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Ship Classification and Types

Adi Wirawan Husodo

Jurusan Teknik Permesinan Kapal Politeknik Perkapalan Negeri Surabaya - ITS

Jenis-jenis Kapal (1)

Kapal-kapal niaga (merchant ships) High speed craft Yacth Warship

Jenis-jenis Kapal (2)

Cargo, container ship, passenger ships, etc

Non Transport
Fishing vessels, service craft (tugs, supply vessels, warships)

Jenis-jenis Kapal (3)

Classification of Ship
A. By usage
Merchant Ship Naval & Coast Guard Vessel Recreational Vessel Utility Tugs Research & Environmental Ship Ferries

B. By Support Type
Aerostatic Support Hydrodynamic Support Hydrostatic Support Submarine

Merchant Ships
These ships are intended to earn a profit in the distribution of goods. General Cargo, Tanker, LPG/LNG Carrier, Bulk Carrier, Container Vessel, etc.


A lot of Cargo Hold (ruang muat) Hatch (palka); akses ke ruang muat Cargo handling equipment : derrick, winches, cranes Double Bottom : ballast tank, FW tank, fuel tank, etc Engine room & accommodation room backside 2000 : 15000 ton displacement 12 : 18 knots Velocity of service

Merchant Ships
Liquid carrier (mostly oil) oil tanker Cargo tank, equipped with longitudinal & transversal bulkhead Piping system (network pipe) for cargo operation Pump room Fore peak & After peak Tank mostly used for water ballast 12 : 16 knots Vs Varies tons of displacement

Merchant Ships
2. TANKER VESSEL (cont.)

Tanker General Arrangement

LNG tank arrangement

Merchant Ships
Single deck type of vessel To carry the commodity things; sugar, grain, ore, dll A lot of Cargo hold Have 2 longitudinal bulkhead; divide into several cargo space and tank (wing tank) Cargo hold: Centre hold and 2 wing tank Up to 150.000 ton of displacement capacity 12 to 16 knots Vs

Merchant Ships
Carry out containers (2435 mm x 2435 mm; 3 types of length: 6055 mm, 9125 mm, 12190 mm) Wide hatch Designed double bottom: ballast and improve the longitudinal strength of ship Wing tank: ballast and heeling management (especially in loading unloading process) Accommodation and ER in backside Up to 30 knots of Vs

Merchant Ships
Human transportation Big accommodation room Leisure facilities Equipped with stabilizer; to reduce the rolling motion Bow thruster; for maneuvering Up to 12000 tones of displacement, and 20 knots of Vs


Naval & Coast Guard Vessel

Classified as combatants or auxiliaries. These ships tend to be extremely expensive because their missions require many performance capabilities such as speed, endurance, weapons payload, ability to operate and survive in hostile environments and reliability under combat conditions.


By usage (cont.)
Recreational Vessel
Personal pleasure craft and cruise liners are a specialized class of ships that are run to earn a profit by providing recreation services to the general public. Comfort and safety are of utmost importance.

Utility Tugs
Designed for long operation and easy maintenance with a no frills approach.

Research & Environmental Ship

Highly specialized equipment must be kept and often deployed into and out of the water.

People and Vehicles must be able to be loaded and unloaded with efficiency and safety in accordance with a strict time schedule in all weather conditions.

By Support Type


By Support Type
Aerostatic Support
ACV (Air Cushion Vehicles) SES (Captured Air Bubble)

Hydrodynamic Support
Hydrofoil HYSWAS (Hydrodynamic Small Water plane Area Ship) Planning Hull

Hydrostatic Support
Conventional Ship Catamaran SWATH (Small Water plane Area Twin Hull) Deep Displacement

Submarine AUV/ROV