure nee!e!F hen#e hi(her %er"orman#e nee!e! "or . sea s an! mem'rane itse " .

. i"tin( an! other #a' in( re&uirements$ They have (reat therma an! soun! insu ation %ro%erties.+ Air cell inflatables are a!van#e! #onstru#tions 3o"ten re"erre! to as pneumatic structures4 ma!e 2ith t2o ayers o" materia 2ith "a'ri# "ormers %er%en!i#u ar in 'et2een$ They are se ")su%%ortin( an! se ")ere#ta' e 'y means o" an air "an on y 2ith no nee! "or "oun!ation./ years in Tro%i#s an! "or C/ years in Euro%ean #on!itions$ I" the in" ata' eJs are 6e%t in!oors they 2i ast a most in!e"inite y$ . an! to erate tem%eratures "rom + The i"e e*%e#tan#y o" inflatable buildings !e%en!s )B/ u%on GC to the H E/GC$ # imate in 2hi#h they are insta e! an! %arti#u ar y the eve s o" UI i(ht to 2hi#h the %neumati# stru#tures are e*%ose!$ An inflatable structure ere#te! out!oors shou ! survive "or . har!2are or (uy 2ires$ + Air cell inflatable buildings 3or pneumatic buildings4 a#t as %ermanent stru#tures rather than tem%orary ones havin( hi(h torsiona sti""ness./6(>mC$ + Inflatable buildings #an su%%ort oa!s on the roo" an! 2a s "or i(htin(. 2hi#h a o2s them to 2ithstan! 2in! u% to 7/ 6nots an! sno2 oa! u% to .

iii. in" ation instant Se ")!e% oymentF %o%)u% %a#6a(e . Inflated Ri ed Structures :!  Hi(h %ressure tu'e "rames  ?ree!om o" stru#tura "orm  Mem'rane in!e%en!ent o" the ri' stru#ture  A'i ity to #han(e easi y. a o2in( (reater #ontro o" heat. i(ht an! soun!  Di""i#u t to a!! to %ressure tu'e stru#tureF not easi y e*tensi' e  Initia air in%ut is very sma .

oinin( metho!s .Materials and Coatings: i Structural material8  The #hoi#e o" mem'rane materia !e%en!s u%on num'er o" "a#tors 2hi#h #an vary 2ith "un#tion an! !esi(n i"e$ ii "sual #actors8  Air %ermea'i ity  1eather resistan#e %ro%erty  Chemi#a resistan#e  Insu ation %ro%erty  ? e*i'i ity  In#om'usti'i ity  Iariation o" %ro%erties  Stren(th o" .

USUA@ MATERIA@S8 ?our 'asi# ty%es o" materia s8  P asti# "i ms  Coate! "a'ri#s  1oven meta i# "a'ri#  Meta i# "oi s Polyamide fabnylon Metallic foil .

P@ASTIC ?I@MS  Main a!vanta(e is its trans%aren#y$  But they are sus#e%ti' e to u tra vio et !eterioration$  Shou ! 'e use! in #on. very stron(. im%ermea' e an! has (oo! a(ein( %ro%erty$  ?easi'i ity o" meta i# "oi s is im%ro%er "or ar(e stru#tures$ .un#tion 2ith #a' e nets$ 1DIEN META@@IC ?ABRICS  Stain ess stee "i'res #oate! 2ith suita' e materia are use! "or air ti(htness$ META@@IC ?DI@S  A uminum % asti# "oi s are use! "or hi(h heat re" e#tions$  Its i(ht 2ei(ht.

neo%rene hy%a on or other % asti#i:e! e astomers$ POLYAM !E "A#$ C %YLO% POLYSTE$ "A#$ CS TE$YLE%E A%! !EC$O .CDATED ?ABRICS  Po yami!e "a'ri# ny on  Po yster "a'ri#s tery ene an! !e#ron  These are #oate! on 'oth si!es 2ith viny . 'uty .

Ad&antages:  Iery i(ht 2ei(ht there"ore are o" (reater %ra#ti#a im%ortan#e than any other stru#tures 2ithstan!in( #om%ressive oa!s$  Ra%i! !eve o%ment an! ere#tion$  Possi'i ity o" a#tin( as so%histi#ate! me#hanisms "or #ontro in( heat. i(ht an! soun!  Ra!i#a ne2 "orms are %ra#ti#a to 'e (enerate!$ !isad&antages :  @imite! e*%ansion 'y a!!ition$  Di""i#u ty o" % a#ement o" o%enin(s$  Dn#e ere#te!. the stru#ture is in" e*i' e in terms %hysi#a res%onse$  In some #ases re&uirement o" air o#6s an! #ontinua air su%% y$ .

rain an! i#e 'ut sha o2 enou(h to resist the u%2ar! su#tion "rom the 2in!$  1in! is (reatest enemy 'e#ause it a!!s more tension to the system$  Too mu#h su#tion or interna %ressure #an ru%ture the mem'rane$  A%% yin( to mu#h "or#e to an#horin( system #an a so ru%ture the mem'rane$  Sno2 #an i#e #an easi y tear the mem'rane$  A entran#es an! e*its. there must 'e air o#6s to %revent the interna %ressure "rom es#a%in($  An insu ate!. o%a&ue mem'rane is use! in #oo er # imates$ .7/ "eet or more is re&uire!  There #ost 'ene"its are (reat y in#rease! at these (reater s%ans$  The in" ate! mem'rane must have enou(h #urvature to she! sno2.Limitations on t'e (neumatic structures:  The sha%e o" mem'rane is imite! 'y the si:e o" the s%an$  C ear s%an o" .

AMPLES: Eden Pro)ect* Corn+all* .SOME E.- .

2hi#h i(ht u% at ni(ht an! %rovi!e a %u' i# s%a#e a"ter !ar6 as 2e $ 5 ea#h o" these %neumati# #o umns "orm a unit as they are #onne#te! in a he*a(ona manner #reatin( a #ir#u ar o%enin( "rom their insi!e %erimeter$ Dut o" the . Denver.he*a(ona #ano%y units. as 2e as %rovi!in( a % ay"u !otte! sha!o2 on the %eo% e un!er the stru#ture$ . USA. CAm 2i!e %neumati# stru#ture. 2hi#h are then in" ate! "rom the . "or Dia o(ue8City..Air "orest* Pneumatic Pa&ilion by Mass Studies Mass Stu!ies !esi(ne! the Air ?orest as a tem%orary %u' i# %avi ion insta e! in City Par6. an arts an! #u tura event !urin( the Demo#rati# Nationa Convention C//7 Air ?orest is a A5$Bm on(.m hei(ht$ These units are inter#onne#te! as one ar(e %ie#e o" "a'ri#. Co ora!o. %rovi!in( sha!es "or the %u' i# "rom the harsh sun i(ht$ The ny on "a'ri# is #oate! 2ith a (ra!ient o" si ver !ots. 2hose re" e#tive sur"a#e mimi#s the #o ours o" its surroun!in( environment. #om%ose! o" . ' o2ers that are o#ate! at the 'ase insi!e its BA #o umns$ These #o umns are Am a%art. an! are 2ei(he! !o2n 'y !irt an! i(htin( e ements 2hi#h are a so insi!e the #o umns.tota he*a(ona units "orme!. at . B o" them are e"t o%en)air 2hi e the remainin( 5 have vorte*)sha%e! meshes that han( "rom them.

Beijing is 'ui !in( an aquatic center "or the C//7 D ym%i# Games$ By usin( #om%uter %ro(rams an! #om% e* a (orithms. 2hi#h 'asi#a y #reates a (reenhouse out o" the 1ater Cu'e$ . they "i(ure! out ho2 to a%% y the i!ea o" a 'u'' e oo6in( sur"a#e to an a#tua 'ui !in($ T2o ayers o" % asti# "i m #a e! ET?E 3Ethy ene Tetra? uoroEthy ene4 2ere use! to "i in the s%a#es 'et2een the stee "rames$ ET?E is very thin an! very !ura' e$ Air 2as inserte! 'et2een the t2o ayers o" % asti#. 2hi#h in" ate an! #reate the %i o2 oo6$ Both the interior an! e*terior o" the 2a s an! roo" have the ET?E # a!!in(.

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