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Iron & steel industry in China

What are the locational changes in the iron and steel industry in China?
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Iron & steel industry in China

How important is the iron and steel industry in China?


Iron and steel industry is a very important industry because it provides basic _____________ raw materials used by many other industries. Do you know Iron and steel what Chinas industry is very rank in the important to world is in China terms oftoo. steel production?

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Iron & steel industry in China

How important is the iron and steel industry in China?


What Which is Chinas bar share shows inChinas world 30.9 steel______% production? data?

China Japan USA Russia South Korea

Major crude steel producers in the world, 2005


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Iron & steel industry in China

How important is the iron and steel industry in China?


Although China Why What does is Chinas China produces a lot need rank to as produce a still net of steel, it importer and consume steel needs to of import so inmuch the world? steel? plenty of steel to meet domestic demand.

USA

China Thailand Iran

Italy

Major net importers of steel, 2004


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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1950s
In this period, What were the iron and steel major locational works were factors of the mainly iron and steel industry in China concentrated in during this the __________, north-east period? for example,

Anshan

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1950s
Major locational factors _______________ Raw materials - iron ore - limestone Locational effect

They are heavy and bulky ______


To save transport costs

Locate near to iron ore fields


_______________-oriented Raw material

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1950s
Major locational factors ________________ Power resources - coal Locational effect It is heavy and _________ bulky
To save transport costs

Locate near to coal mines


______________-oriented Power

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
Early 1950s to late 1970s
1950s
Anshan

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
Early 1950s to late 1970s
1950s 1970s and even to the West (e.g. Urumqi)
Anshan Baotou Taiyuan Wuhan Panzhihua

What were the Can How you did give the major locational any distribution examples of of factors of the major iron and iron steel and iron and steel works steel centres change Inland shift industry in found during in this the to the China during Central? period? Central this period?

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
Early 1950s to late 1970s
Major locational factors Raw materials Locational effect Raw material-oriented

Power resources

Power-oriented

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
Early 1950s to late 1970s
Major locational factors _____________ Government policy - _________ strategic reasons:
avoid industries from being attacked

Locational effect

_______ Inland shift of industries

- _________ social reasons:


~ balance economic development ~ relieve the problem of overpopulation in the coastal regions
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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
Early 1950s to late 1970s
ItGovernment is because the policy economy is a particularly in China is state-planned important ________________. locational factor in China not only in this period but also in are the later Most iron and steel works period. Do you know why? state-owned _______________.

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
Early 1970s 2000s How does the There is a of What are the Can distribution you name major locational general shift iron some and of steel theto factors of iron major works iron change and the ________ coastal and steel steel during centres? this regions. industry period?in China nowadays?

Beijing

Anshan
Shanghai

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
Major locational factors Government policy - _______ open policy Locational effect Shift of industries to the coastal regions _________

- the policy of having some regions developed first

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
Major locational factors Locational effect

_______________ Technological advancements - use of new furnaces - _______ scrap iron can be used - use of ________ bulk carriers and better railway transport

Less coal and iron ore are used Lower transport costs of power resources and raw materials
The locational importance of power resources and _________________ _____________ raw materials decreases The locational importance of market and __________ coastal ________ _________ location increases
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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
It is because:
Why does the coastal location become more important?

it is easier to _______ import raw materials from overseas;


it is easier to _______ export finished products to overseas markets.

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
What other favourable locational factors coastal regions ( Small / Big have? ) markets

_______________ Agglomeration economies

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
Main railway line Line under construction

Railway junction/ Terminus

and

Shekou Port, Shenzhen


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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
Extensive ___________ flat land

Can get land through reclamation ______________

Water for cooling _________

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present

West 18%
East 47%

Central 35%

Abundant supply of skilled __________ labour

Percentage of graduates with senior secondary education or above in the three economic regions, 2003
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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s to the present
On the other hand, in the Farproblems away from inland areas major markets Poor transport discourage industrial networks and low development. ccessibility a___________ For example, Mainly unskilled ____________ labour _________ Small population

Rugged _________ relief

Extreme __________ climate

Uneconomical to exploit the resources


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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
To conclude 1950s
Major locational factors:

- ________________ Raw materials - ________________ Power resources


Main location: - _____________ North-east

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1950s-1970s
Major locational factors:

- ________________ Raw materials - ________________ Power resources - ________________ Government policy Main location: - Shift to ________ inland areas

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Iron & steel industry in China

What is the spatial distribution of the iron and steel industry in China?
1980s onwards
Major locational factors:

- ________________ Government policy - ________________ Technological ________________ advancements


- Increase the locational pull of _________ markets

Main location: - Shift to _________ coastal regions


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Iron & steel industry in China

Has there been any industrial inertia in the iron and steel industry in China?
Have you noticed which major iron and steel centre thrives throughout the period from the 1950s to present? ___________ in Liaoning Anshan Reasons: - Building new steel plants elsewhere is costly - Moving the ___________ machinery is costly - If _________ moving costs > costs ________________ saved by moving

Why?

industry may stay behind

inertia Industrial ________


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Iron & steel industry in China

Has there been any industrial inertia in the iron and steel industry in China?
Are there any other reasons for Anshan to remain as one of the major iron and steel centres in China?

Presence of infrastructure Good transport

Long history of development


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Iron & steel industry in China

What are the problems of the iron and steel industry in China?
Problems that the industry faces
Production Consumption

Iron ore (million tonnes) Electricity


(million tonnes of coal equivalent)

336
1,846

468 1,970

This table shows What problem the production and does consumption the iron and amount of iron steel ore industry and in electricity in China China in 2004. face?

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Iron & steel industry in China

What are the problems of the iron and steel industry in China?
Problems that the industry faces
Production Consumption

Iron ore (million tonnes) Electricity


(million tonnes of coal equivalent)

336
1,846

468 1,970

There is a __________ shortage of raw materials and electricity.

China is now the largest iron ore importer in the world.


Besides the problem above, transporting raw materials and finished steel products has also imposed great pressure on the ________ railway and __________ shipping sectors.
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Iron & steel industry in China

What are the problems of the iron and steel industry in China?
Problems caused by the industry
Environmental problems

produces

Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

+
Water droplets

+
Water vapour

Smog

Acid rain

Global warming
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Iron & steel industry in China

What are the problems of the iron and steel industry in China?
Problems caused by the industry
Socio-economic problems
______________ Modernization of iron and steel works outdated, medium- and small-scale iron and steel works

OR
Restructured Restructured

Workers are laid off _______________ Unemployment

_________ Socioeconomic _________ problems


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Iron & steel industry in China

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Iron & steel industry in China

Imports of iron ore in China, 1980-2004

How does this What is the The industry trend affect the trend of to the tends Increasing. location of iron imports of iron locate in and steel orecoastal in China? industry? regions.

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Iron & steel industry in China

Exports of steel products in China, 1980-2004

How What does is the this The industry trend trend affect of the the tendsof to location exports of iron Increasing. locate in steel and products steel coastal in industry? China? regions.

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