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Automatic Controls 1

‘Open University’ Project

Automatic Controls 1

TR-GCM-08

1

Manual Control of a Simple Process

Inlet Valve 2

Water

Overflow

Visual Indicator 3 1 Discharge Valve (fixed)

Final Product

‘Open University’ Project

Automatic Controls 1

TR-GCM-08

2

Elements of Automatic Control
Controller (Brain)

Actuator (Arm muscle)

Sensor (Eye)

MANIPULATED VARIABLE

Controlled Device (Valve)

Process (Tank)

CONTROLLED CONDITION

‘Open University’ Project

Automatic Controls 1

TR-GCM-08

3

Simple Manual Temperature Control Thermometer Hot Water to Process Alarm Coil Heat Exchanger Steam Thermometer Steam Trap Set Cold Water ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 4 .

Components of an Automatic Control Sensor Controller Actuator Valve ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 5 .

/Temp. heat exchanger.2 to 1./Press./ Humid.+ Derivative (P+I+D) Measuring Element Temp. Signal Pneumatic/ Electric/ SA Actuator Controlled Element Proportional (P) Prop +Integral (P+I) Prop. sensor Controlled Device 2 port/3 port valve ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 Process Vat. steriliser TR-GCM-08 6 Controlled Condition . + Int.0 bar) Electric Current 4 to 20 mA Controller Measured Variable Press.Typical Mix of Process Control Devices with System Elements Set Point Control knob/remote potentiometer Manipulated Variable Compressed Air (0.

On/Off Control to Tank Heating Application Electrical Supply Thermostat (set to 60 oC) Two Port Valve and Solenoid ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 7 .

On/Off Switching Diagram Upper Switching Point 61 oC Tank Water Temperature Set Point 60 oC Lower Switching Point 59 oC OFF T1 ‘Open University’ Project ON T2 OFF T3 ON Time Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 8 .

On/Off Control Action Upper Switching Point 61 oC Overshoot B Switching Differential of Thermostat C Tank Water Temperature Set Point 60 oC Lower Switching Point 59 oC OFF T1 ‘Open University’ Project A D E ON T2 OFF T3 ON Time Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 9 Operating Differential .

V ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 10 .Analogy Between Ball Valve on Cold Water Tank and P-Action In flow Ball Valve 50% Open B Valve 50% open Tank Out flow Valve.

Analogy Between Ball Valve on Cold Water Tank and P-Action In flow Ball Valve Closed A Offset B Valve Closed Tank Valve. V ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 11 .

Analogy Between Ball Valve on Cold Water Tank and P-Action In flow Ball Valve Fully Open A B Deviation C Valve Open Out flow Tank Valve. V ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 12 .

V ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 13 .Analogy Between Ball Valve on Cold Water Tank and P-Action In flow Ball Valve Proportional band (Xp) A B C Valve Open Out flow Tank Valve.

5 oC Controller Output % 75% 50% 50% 75% Process Load % 50% 75% Valve Position % ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 14 . 18 oC Offset Actual Temp. 16. (oC) and Proportional Band Set Temp.6oC Proportional Band Inside Air Temp.

18 oC Offset Actual Temp.12oC Proportional Band Inside Air Temp. (oC) and Proportional Band Set Temp. 15 oC Controller Output % 75% 50% 50% 75% Process Load % 50% 75% Valve Position % ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 15 .

Proportional Band 100 Gain  100 5 20 % Valve Lift 50 Gain  100  2.77 36 0 Xp 36 oC (± 18oC) Total span (or range) of controller = 100 oC ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 16 .

Signal 100 % 100 % Controller Signal Output 0% Temperature Set Temperature Proportional Band Controller Signal Output 0% Temperature Set Temperature Proportional Band Reverse Acting Signal ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 17 Reverse Acting Signal .

Gain Line Offset No load 85 oC +5 oC Temperature Set value 80 oC (50% load) -5 oC Max. load 75 oC 72.5 oC 0% ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 25% TR-GCM-08 18 50% 75% 100% Valve Position Xp = 10 oC Proportional Offset or Deviation .

load 75 oC 72.Gain Line Offset No load 85 oC Proportional Offset or Deviation Temperature Max.5 oC 0% ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 25% TR-GCM-08 19 50% 75% 100% Valve Position Reset Xp = 10 oC Set value 80 oC (50% load) Original Xp = 10 oC .

Gain Line Offset Set Value Temperature Manual Reset Carried Out Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 20 Proportional Band .

P + I Function in Total Set Value Temperature Reset/Integral Action Begins Actual Value Proportional Band Displaced Original Proportional Band Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 21 .

On/Off Time Proportional P Temp. Time Proportional + Integral P+I Proportiona l + Integral + Derivative P+I+D ‘Open University’ Project Temp. Time Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 22 .Summary of Control Modes and Responses Temp. Time Temp.

2% Initial Rate of Movement Time Constant 0% ‘Open University’ Project 0 Automatic Controls 1 Time (seconds) TR-GCM-08 23 .Time Constant Graph Movement % Actual Movement 63.

Hunting
Two port valve

Large steam volume

Small water system

Pump

‘Open University’ Project

Automatic Controls 1

TR-GCM-08

24

Open Loop Heating System Control
Pump Two Port Valve

Outside Sensor

Hot Water Boiler

Room

‘Open University’ Project

Automatic Controls 1

TR-GCM-08

25

Open Loop System with Outside Temp. Sensor
Three Port Valve

Flow Sensor

Outside Sensor

Hot Water Boiler

Room

Pump
‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 26

Closed Loop System with Inside Temp. Sensor Three Port Valve Inside Sensor Hot Water Boiler Room Pump ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 27 .

Single Loop Control on a HWS Calorifier ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 28 .

Single Humidity Sensor ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 29 .

Dual Humidity Sensors ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 30 .

Jacketed Vessel Controller 2 Controller 1 ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 31 .

15 seconds Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 32 .Step Change 5 oC Actual Water Temperature Temperature Indicated Water Temperature 10 .

15 seconds Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 33 .Ramp Change 5 oC Actual Water Temperature Temperature Indicated Water Temperature 10 .

Response to Temperature Changes Self Acting & Pneumatic Steady State Temperature Electric Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 34 .

Step Input Temperature Instant changes in temperature Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 35 .

Process Response to Step Change Tc Temperature Dt = Dead time Tc = Time constant Dt Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 36 .

Process Response to Step Change Step Change First Order response with no dead time Response Step Change Second Order response Step Change Ramp response Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 37 .

Dead Time Step Change Step response with dead time Response Dead time First order response with dead time Second order response with dead time Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 38 .

Mixing Valve constant volume. variable temperature A B Variable Volume Loop AB Balance Valve Constant Volume Loop Hot Water Boiler ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 39 .

variable volume AB B Constant Volume Loop A Balance Valve Variable Volume Loop Hot Water Boiler ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 40 .Diverting Valve constant temperature.

3-way Valve With No Balance Valve Fitted Pump curve H1 System curve valve to flow System curve valve to by-pass Pressure drop thro’ by-pass valve Pressure Flowrate ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 41 V1 V2 .

Effect of 2-Port Valve on Pump Head and Pressure Increased Head Design Head Pump curve System curve Valve pressure drop for control valve in part load position Valve pressure drop for control valve at maximum load Pressure System pressure drop Flowrate ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 Reduced flowrate TR-GCM-08 42 Design flowrate .

Changes in Load and Time non critical Random On/Off Loads. Self-acting controls may be used if load variation is slow. otherwise electric or electro-pneumatic controls should be used . Typically On/Off electric or electropneumatic application Start Stop Start Stop Load Steady State Loads Non Critical Rise to Steady Demand Example is ideal for self-acting controls Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 43 Variable Demand with Non Critical Rise and Fall Examples include HWS storage exchangers and plating tanks. Non Critical Temperature Rise and Fall applications.

Examples include steam/water heat exchangers where the load is steady. and a reasonable off-set can be accepted. Examples include steam/water heat exchangers for central heating or jacket heating in a process. Typically On/Off electric or electropneumatic application Set value Load Start Stop Start Stop Set value Time ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 44 Actual stable value within small off-set from the set point. otherwise electro-pneumatic or electric controls should be used.Changes in Load and Time critical Non critical overshoot of set value. . Self-acting and pneumatic controls may be used if the load variations are slow.

platten presses. Temperature Set value Off-set Off-set Off-set Start ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 45 Time . otherwise electropneumatic or electric controls should be used. and reasonable off-set can be accepted.Variable Set Value and Its Critical Nature • Temperature wants to swing around Set Value • Examples include timber curing. • Self-acting and pneumatic controls are used if load variations are slow.

Variable Set Value and Its Critical Nature • Typical ramp control calling for an accurate time vs. temperature rate of rise. decay Start ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 Stop TR-GCM-08 Start 46 Time . curing processes and sterilising. • Electronic controllers are used with either electric or pneumatic actuator Critical Temperature Set value Critical Material temp. • Typical examples include textile drying.

• Typical examples include textile drying.Variable Set Value and Its Critical Nature • In each phase temperature and time must be harmonised and close tolerance is required. curing processes and sterilising. • Electronic controllers are used with either electric or pneumatic actuator Critical ramp Critical dwell Temperature Critical Start ‘Open University’ Project Critical ramp Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 Critical dwell 47 Time .

and platten presses. sterilising.Variable Set Value and Its Critical Nature • Many critical parameters for ramp and dwell overshoot • Typical examples include Multi-step drying. • Electronic controllers are used with either electric or pneumatic actuator Critical Critical Temperature Critical Critical Critical Start ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 48 Time .

Control Response Curves Desired Value C Temperature B A ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 49 Time .

Unstable Oscillation Set Point Temperature Increasingly out of control ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 50 Time .

Cyclic Response of On-Off Control Action Set Point Temperature ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 51 Time .

Hot Water Storage Calorifier ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 52 .

Heat Exchanger with Kettle Storage Capacity ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 53 .

Pressure Reducing Station Drain Pocket or Separator Control Valve Stop Valve Steam Strainer (fitted on its side) Trap Set ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 54 .

Correct Temperature Set Point B .Too Narrow ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 55 Time .Too wide C .P-Band Setting Reaction to a Change in Load A .

Correct Temperature Set Point A .Integral Time Reaction to a Change in Load B .Too short ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 56 Time .Too Long C .

Too Short C .Too short ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 57 Time .Correct Temperature Set Point A .Derivative Time Reaction to a Change in Load B .

Minimum Overshoot Method Periodic Time Temperature Set Point ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 58 Time .

Insufficient load No capacity to pull the temperature back Overshoot Set Point Fast temperature rise Temperature ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 59 Time .

at each point Periodic Time Frequency  1 PeriodicTi me Amplitude A in oC Temperature Set Point X ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 X X TR-GCM-08 60 X X Time X X .Process Plot X-Plot toC and T sec.

Computer as Data Logger Data gathering and display computer Analogue to digital converter Controller Sensor Analogue Sensor signal Sensor Actuator and valve Process 2 ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 Process 1 TR-GCM-08 61 Process 3 .

Supervisory Computer Computer Display and record Modem Controller Sensor Process Actuator To other controllers ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 62 .

Computers in Control Direct Digital Control Computer Display and record Analogue to digital converter Digital to Analogue converter Sensor Process ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 63 Actuator .

Office Network (cabling) MAINFRAME Finance Design Production Sales Directors ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 64 .

Fieldbus Network (cabling) Controller Computer and SCADA software Temperature transmitter Pressure transmitter Actuator DP cell ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 SCADA process director TR-GCM-08 65 Flow computer or local display .

Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 ‘Open University’ Project Automatic Controls 1 TR-GCM-08 66 .