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Interlude B:

Rock Groups

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Rocks are:

Coherent Naturally occuring Aggregates of minerals or masses of glass

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How are rocks held together?

A. Clastic rocks Grains are held together by cement

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How are rocks held together?

B. Crystalline rocks Crystals interlock

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How are rocks held together?


http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~dogsci/2/kays/313/igfig45.jpg

C. Glassy rocks
Form as a continuous mass Grains welded together while hot
http://www.es.ucl.ac.uk/schools/Glossary/obsidian.jpg

Welded volcanic ash

Volcanic glass

Olivine crystal

obsidian
http://www.nio.org/userfiles/image/projects/photomicrograph_1a.jpg

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Bedrock is still attached to Earths crust. Exposed bedrock is an outcrop.

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Rocks are classified based on how they form.

A. Igneous rocks Solidification of molten rock

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Rocks are classified based on how they form.

B. Sedimentary rocks Pre-existing rocks break up, then grains are cemented together

Darragh McDonagh (Geological Survey of Ireland)

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Rocks are classified based on how they form.

B. Sedimentary rocks Precipitation of mineral crystals (evaporites)


http://www.travelvivi.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/Dead-Sea.jpg

Creative Commons / Wilson44691

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Rocks are classified based on how they form.

http://www.nvcc.edu/home/cbentley/gol_135/sideling_hill/images/shale.JPG

C. Metamorphic rocks Pressure and temperature cause solid state changes

http://geophysics.ou.edu/geol1114/notes/met_rx/mica_garnet_schist.jpg

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For each rock type, other characteristics are NB Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks
Grain size and shape

Composition (elements, minerals)

NB = important (nota bene)

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For each rock type, other characteristics are NB Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks Metamorphic rocks
Texture
E.g., smallest to largest E.g., alignment

NB = important (nota bene)

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For each rock type, other characteristics are NB Igneous rocks Sedimentary rocks
Layering
E.g., Bedding

NB = important (nota bene)

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For each rock type, other characteristics are NB Metamorphic rocks


Layering
Foliation

NB = important (nota bene)

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Thin sections (photomicrographs) are a way to look at microscopic details

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Thin sections (photomicrographs) are a way to look at microscopic details

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Interlude C:

Rock Cycle

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Rock cycle: materials move from one rock type to another

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How does this work?


Sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous rocks are melted Sedimentary (from igneous rocks

igneous

Igneous rocks form igneous

Plates collide

Ocean crust recycled into mantle

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How does this work?


(Sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous rocks have been eroded) sedimentary

igneous

metamorphic (sedimentary and igneous rocks heated and compressed)

Plates collide and lock

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How does this work?


(Sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous rocks have been eroded) sedimentary

metamorphic

igneous

Plates stop moving, erosion happens

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How does this work?


(Sedimentary, metamorphic, igneous rocks are being melted) Igneous rocks forming

A rift forms, plates move apart