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EARTHQUAKE AND IT’S EFFECTS

Earthquakes and its effects on buildings, earthquake zones in India, Architectural design considerations and construction detailing for earthquake resistance.

CONTENTS
1 .What is Earthquake
1.1 The earth and it’s interior 1.2 Plate tectonics 1.3 The circulation 1.4 What causes Earthquake?

1.5 How ground shake
1.6 The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake 2 .Seismic waves 2.1 What are seismic waves 2.2 Types of seismic waves 2.3 The seismic effect on structures 2.4 Seismic zones in India 2.5Effect on structure 3 .Architectural features

3.1 Why building twist
3.2 How buildings twist 3.3 Why building twists 3.4 Effect of earthquake on different elements 3.5 Behavior of different parts of structure during earthquake 3.6Design consideration

FIGURES LIST
1 .ERTHAUAKE
1.1 INSIDE THE EARTH 1.2 LOCAL CONVECTIVE CURRENTS IN THE MANTLE 1.3 MAJOR TECTONIC PLATES ON THE EARTH S SURFACE 1.4 TYPE OF INTER PLATE BOUNDARIES 1.5 ARRIVAL OF SESMIC WAVES AT A SITE 1.6 THE FOCUS AND EPICENTER OF AN EARTHQUKE . 1.7 BASIC TERMINOLOGY OF FOCUS AND EPICENTER OF AN ERTHQUAKE 1.8 BASIC TERMINOLOGY OF FOCUS AND EPICENTER 1.9 GEOGRAFICAL LAYOUT AND TECHTONIC PLATE BOUNDARIS AT INDIA 1.10 SOME PART ERTHQAKES

2 .SESMIC ZONE
2.1 BODY WAVE P & S WAVES 2.2SURFACE WAVE R AND S 2.3 INDIAN SESMIC ZONE MAP OF 1970 2.4 INDIAN SESMIC ZONE MAP AS PER IS 1893-2002 2.5EFFECT OF INERTIA IN A BUILDING WHEN SHAKEN AT ITS BARE 2.6 INERTIA FORCE AND RELATIVE MOTION WITHIN A BUILDING 2.7 PRINCIPAL DIRECTIONS OF A BUILDING 2.8 FLO OF SESMIC INERTIA FORCES THROUGH ALL STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS 2.9 PARTIAL COLLAPSE OF STON MOSNAORY WALLS DURING 1991 UTTARKASHI (INDIA) 2.10 EARTHQUAKE 2.11 COLLAPSE OF RENFORCED CONCRETE COLLOPSE (AND BUILDING) 2.12 DURING 2001 BHUJ (INDIA)ERTHQUAKE.

What are Earthquakes? • The shaking or trembling caused by the sudden release of energy • Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks • Continuing adjustment of position results in aftershocks .

because of prevailing high temperature and pressure gradients between the Crust and the Core.Structure of earth: Inner Core (radius ~1290km). like the convective flow of water when heated in a beaker (Figure 1. Fig:1.1 f Convection currents develop in the viscous Mantle. the Outer Core (thickness ~2200km). Fig:1.2 . the Mantle (thickness ~2900km) and the Crust (thickness ~5 to 40km).2).

Fig:1.4 . divergent and transform boundaries (Figure 4). respectively. Fig:1.3 Three types of inter-plate interactions are the convergent.The convective flows of Mantle material cause the Crust and some portion of the Mantle. This sliding of Earth’s mass takes place in pieces called Tectonic Plates. to slide on the hot molten outer core.

divergent and transform boundaries (Figure 4). three types of inter-plate interactions are the convergent.: How ground shakes: Large strain energy released during an earthquake travels as seismic waves in all directions through the Earth’s layers. reflecting and refracting at each interface.5 . respectively Fig:1.

e.7 . or hypocenter • Fig:1.The Focus and Epicenter of an Earthquake: ORIGIN OF EARTHQUAKE• The point within Earth where faulting begins is the focus. epicenter is located • Fig:1.1 • The point directly above the focus on the surface is the epicenter Connect the focus/hypocenter to centre of earth & extend the line to the surface of earth i.

8 Fig:1.9 .Fig:1.

What are Seismic Waves? • Response of material to the arrival of energy fronts released by rupture • Two types: – Body waves • P and S – Surface waves • R and L .

or gases • compression wave.move material perpendicular to wave movement Fig:1.Body Waves: P and S waves • Body waves – P or primary waves • These waves are generated due to longitudinal vibrations within the earth & its velocity is approx 8KN/sec • fastest waves • travel through solids. The velocity is 45KN/sec. liquids.10 . material movement is in the same direction as wave movement – S or secondary waves • These are transmitted due to transverse vibrations causing shaking of the earth surface. • slower than P waves • travel through solids only • shear waves .

Surface Waves: R and L waves Fig:1. refraction & severe vibrations due to which several minute waves are generated at epicenter & these waves travel along the ground surfaces in all direction.11 • Surface Waves – Generated due to reflection. rolling and side-to-side movement – Especially damaging to buildings . – Travel just below or along the ground’s surface – Slower than body waves.

Seismic zones in India : Fig:2.1 Fig:2.2 .

But since the walls and columns are connected to it. they drag the roof along with them. Fig:2. So a building resting on it will experience motion at its base. causing forces in columns .The seismic effect on structures: Inertia Forces in Structures Earthquake causes shaking of the ground.4 Effect of Deformations in Structures The inertia force experienced by the roof is transferred to the ground via the columns.3 Fig:2. the roof has a tendency to stay in its original position. even though the base of the building moves with the ground. From Newton’s First Law of Motion.

•Usually vertical is managed by the downward forces. Flow of Inertia Forces to Foundations Inertial forces Floor ` slab ` Beams Columns Foundation Fig:2.1 Hence Joints are critical and need to be designed cautiously . Fig:2.5.Forces acting on Structures: •Three forces in X.5 •X and Y direction of forces are of more concern. Y and Z directions.

The convective flows of Mantle material cause the Crust and some portion of the Mantle. respectively. .6 three types of inter-plate interactions are the convergent.6). divergent and transform boundaries (Figure2. This sliding of Earth’s mass takes place in pieces called Tectonic Plates. Fig:2. to slide on the hot molten outer core.

7 Fig:2.8 Fig:2.Architectural Features Fig:2.9 .

10 .Architectural Features Fig:2.

Why a Building Twists Fig:2.11 Fig:2.12 .13 Fig:2.

1 .15 Due to Twist i.16 1. Torsional Forces Fig:2.How Building Twists Fig:2.14 Fig: Fig:2.e.

19 .18 Fig:2.The Earthquake Problem Fig:2.17 Fig:2.

c) Shaking or back or forth movement of surface.EFFECT OF EARTHQUAKE ON DIFFERENT ELEMENTS Surface & subsoil. .due to continuous vibrations & shaking different elements in soil may lose cohesion & particles may disintegrate.building without strong bond between different elements may not withstand severe vibrations & shaking d) Horizontal waves along the surface e) Liquefaction.sometimes fault line with wide gap or rupture or sudden change in level may appear. a) Surface fault & rupture. b) Land slide. Soil behaves as liquid.seismic forces may trigger massive land slide or avalanche during earthquake damaging building.Many a times buildings are damaged or collapsed due to failure of soil over which they are erected.

21 .Behavior of brick masonry walls : Fig:2.20 Fig:2.

1 .How to Improve Behavior of Masonry Walls Fig:1.

24 Fig:2.25 Influence of Openings .Box Action in Masonry Buildings Fig:2.

Box Action in Masonry Buildings Fig:2.1 .25 Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.Role of Horizontal Bands Fig:1.1 .

1 .1 Fig:1.Design of Lintel Bands Fig:1.

Response of Masonry Walls Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 .

How Vertical Reinforcement Helps Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

Behavior during Past India Earthquakes Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.Stone Wall Construction Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.Reinforced Concrete Building Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.1 .Reinforced Concrete Building Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.Reinforcement and Seismic damage Fig:1.1 .

1 Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 .Reinforcement and Seismic damage Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.Possible Earthquake Damage Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.1 .Possible Earthquake Damage Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.Why are Buildings with Shear Walls Preferred in Seismic Regions? Fig:1.1 .

1 .1 Fig:1.How to Reduce Earthquake Effects on Buildings? Fig:1.

Why Beam – Column Joints are special Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

1 .Why Beam – Column Joints are special Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 Fig:1.

Why are Open-Ground Storey Why are Open-Ground Storey Buildings Vulnerable in Buildings Vulnerable in Earthquakes? Earthquakes? Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

1 Fig:1.Why are Open-Ground Storey Buildings Vulnerable in Earthquakes? Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 .

Why are Short Columns more Damaged During Earthquakes? Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 Fig:1.1 .

Why are Short Columns more Damaged During Earthquakes? Fig:1.1 .1 Fig:1.

Fig:1. Seismic dampers are special devices introduced in the building to absorb the energy provided by the ground motion to the building .How to Reduce Earthquake Effects on Buildings? Two basic technologies are used to protect from damaging earthquake effect.1 . These are Base isolation devices and seismic dampers. The idea behind base isolation is to detached (isolate) the building from the ground in such a way that earthquake motions are not transmitted up through the building or at least greatly reduced.

Give a brief explanatory note on earthquake zones in india . 6. .Questions 1. 5. With support of neat sketches recommend the different construction feature that need to The building during earthquake. 2. What are the earthquakes and how do they influence building ?Draw net sketches of various precaution that should be incorporate in the design of buildings to make them earthquake-safe.During earthquake.With support of neat sketches recommend the different construction features that need to be integrate in design of load bearing structures to make them resist the earthquake.Explain the various planning aspects and construction systems /techniques which can be integrate as part of buildings design to improve the ability of buildings to withstand the effects of earthquake. 4. 3. what factors lead to server damages to the building ?Explain the systems / techniques that a designer has to incorporate in the design of buildings to make buildings resist earthquake.