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Introduction History Processing and feedstock Efficiency and energy security Advantages Applications Biodiesel in India and around World Business aspects Setting up of biodiesel plant
diesel fuel consisting of long chain alkyl esters. Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids and alcohol. It can be used alone or blended with conventional petrol diesel in unmodified diesel engine vehicles.
Biodiesel refers to a non-petroleum based
G. Chavanne of University of Brussels (Belgium) received patent for “Procedure for transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels’’ Belgian Patent 422877 This was the first production of biodiesel
Transesterification of vegetable oil by E. Duffy and J. Patrick in 1853. Rudolf Diesels 10ft iron cylinder with fly wheel self powered ran on 10th August 1893 in Germany. 10th August declared as “International Biodiesel Day”. French Otto Company ran engine on peanut oil at World Fair in Paris, France in 1900, received Grand Prix.
In 1920, diesel Engine manufacturers altered their engines to utilize lower viscosity of petro diesel. More consumption of vegetable oil reported during 1920s and 1930s and during world war 2. G. Chavanne received patent for biodiesel on 31st August, 1937. In 1983 process of manufacture was completed and published internationally. 1st industrial scale plant was set up in April 1989.
Processing of Biodiesel
Produced by transesterification of vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock.
Processing of Biodiesel
A lipid transesterification product process is used to convert the base oil to the desired ester. Any fatty acids in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process, or they are esterified using an acidic catalyst. After processing we get biodiesel , very similar to petroleum diesel.
Average annual growth rate is over 40% for the period of 2002-2006. For 2006, actual production was 5-6 million tones and in which 4.9 million tones processed in Europe alone. In 2007, production in Europe alone had risen to 5.7 million. The capacity for 2008 in Europe totally 16 million tones.
Virgin oil feedstock rapeseed and soybean oil (Soybean oil accounts 90% of all fuel stock) Field pennycress, jatropha, mustard, flax, sunflower, palmoil and waste vegetable oil Animal fats including tallow, lard, yellow grease and byproducts of fish oil Algae grown using waste materials Oil from halophytes such as salicornia bigelovii Chicken Fat
Average crops of rapeseed produce oil at an average of 1,029 L/ha(110 US gal/acre), and high yield rapeseed field s produce about 1,356 L/ha(145 US gal/acre). When straw was left, Biodiesel production was strongly energy positive, yielding 1Gj biodiesel for every 0.56Gj of energy input.(yield/cost ratio 1.78) When straw was used as burning fuel and oilseed rapemeal was used as fertilizer, yield/cost ratio was even better(3.71).
Transitioning fully to biofuels could required immense tracts of land if traditional food crops are used. Most nations don’t have sufficient arable land to produce biofuel for the nation’s vehicles. Honge oil nuts grown along roads are Jatropha grown along rail lines. In tropical regions such as Malaysia and Indonesia, oil palm is being planted at rapid pace to supply biodiesel demand in Europe and other.
Importance of energy security (e.g. – Energy used to manufacture fertilizers) Support of US NREL and White House" Energy Security for 21st Century Statement of the EU commission president, Jose Manuel Barroso
Reduces Global warming Alternative to petroleum products Has high lubricity Renewable domestic and clean Based on variety of Feedstock Long term maintenance reductions Non toxic and Biodegradable Decreases NOx emissions Runs in conventional unmodified diesel engine
Increases engine’s life and leave no deposits Has 11% oxygen by weight and contain no sulphur, hence no acid rain Better green house effect Combustion provides 90% reduction in total unburned hydrocarbons. 10 times less toxic than table salt Has high flashpoint
Used in pure form (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel. Vehicular use Railway use- Richard Branson’s Virgin Voyager train was worlds first biodiesel train. In 2007, Disneyland ran park trains on B98 biodiesel (98%) biodiesel Aircraft use- test flight performed by a Czech Aircraft, announced by Rolls Royce and Air New Zealand First bio-fuel powered commercial aircraft from London’s Heathrow airport to Amsterdam on 24 February, 2008 As a heating oil used in domestic and commercial boilers
Biodiesel in India
Biodiesel Technologies headquartered in Kolkata – Sole proprietor Mr. Amitabha Sinha Biodiesel Plants in Hyderabad and Pune Buses ran on biodiesel in Pune State Government of Orissa plans to use jatropha plantations to secure jobs for its rural areas India accounts for 2/3rds of world’s jatropha plantations Jatropha yields 40% oil and about 60-70 gallons of oil per acre of land
Biodiesel Around World
Parente’s company Tecbio is working with Boeing and NASA to certify bio kerosene produced and patented by a Brazilian scientist Austrian BiofuelInstitute has identified 21 countries with commercial biodiesel products 100% biodiesel is available at many service stations across Europe like UK, France, Germany, Italy , Spain, Greece, Hungary, Poland and Austria Asian countries include India, China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore and Russia
Biodiesel Around World Continued
Global biodiesel production reached 3.8 million tons in 2005 USA, Canada, Brazil and Argentina are the leading American nations with production of 581 million gpy 85% of biodiesel came from European diesel Analysis estimates potential US biodiesel demands in three specific markets having demand of 379 M L per annum-Federal fleets -Mining -Marine/Estuary areas
Steps to start biodiesel business
Conduct a feasibility study Write a business plan Financial analysis and case scenarios Solicit financing Hire an engineering company Develop your markets Build the plant and the business
Important Business Factors
Feedstock supply Market, market size and marketing issues Government incentives Source of funds Plant and operating cost Production processes and technologies Transportation availability Environmental issues Site selection criteria
100 lb + Oil 21.71 lb Methanol
100.45 lb + 10.40 lb + 10.86 lb Biodiesel Glycerol Excess Methanol
Basic estimates Vs all equipment estimates Installation Cost + Equipment Cost = Installed Cost Installation cost equals 1.5 to 2 times the equipment cost New versus used equipment Installation budget – 13 million US $ for 10 million gpy 19 million US $ for 20 million gpy 24 million US $ for 30 million gpy