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# Aerodynamics PDR

AAE451 Team 3
October 21, 2003
Brian Chesko
Brian Hronchek
Ted Light
Doug Mousseau
Brent Robbins
Emil Tchilian
AAE 451
Team 3
2
Aerodynamics PDR
Design Process
Span-wise distribution for c
l
found using
Lifting-Line Theory
Airfoil Selection
Drag Integration

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Lifting-Line Theory
Inputs:
a = dc
l
/do = 5.66 (airfoil specific)
Constant Chord = 2.8
AR = 5
o = 6.85 deg (to match C
L
)

(actually o o
L=0
)

Wing modeled as
distribution of
horseshoe vortices
Fourier Series for
circulation along
span

u u n A bV
N
n
n
sin 2 ) (
1

= I
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Prandtls Lifting-Line
Solve Prandtls wing equation

Substitute
i L
l
c V a a
c
o o o =
I
=
=

0
0 0
2
u u n A bV
N
n
n
sin 2 ) (
1

= I
u
u
u o
sin
sin
) (
1
n
nA
N
n
n i
=
=
0
1 1
0
sin
sin
sin
4
=
= =
= +
L
N
n
n
N
n
n
n
nA n A
c a
b
o o
u
u
u
System of N equations with N unknowns (Solve N N matix)

Take N different spanwise locations on the wing where the equation is to be
satisfied: u1, u2, .. uN; (but not at the tips, so: 0 < u1 < t)
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Lifting-Line For Rectangular Wing
Consider: rectangular wing: c = constant; span = b; b/c = A = 5
without twist: o = constant; o
L=0
= 0
Evaluate the wing equation at the N control points at u
i
:

The wing is symmetrical A
2
, A
4
, are zero
take only A
1
, A
3
, as unknowns
take only control points on half of the wing: 0 < u
i
s t/2
Example for N=30:
take A
1
, A
3
, A
5
as unknowns
take control points (equidistant in u): u = t/(2N) stepping
take lift-slope of the airfoil a
0
= 5.66, and wing aspect ratio A = 5

o u
u
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
i
N
n
n
i
n A
n
a
A
sin
sin
4
1
0
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Lifting-Line Calculation
Sample Output
N = 3

C
L
calculation from lifting line theory
C
L
= AR*A1* C
L
= W/S*q = .4873 from constraint
solve for o = 6.8 deg in order to match C
L

C
Di
calculation

c
l
calculation

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

1
1
1
9 7 5
464 . 8 0 464 . 4
7 10 3
3
2
1
o
A
A
A
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
0040 . 0
0277 . 0
2316 . 0
3
2
1
o
A
A
A
0 where ) 1 (
2
2
1
2
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
= + =

=
N
n
n L
D
A
A
n
A
C
C
i
o o
t
u u n A bV
N
n
n
sin 2 ) (
1

= I i L
l
c V a a
c
o o o =
I
=
=

0
0 0
2
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Lifting-Line Theory
Outputs:
C
Di
= 0.0131
Cdi distribution
CL = 0.4873
C
l
distribution

Section Lift Coefficient Varies from ~ 0 0.6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
Span/2 (ft)
C
l
,

C
d
i
,

a
l
p
h
a
i
Cl
Cd*10
alpha
i
*10
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Airfoil Selection
Airfoils Selection Criteria:
Low drag over range of specified c
l
values
Easy construction
Relatively Flat Bottom
Easy to construct on tabletop
Constructible Trailing Edge

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-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
0.005
0.006
0.007
0.008
0.009
0.01
0.011
0.012
0.013
0.014
0.015
Section Lift Coefficient, c
l
S
e
c
t
i
o
n

D
r
a
g

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

c
d
Drag Polar for Candidate Airfoils
NACA 4412
4415
4425
2418
23018
ClarkY
Airfoil Selection
Region of
Interest
Clark Y Airfoil is Best
Clark Y
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Clark Y Airfoil
-10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 10
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Angle of Attack
S
e
c
t
i
o
n

L
i
f
t

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

c
l
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
x/c
y
/
c
Geometry
Drag Polar
c
l
vs o

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.045
0.05
Section Lift Coefficient, c
l
S
e
c
t
i
o
n

D
r
a
g

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,

c
d
dc
l
/do = 5.66
c
l
vs. o c
d
vs. c
l
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Total Lift and Drag Coefficient Estimation
Lift:
C
L
Found at cruise, can be obtained at any o
c
l
- Found using lifting line theory

Drag:
C
D
= C
Di
+ C
Dp
C
Di
found using lifting line theory, can be obtained at any o
From Drag Polar of airfoil (c
l
vs. c
d
), c
dp
can be obtained and
integrated to obtain C
Dp
for the entire wing

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Parasitic Drag Calculation
Used Polynomial Function to Fit Airfoils Drag Polar
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.005
0.01
0.015
0.02
0.025
0.03
0.035
0.04
0.045
0.05
0.055
Cl
C
d
AIRFOIL DRAG POLAR
Actual
Polynomial Fit
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Parasitic Drag Calculation
Plugged wing cl distribution into polynomial
function to get corresponding parasitic cd
distribution along span
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Parasitic Drag Calculation
Integrated Parasitic Drag Distribution
Along Span to get 3-D Wing Parasitic Drag

C
Dp
= .0059

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Total Wing Drag Coefficient
C
D
= C
Di
+ C
Dp

C
D
= .0131 + .0059 = .0190

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Wing Characteristics
Wing Sweep = 0
Taper Ratio = 1
Dihedral Angle = 5
AR = 5
S = 40 ft
2

Tail Airfoil = NACA 0012
(empirically based from Roskam Part II, p. 154)
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Wing Characteristics
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Coming Attractions
C
Lmax
Control Surface Sizing
Tail Sizing

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Questions?