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MODES OF WEATHER PROTECTION:

MEMBRANE ERECTION WATER DIVERSION PRESSURE BALANCING

Moisture Control Waterproofing


Membrane Clay Cementitious

Dampproofing
Hot-applied Cold-applied

Building Insulation
Rigid Mineral Fiber Loose-fill Foamed-in-place

Roofing
Low vs. steep slope Types of roofing materials

Flashing Siding Sealants

Moisture is NOT damaging to construction in its vapor formthe problems arise as TEMPERATURE CHANGES!
Condenses (liquefies) Freezes (solidifies)

These may cause organic materials to decay, metals to corrode, paint coatings to blister, and in the case of freezing, may cause concrete and masonry to crack.
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Dimensional instability the changes in moisture can cause a change in material dimensions (ex: wood drying) Deterioration causes physical, chemical, and biological breakdown of materials (ex: steel rusting) Condensation tolerance varies for each material Effect on heat flow if material contains moisture it can increase the conductivity

Permeance measure of water vapors flow through a material of specific thickness or an assembly of several materials Metals & glass very low permeability Materials with a permeance of 0-1 are considered vapor retarders

Moisture condensation in walls, floors, and roof and ceiling assemblies can be controlled depending on the type of condensation: SURFACE CONDENSATION:
INSULATION is needed To reduce heat Keep surfaces that are in contact with moisture at a temp below dew point

CONCEALED CONDENSATION:
Occurs in cold temperatures, production of vapor inside the building Providing a VAPOR RETARDER on the interior side of the assembly which limits vapor entering the structure Provide ADEQUATE VENTILATION for the structure in spaces such as attic areas and crawl spaces
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As defined in ASTM D1079: the treatment of a surface or a structure to prevent the passage of water under hydrostatic pressure.

The problem substrates shrink, move and crack.

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Positive Side Waterproofing Negative Side Waterproofing Blind Side Waterproofing Interior Applications Blind Side Waterproofing Exterior Applications

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Typically the most effective solution.

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Interior side opposite the water pressure side of the structure Most commonly used in Remedial work Elevator pits Tank liners Tank liners

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Sheet Membrane Waterproofing


Lose laid PVC, HDPE, etc. Bonded-self-adhesive, hot applied

Liquid Waterproofing
One or two component Applied by hand, by spray Hot applied, cold applied

Bentonite Waterproofing Metal Oxide Waterproofing Cementitious Waterproofing

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Usually applied on vertical below-grade surfaces Hot coal-tar pitch or hot asphalt The number of plies, overall thickness, and content vary according to the depth of the hydrostatic head (in ft. all increase as the depth increases)

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Bentonite clay when wet, it expands to between 10 to 15 times its dry volume. It is typically mixed with water & sprayed in place (also available in dry sheets between cardboard) Placed below grade to exterior surfaces

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Composed of portland cement, aggregate, and an acrylic or plastic admix. It may also contain iron fillers (then known as iron oxide waterproofing) Hydraulic cement another form of cementitious waterproofing used to seal holes, cracks and open joints (often in free-flowing water)

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May be hot- or cold- applied Hot consists of an asphalt primer or a coal-tar-based primer Used on the exterior of buildings- not interior because of lingering odor and the problems associated with using hot products indoors. The treatment of a surface to retard the absorption of moisture in the absence of hydrostatic pressure.

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WATER PROOFING

RUBBER BASED PREVENTS THE PROCESS OF WATERS STRETCHES TO COVER THOSE CRACKS PREVENTS FROUND WATER FROM RAIN
TAR BASED SLOWS THE PROCESS OF WATER ABSORPTIONJ MORE EXPENSIVE CRACKS ALONG WITH THE FOUNDATION DOES NOT RESIST WATER WELL ENOUGH

DAMP PROOFINNG

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Usually added to the roof, walls, and floors of a structure 4 basic classifications are:
Rigid board- usually in a board form Mineral fiber- Naturally resistant to fire, moisture, and vermin Loose fill- Comprised of fibers, granules, or chips Foamed-in-place- Created by a chemical reaction that expands a mixture of components as much as 30 times

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Low Slope Advantages Min Slope


1/8 per 1-0 or 1:100 1/4 per 1-0 or 1:50

can cover building of any horz. dimension can serve as balconies, decks, patios, landscaped gardens.

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Common systems used are: built-up roof or single-ply Single-Ply Membranes


EPDM [ethylene propylene diene monomer] factory cured elastomer, bonded to themselves using adhesives CSPE (DuPont Hypalon) synthetic rubber, may also be liquid CPE un-reinforced or polyester reinforced sheet material PIB formulated from isobutylene and other polymers, carbon black, and additional additives

Built-up roof :2-4 Layers/ plies of felt asphalt impregnated, bedded in bitumen felt: cellulose fibers/glass fibers +asphalt
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Single-Ply Membranes

Aluminum Faced Single-Ply Membrane

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Slopes exceed 41/2/ft. Many materials used in modern roofing practices existed centuries ago (clay tiles, and stone) Material used is based on: cost criteria, slope of roof, expected service life, wind resistance, fire resistance, and local climate. 3

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Min. Slope 2 in 12 3 in 12 4 in 12 5 in 12

Type of roof Asphalt shingles (warranty may require a steeper slope - 4 in 12) Mineral fiber-cement shingles, wood shakes or shingles Slate shingles, concrete tile (other than flat) Flat clay tile, concrete tile

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Should be asphalt-saturated felt (usually a No. 15 or No. 30 used, may require more than 1 layer-depending on roofing material selected) see pg 463, fig 7.6-6 Applied immediately after the roof sheathing is in place

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Protects sheathing from moisture absorption Prevents the entrance of wind-driven rain onto sheathing Prevents direct contact between asphalt shingles and resinous areas in wood sheathing (chemically incompatible-may damage shingles)

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Asphalt shingles Slate Tile Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles Wood shingles and shakes Metal

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Should be installed at all intersections of other roofs, walls, and projections from roof. Flashing should be made of corrosion resistant materials such as:
Galvanized or stainless steel (min 26 gauge) Aluminum (0.019 inch min.) avoid using next to masonry Copper (16 oz.) if not lead coatedmay stain surrounding materials Flexible sheet- made of PVC or modified polymers-used in single-ply & some BUR [built up roof]

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Valleys joint formed by 2 sloping roofs Chimney Eaves ice forming along the eaves Drip edge All roof penetrations

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EAVE VENTILATION RIDGE VENTILATION

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The type of wall siding selected depends on cost, expected life service, wind resistance, fire resistance, local climate, and maintenance. Possible materials include:
Mineral-Fiber-Cement shingles Wood shingles & shakes Aluminum and Vinyl siding Wood or Hardboard siding Bevel, Tongue & Groove, Lap, Board and Batten (see pages 519-522 for examples of these)

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Basic types of building sealants include:


Elastomeric (rubber like) polysulfides, silicone, polyurethane [expansion joints] Solvent release curing [small-joints (3/16 or less] Latex emulsion [small interior joints, doors,windows] Tape [glazing, concealing lap joints] Acoustical [seal sound transmission, electrical outlets] Preformed Foam Oil-based caulking compounds [doors, windows, masonry subject to little or no movement]

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Construction Materials and Processes, 3rd Edition. Watson, Don A.. McGraw-Hill, 1986. Imprint 2000. ISBN: 0-07-068476-6 Construction Principles, Materials, and Methods, Seventh Edition. H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. Olins Construction Principles, Materials, and Methods, Eighth Edition. H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2007 Architectural Materials for Construction, Rosen, Harold J. and Heineman, Tom. McGraw-Hill, 1996. ISBN: 0-07-053741-0 Basic Construction Materials, 6th Edition. Marotta, Theodore W. Prentice Hall, 2002. ISBN: 0-13-089625-X Building Construction: Materials and Types of Construction, 6th Edition, Ellison, Donald C., Huntington, W.C., Mickadeit, Robert E.. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-13-090952-1. Architectural Graphic Standards: Student Edition, Abridgment of 9th Edition. The American Institute of Architects. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 0-471-34817-1

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